Hair Damage


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Hair damage and how it relates to combing, shampooing, chemical treatment, thermal treatment, and weather exposure.

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  • Hair Damage

    1. 1. HAIR DAMAGE Dr Ali Naqi Syed Presented to Hair Dressing Lecturers, UK July 3, 2008
    2. 2. Hair Damage <ul><li>The following are the types of Hair Damages: </li></ul><ul><li>Combing Damage – wet combing & dry combing </li></ul><ul><li>Shampooing Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Treatments Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Related Damage such as Sun (UV), humidity, wind, temperature </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Combing Damage </li></ul><ul><li>When hair is combed excessively, whether wet or dry, it loses its strength and proteins significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Hair loses its dry tensile strength Statistically significantly upon combing for 200 cycles using Auto Hair Combing Device. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ref: Avlon Research & Development Report) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Damage from Combing & Brushing – Lifting of Cuticles
    5. 5. Auto Hair Combing System
    6. 6. Auto Hair Combing System
    7. 7. <ul><li>Shampooing Damage </li></ul><ul><li>The harsher detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl ether sulfate, ammonium lauryl ether sulfate, and alpha olefin sulfonate, when used at high concentrations (15% active), tend to dissolve very small amounts of CMC of cuticle layers. This phenomenon starts to unfold the composite of cuticle layers. </li></ul><ul><li>The above mentioned harsh detergents, when used at high concentrations, also continue to dissolve the natural lipid contents (18-MEA or 18- Methyl Eicosanoic Acid) present within the cuticle layers, thus rendering the hair fibers more hydrophilic – a damaging phenomenon. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Shampoo Damage - Continued <ul><li>Shampoos tend to make hair fibers tangle and contribute static charge in dry fibers. Combing of tangled hair can damage the fibers more, including splits in the hair shaft and split ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh detergents of the shampoos (at 15% active concentration) also deplete the inter-cuticle layers’ cement of the hair over repeated washings. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive swelling of the damaged hair during the shampooing process, accelerates the shedding of the cuticles from the surface of the hair into the wash water. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    9. 9. Untreated and Swollen Cuticles: Untreated Cuticles Swollen Cuticles
    10. 10. Shampoo Damage - Summary <ul><li>Gradual Depletion of Natural Oils -18-MEA from the cuticle layers </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual Depletion of Cement (CMC) between the cuticle layers </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual loss of proteins in the form of chipped away cuticles from the surface of the hair during wet and dry combing </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of tensile strength upon combing (wet and dry) – specially curly, wavy and excessively curly hair </li></ul>
    11. 11. Shampoo Damage - continued <ul><li>How To Minimize Shampoo Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Do not excessively manipulate the hair during shampooing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure to gently detangle wet hair with Shampoo-Comb , then blow drying hair. If hair does not comb easily, apply appropriate products such as conditioners or laminates to detangle the wet hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure to use shampoos that contain gentle detergents, conditioning agents (polyquaterniums), antistatic agents, and other additives that are helpful in ease of combing </li></ul>
    12. 12. Impact of Shampooing on Human Scalp <ul><li>Scalp can lose its natural oils if harsh detergents are present in the shampoo formula </li></ul><ul><li>Scalp may get irritated if the detergents present in the shampoo formula are skin irritants </li></ul><ul><li>Scalp may get overly dried and start to itch due to shampoo detergents and foam boosters (amides). </li></ul>
    13. 13. Draize Skin Irritation Scale for Chemicals Source: Schoenberg. Drug and Cosmetic Industry, November 1983
    14. 14. Source: Cosmetics & Toiletries Magazine.
    15. 15. Skin Irritation of Detergents Source: Cosmetics & Toiletries Magazine .
