Islam ver2


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Islam, owing to its simplicity and its ability to suit every culture, has gained the admiration of the
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Islam ver2

  1. 1. Islam is intimately connected with the Judeo-Christian traditionMuslims are strictly monotheistic.They believe in the Judeo-Christian God.Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, isthe word of God.“Allah” is the Arabic word for God. Christian and Jewish Arabsuse the same word to refer to God.Muslims believe that people fall away from God and that Hesends a new “prophets” or Messenger.Muhammad was God’s final Messenger.
  2. 2. Belief in the prophets before Muhammad is a cornerstone of Islam.Muslims believe in all the Judeo-Christian prophets,they all were righteous who never displeases God.The total number of all the messengers is 124.0000 andthe number of the prophets is 315. In Islam, a messenger is a righteous man who is sent byGod following the same law of a certain prophet.A prophet is a certain righteous man who is sent by Godwith a new law.Moses is a prophet because he had a new lawJesus was a messenger because he had followed the lawof Moses
  3. 3. Core Concept of IslamIslam means submission—submission to the willof AllahShari’ah or law of Islam expresses what theseterms are (more below)Islam corrects all the crooked concepts that wereinterpolated in the Holy Book; He doesn’t need torest; He knows all that is hidden; He doesn’tsleep...etc
  4. 4. Muhammad and the Qur’anMuhammad was born in 570 A.D. in MeccaIn 610, in the Cave of Hira, he received his firstrevelation from the angel Gabriel.In 622, he left Mecca for Medina. This datemarks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.By the time he died in 632, Islam was a thrivingreligion.The revelations he received were compiled intothe Qur’an after his death.Qur’an was copied down in an authoritativeform about 20 years after Muhammad died.
  5. 5. The Five Pillars of IslamShahada – TestimonySalat – PrayerZakat – AlmsgivingSawm – FastingHajj - Pilgrimage
  6. 6. ShahadaTo become a Muslim, you must confess by yourtongue the “Shahada” .The confession of faith in Islam is to believe that“There is no god worthy of worship except Godand Muhammad is His Messenger.”The transliteration of “Shahada”is:“La ilaha illa Allah; Muhammed rasul Allah.”
  7. 7. SalatSalat is the name for the mandatory prayersthat are performed five times a day. Salatmeans direct contact with God.Salat is done five times a day in a certain times
  8. 8. ZakatMuslims believe that all things belong to God, andthat wealth is therefore held by people in trust.Zakat means both ‘purification’ and ‘growth’. Muslims purify their possessions by setting asidea portion for those in need. For the mostpart, this involves a payment of at least 2.5% ofone’s capital every year. Giving more is highlyrecommended.There is also “ Zakat Al Fitr” that is paid at the endof the fasting month( Ramdan)Also giving alms is an act of charity that is highlyrewarded in Islam
  9. 9. Sawm- FastingEvery year during the month of Ramadan, Muslimsfast from dawn until sunset. During this time, theyrefrain from both eating and drinking. Fasting isregarded principally as a method of self-purification.It helps make a person more sympathetic with thosewho go hungry and it allows for spiritual growth. Theend of Ramadan is marked by a festival called Eid-ul-Fitr.
  10. 10. HajjThe Hajj is the annual pilgrimageto Mecca. Every Muslim who isphysically and financially able isrequired to go at least once inhis/her lifetime. 2-3 millionpeople go every year. The close of Hajj is marked by a festival called Eid-ul- Adha. Above is the Kaaba.
  11. 11. So How did Islam expand into a great world religion?What social and governmental forms emerged in theworld of IslamIslam nearly conquered western Europe first in the8th century—defeated at Tours in 732—and then in1527 and again in 1683.
  12. 12. Jihad“Jihad” among extremists refers to “Holy Wars”against the infidels or of Territorial expansion.Among moderates, Jihad refers to “Defense” ofone’s faith; and or an “inner struggle” to rid oneselfof evil and submit to Allah.
  13. 13. Emergence of ShiaClaim that ‘Ali’s descendents were the true successors toMuhammad—Shia Ali is party of Ali, Muhammad’s son inlaw.Shia community recognizes the Imans, the successors to‘Ali’s Spiritual AuthorityRecognizes Koran only, not Koran but Sunna (traditionalteachings) as authoritative.Sunni recognize Quran, Sunna, and Hadiths
  14. 14. CaliphCaliph or “Deputy” refers to the Islamic rulersafter the death of Muhammad.Abu-Bakr is first Caliph (632-624)The first four caliphs expanded the kingdom stillfurther.Caliphs have both religious & civil authority.
  15. 15. ImamsSpiritual leaders of Islam are the imams Imams are without sin and can interpret scripture without error Innovation possible only through an imam’s approval Belief in the Mahdi (guided one) - messianic figure who will lead the world into a time of peaceSunni and Shi’a disagree over the scope and power ofImams: for Sunni, the Imam is a prayer leader; for theShi’a, the Imam is temporal leader—the True Caliph.