    16. 16. Skin Irritation Scores of Certain Detergents
    17. 17. EFFECT OF ETHOXYLATED DETERGENTS ON SKIN IRRITATION <ul><li>Skin Irritation of detergents decreases when they are ethoxylated, such as sodium laureth sulphate and Disodium laureth sulfosuccinate </li></ul><ul><li>The skin irritation of SLS decreased significantly with 2 to 3 moles of Ethylene Oxide from 5.0 to 4.7 on Draize Scale. </li></ul><ul><li>The skin irritation of Disodium Lauryl Sulfosuccinate decreased significantly with 2 to 3 moles of Ethylene Oxide from 3.2 to 1.4 on Draize Scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: McIntyre Group, University Park, IL. USA </li></ul>
    18. 18. Foam Comparison Source: McIntyre Group, University Park, IL. USA
    19. 19. Draize – Eye Irritation Ranking of Detergents Source: McIntyre Group, University Park, IL USA
    20. 21. Skin Irritation of Non- Sulfated Detergents <ul><li>Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate 4.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate 1.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Disodium Cocoamphopropionate 1.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium Cocoyl Isethionate 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate 4.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoamidopropylamine oxide 3.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Polysorbate 20 0.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Laureth Sulphate 4.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium C14-16 Olefin Sulfonate 5.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Lauryl Sulphate 5.0 </li></ul>
    21. 22. Case for Sulfate and Amide Free Shampoos <ul><li>Based upon the Skin and Eye Irritation data for detergents, along with damage to 18-MEA of cuticles, protein loss of hair during combing and gradual loss of CMC, it is advisable to formulate shampoos that are mild in skin irritation. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce the depletion of cuticle-proteins upon combing, add polyquaternium polymers and amine oxides. They also help in ease of wet combing and ease of dry combing. </li></ul><ul><li>Add preservatives that are approved by FDA & REACH. </li></ul><ul><li>Add fragrance, strengthening additives, antistatic agents, and chelating agents (not EDTA but small amount of di or tri sodium salts of EDTA). </li></ul>
    22. 23. Recommended Sulphate-Free Shampoo Formulation <ul><li>The following ingredients and their types can be used for a Sulphate-Free Shampoo </li></ul><ul><li>Disodium laureth sulfosuccinate </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Isethionate </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium cocoyl Sarcosinate </li></ul><ul><li>Polysorbate 20 – for Reduction of Irritation </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of amine oxide (elimination of amides which are precursors of potential carcinogenics) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyquaternium for hair conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramides or fruit extracts for hair strengthening </li></ul><ul><li>pH adjustment with Citric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Phytic acid as chelating agent against hard water (elimination of EDTA) </li></ul>
    23. 24. Hair Damage From Various Chemical Processes <ul><li>Hair Relaxing </li></ul><ul><li>Hair Lightening </li></ul><ul><li>Hair Straightening with Thiols </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Hair Coloring </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Straightening with Flat Irons/ Blow Drying </li></ul><ul><li>UV Exposure Damage </li></ul>
    25. 28. Cuticular-Lipids Change to Their Salts that are Water Soluble <ul><li>Cuticular Lipids contain fatty acids known as 18-Methyleicosanoic Acid (55%), Stearic Acid (25%),and Palmitic Acid (20%). </li></ul><ul><li>These fatty acids tend to change to their salts due to Sodium hydroxide/Guanidine hydroxide/Lithium Hydroxide/High pH Reactive products such as Hair Lightener/Permanent Hair Colors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hair Porosity increases significantly. </li></ul>
    26. 29. Untreated Hair - 1 Phase
    27. 30. Hair Treated with Conditioner - 2 Imaging Conditions Scanner: basic scan head (70  m) Imaging mode: dynamic-force mode AFM probe used: ACLA Post Processing: SPIP Profile: Y=8um Phase
    28. 31. Hair Treated with SS Relaxer - 3 Imaging Conditions Scanner: basic scan head (70  m) Imaging mode: dynamic-force mode AFM probe used: ACLA Post Processing: SPIP Profile: Y=6um Phase
    29. 32. Permanent Changes in Hair Fibers During & After Relaxing/Lanthionization <ul><li>One-third of Disulphide bonds change to Lanthionine bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the polypeptides bonds also break down </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the hydrogen bonds also break down due to wetting of the hair with water </li></ul><ul><li>The cuticle layers are swollen and some cuticles start to chip away from the surface of the hair </li></ul><ul><li>The lipids present are based upon fatty acids known as 18-Methyleicosanoic Acid (55%), Stearic Acid (25%),and Palmitic Acid (20%). These lipo-acids are neutralized by the alkaline hydroxides present in the relaxers significantly. Hence the increase in the porosity/wetting of hair. (Insert porosity graph from my C & T Paper Nov 2002, p62) </li></ul>
    30. 33. Permanent Changes in Hair Fibers During & After Relaxing/Lanthionization <ul><li>Hair Fibers swell up to 60-80% in their diameters during relaxing causing longitudinal and radial cracks </li></ul><ul><li>The pH of hair fibers and the scalp increases to 13 – very alkaline (Avlon Dermatology Lab) </li></ul><ul><li>The scalp is being traumatized during relaxing and it inflamed. </li></ul><ul><li>The scalp barrier is severely damaged in terms of its moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Hair fibers swell another 20 to 30% while rinsing the relaxer </li></ul><ul><li>A significant amount of cuticles chip away in the rinse water during relaxing </li></ul>
    31. 34. Longitudinal and Radial Cracks
    32. 35. Longitudinal Cracks Due to Chemical Treatments
    33. 36. Longitudinal crack extending the entire length of fiber
    34. 37. pH of Hair & Scalp at Various Stages During The Relaxer System Statistically Significant
    35. 38. 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 pH 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stage of process Hair pH Changes - Relaxing Process Before application of product After application of Protecto After application of relaxer After rinsing of relaxer After rinsing 5 in 1 Conditioner After rinsing of Normalizing Shampoo
    36. 39. 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 pH 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stage of process Scalp pH Changes - Relaxing Process Before application of product After rinsing 5 in 1 Conditioner After rinsing of relaxer After application of relaxer After application of Protecto After rinsing of Normalizing Shampoo
    37. 40. Porosity of Hair Treated with Various Chemical Processes
    38. 41. Comparison of Elasticity After Various Relaxers <ul><li>Brand %Strength (F-20) </li></ul><ul><li>Avlon SS Rlxr 76.81 </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Vt SS Rlxr 56.85 </li></ul><ul><li>Brand O SS Rlx 40.38 </li></ul><ul><li>Brand D Sod. Reg 47.36 </li></ul><ul><li>Brand O Sod Reg 56.00 </li></ul><ul><li>(Ref: Avlon Research Center Report #009) </li></ul>
    39. 42. Comparison of Porosity After Various Chemical Processes
    40. 44. Damage To Scalp Barrier During Relaxing - Corneometery Statistically Significant
    41. 45. Damage To Scalp Barrier During Relaxing Process- TEWL Statistically Significant
    42. 46. Ref: 141-68 to72 Loss of Cuticles during Relaxing
    43. 47. B: HAIR LIGHTENING
    44. 49. Definition of Hair Lightener <ul><li>Lightening or bleaching of hair is defined as“the lightening of natural hair color for the purpose of : </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving a lighter look to the natural color of the hair </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the hair for the application of a dye in order to generate a significantly lighter shade than the natural shade of the hair. </li></ul>
    45. 50. Lightening Process <ul><li>Melanin is the natural pigment of the hair, the content of which varies in size and quantity from person to person. </li></ul>
    46. 51. Untreated Brown Hair with Melanin Granules Melanin Source: Zaviak (1986). Science of Hair Care.
    47. 52. Lightening Process (Cont.) <ul><li>The Lighteners remove or lift the melanin from the hair to the extent and degree desired, leaving behind empty spaces where melanin resided before lightening. </li></ul>
    48. 53. Hair After Lightening or Melanin Removal Empty Spaces Adpted from Zaviak (1986). The Science of Hair Care.
    49. 54. Chemical Changes in the Structure of Hair During Lightening <ul><li>During the Lightening process the following changes </li></ul><ul><li>take place in the Keratin structure of the fiber: </li></ul><ul><li>Melanin granules within the hair fiber are transformed oxidatively and leave the cortex of the hair fiber upon rinsing, thereby, leaving empty spaces behind where once melanin granules used to reside. </li></ul><ul><li>Cystine bonds of the Keratin fibers break down and oxidize to cystic acid bonds. </li></ul>
    50. 55. <ul><li>Some of the Peptide bonds also break down due to the highly alkaline chemical environment. </li></ul>Chemical Changes in the Structure of Hair During Lightening Process (Cont.)