  16. 16. Eras of Islamic Civilization570-632: Muhammad-Founder632-661: First four Caliphs: - Expansion in Mideast—Sunni-Shia Split.661-750: Ommayad Dynasty-(Centered in Damascus)Expansion in N.Africa & Spain
  17. 17. Eras of Islamic Civilization cont.750-1258: Abbasid Dynasty, Golden Age atBaghdad1000s-1400s: Seljuks &Mongols1453-WW I: Ottoman Empire; & Fragmentation
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  19. 19. The Umayyad Caliphate- Flourish from 661 to 750- Centered in Damascus- Nearly took Constantinople (674-77) but were deterred -by Greek Fire-Captured Spain but were defeated by Charles Martelat Tours in 732.- Weakness of Umayyads—only Arabs could be Muslims—opposed by Abbasids who accepted Muslims of allethnicities
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  21. 21. The Abbasid CaliphateFlourished from 750 to 1258Centered in BaghdadGreat libraries, academies, and schools.Translated classical Greek scholarship into Arabic—preserving it for posterityAchievements in Medicine, astronomy, and MathematicsMuslim states in West break away from Abbasid controlbeginning in 756.Seljuk Turks convert to Islam and conquer Abbasids (1055)but allow Abbasids to continue to ruleGenghis Khans Grandson topples Abbasids in 1258
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  23. 23. Ottoman Empire (1300-1918)The Ottoman Empire would rival that of China insize and economic power.But over time the Ottoman Empire would beweakened until the twentieth century.Yet under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566)the Ottoman Empire expanded into North Africaand Syria.
  24. 24. Growth of the Ottoman EmpireFor nearly 300 years the Ottomans expanded into theBalkans and to Persia.By 1683 the Turks controlled Hungary in Europe to thePersian Gulf.Initial Ottoman conquest and expansion was undertheir able leader Osman (1299-1326).Osman was a ghazi, or warrior, who was determined tospread the faith.
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  26. 26. Why Did The Ottomans Succeed?Ottomans tolerated other faiths—didn’t fightwars of religious exclusivismMany in Old Byzantine Empire were weary ofcorruption in Byzantine state
  27. 27. Key Events of the Ottoman State1389 – Defeat the Serbs at Battle of Kosovo.1396 – Crushed the Hungarians and foreign knights atNicopolis.1402 – Tamerlane defeats the Ottomans near Ankara.1453 – Turks capture Constantinople by Mohammed II.1517 – Turks captured Cairo.1529 – First siege of Vienna.1683 – Second siege of Vienna.
  28. 28. Historic Contributions of the Islamic CivilizationsRhazes (d. 925): Medical expert of the AbbasidDynasty who studied optics; Caesarianoperations and more.Most famous treatise On Small Pox and Measles
  29. 29. Historic Contributions of the Islamic Civilizations•Avicenna (d. 1037): A Muslim scholar of the AbbasidDynasty who excelled in both Medicine andPhilosophy•His Canon of Medicine was translated into Latin inthe 12th century and by the 16th century was in its35th edition.
  30. 30. Historic Contributions of the Islamic CivilizationsAveorres (d. 1198): Philosopher of the AbbasidDynasty who tried to harmonize Islamc faith withAristotelian logic.
  31. 31. Distillation of Alcohol•Developed about 800•Al-kuhl means “the essense”
  32. 32. AstrolabeUsed for astronomy & fornavigation.It is believed that the Muslim al-Fazari (d.777A.D.) was the firstscientist in the MidEast to makean astrolabe, following thearrival of an Indian mission toBaghdad.
  33. 33. Muslim MedicineMuslim physicians were active in theadvancement of surgical techniques, and wereamong the first to use narcotic and sedative drugsin operations.
  34. 34. Omar KhyyamOf the Abbasid Dynasty was the author of theRubaiyat and the Book of 1001 Nights.“A Book of Verses underneath the Bough; A jugof wine, a loaf of bread—and thou beside me inthe wilderness—Oh Wilderness were paradiseenow!”
  35. 35. Harun Al Rashid (800s)An esteemed ruler of the Abbasid Dynasty whoexchanged gifts, and established friendly relationswith Charlemagne (ruler of the greatest ChristianKingdom in Europe at that time).
  36. 36. Cordoba, SpainFrom 756 - 1031, Cordobawas a political and culturalcenter for the Muslims.
  37. 37. Muslim Art & ArchitectureThe Muslim religionprohibited the picturing ofhuman and natural forms.Muslim art was thuschanneled into artisticdisplays of great geometriccomplexity and abstractornamentation.
  38. 38. Muslim Art & ArchitectureThis Muslim mosque inSeville, was built in 1172.It was converted to aChrisitan Cathedral in1248.
  39. 39. Muslim architecture
  40. 40. So If Islam was so cool, what happened?Present Mindedness—who knows if we won’t all bedead or Muslim?Problem of Closed RevelationFailure to form effective statesWeak/decadent rulersFocus on moral reform and supernatural deliverancerather than structural/material reform—Wahabbism.