    51. 56. Experimental <ul><li>First sample of Hair Lightener was made with FSO (Fiber Strengthening Oil). (197-77) The Developer used contained De-swelling ingredient known as Polyhydric molecule (4D033). </li></ul><ul><li>Second sample of Hair Lightener was made without FSO, keeping all other ingredients the same (197-79). The developer used here did not contain de-swelling ingredient (194-52). </li></ul><ul><li>Samples of one Competitive hair lightener containing vegetable /mineral oils were also prepared. </li></ul>
    52. 57. Experimental <ul><li>The elasticity of hair fibers was determined at 0.50% extension before the Lightener treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the Hair Lighteners was mixed well with their respective Developers in the same ratio, that is, 2 Scoops of Lightener to 2 Fl Oz Developer. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these paste samples were applied to human hair tresses for 30 minutes, respectively. The tresses were then rinsed with tepid water, shampooed, conditioned, and dried. </li></ul>
    53. 58. Competitive Lightener F’ A Paste Like Rough Mixture MoisturColor Powder Lightener. A Creamy Smooth Mixture
    54. 59. Experimental - continue <ul><li>After the lightening process, the Elasticity of hair fibers was again determined at 0.50 % extension and the results are reported, as shown in the next slide. </li></ul>
    55. 60. ELASTIC STRENGTH OF HAIR (0.50% cyclical elongation)*
    56. 61. Mechanism of Oil Moisturizing Lightener
    57. 62. De-swelling While Lightening Polyhydric Molecules
    58. 63. FS OILS in Hair Cortex FSO
    59. 64. Mechanism (Cont.) <ul><li>The FSOs act as protective barrier between the peroxides and hair protein matrix . </li></ul>
    60. 65. Conclusions <ul><li>FSOs in MC Oil Moisturizing Lightener and De-swelling ingredient in MC Developer help to increase the elasticity of hair fibers, thereby,significantly reducing the damage to the hair. </li></ul>
    62. 67. Straightening Process <ul><li>Shampoo hair lightly if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Thio Straightening Cream with 10 to 11% Thioglycolic Acid at pH 9-9.5 REACH allows only 11.00% TGA). Keep the product on the hair for 25 to 40 minutes. Once the desired straightening is achieved, rinse the cream. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply blow drying aids and blow dry the hair. Then flat iron the hair at 180 degrees centigrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the Neutralizing Cream Lotion for 5 to 15 minutes. Rinse hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Shampoo hair lightly and apply a conditioner for 3-5 minutes. Rinse hair and towel blot. Blow dry hair using blow drying aids. Use flat iron lightly to straighten hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not shampoo hair for 72 hours. This process takes up to 3 to 3.5 hours </li></ul>
    63. 69. Hair Damage From Thiol Straightening <ul><li>The elasticity loss is in the range of 25 to 30 % in conventional systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The hair goes through extra swelling with a slight loss of cuticles. </li></ul><ul><li>This system does not straighten African descent hair as effectively as the Sodium or Guanidine hydroxides. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the cuticular 18-MEA is neutralized thus making hair porous. </li></ul><ul><li>The hair swells up to 30% of its diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>The process is time consuming and involves many steps. </li></ul>
    65. 72. Hair Damage From Permanent Hair Colors <ul><li>The hair elasticity does not decrease drastically with permanent hair colors as compare to relaxing or hair lightening. </li></ul><ul><li>Only red shades are very damaging and can reduce the elasticity of the hair fibers up to approximately 26%. Other hair shades decrease hair elasticity from 5 to 10% generally. </li></ul><ul><li>Some cuticle erosion also takes place along with increase in hair porosity. </li></ul>
    66. 73. Elasticity of Hair with Various Shades
    70. 77. UV – Hair Damage <ul><li>The cuticle layers of the hair fibers are fused together and cuticles lose their shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Hair fibers lose significant amount of elasticity. </li></ul><ul><li>Hair fibers also lose their color due to sun bleaching. </li></ul>
    71. 78. UV Damage <ul><li>Fused cuticles due to UV exposure. </li></ul>