Ancient civilizations


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Brief information on the Islamic civilization

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Ancient civilizations

  1. 1. ArabsArabs = nomadic bedouins, Semitic speaking people who livedin Arabian PeninsulaHostile surroundings made the Arabs move constantly tocontinue to feed their animalsArabs organized into independent tribes to help each otherwith difficult livesSheikh = leader of tribeEarly Arabs herded sheep & farmed on the Arabian peninsulaAfter domestication of camel, expanded caravan trade frombetween Persian gulf & Mediterranean
  2. 2. Bedouins
  3. 3. Arabs Before IslamEarly Arabs were polytheistic, Allah = main godTraced their ancestry to Abraham & his son Ishmael,who were believed to have built a shrine called theKaaba at MeccaBlack Stone, cornerstone of Kaaba, revered for itsassociation with Abraham
  4. 4. Muhammad Muhammad is the final prophet, he believed in Jesus,Moses and all the prophets in the Old Testament.He called for believing and revering all the otherprophets and their holy books.He led a simple life, never indulged himself in thethen customs, used to retire from the world in a cavein Baca to worship the One God.He was predicted in the Holy Book and all the ancientHoly Books.In twenty three years, he could change the whole ofthe Peninsula into Islam.
  5. 5. MuhammadMuhammad called for pure monotheism, he called forthe same God of the Holy Book.His prophethood is supported by many evidences:Physical evidencesProphecies that came true in his time in our modern ageMental evidenceThe Holy Quran which proves its divinity throughscientific statements.
  6. 6. Mosque Of The Prophet In Madinah
  7. 7. Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem:Where the Prophet Muhammad Ascended Into Heaven
  8. 8. ISLAM Islam means the utter submission to God, it also meanspeace.Islam is the same religion that all the prophets called to.Islam is a universal religion that all the world shouldfollow.The basic sources of Islam is the Holy Quran and theSunna of the Prophet( traditional sayings and deeds ofthe Prophet Muhammad)Islam arranges the relation between the Muslim and hisCreator, the Muslim and his soceity, the Muslim nationand the other nations.
  9. 9. The QuranThe Quran, the last revealed word ofGod, is the primary source of everyMuslim’s faith and practice. It dealswith all the subjects which concern The Quran:human beings: wisdom, doctrine,worship, transactions, law, etc., but Holy Book Of Islamits basic theme is the relationshipbetween God and His creatures. Atthe same time, it provides guidelinesand detailed teachings for a justsociety, proper human conduct, andan equitable economic system.
  10. 10. Five Pillars of Islam- Faith – Allah is the one true god and Muhammad ishis prophet.- Prayer – five times a day toward Makkah .- Alms Giving.- Fasting – during Ramadan from sunrise to sunset.- Pilgrimage - a hajj to Makkah once in lifetime
  11. 11. The Confession of FaithThere is no deity except Allah(the One and Only God), Muhammad isthe Messenger of Allah.
  12. 12. Celebrating The Last Day of RamadanEid Al-Fter is celebrated on the last day of the fasting monthof Ramdan, it starts with a certain prayer, people usuallyvisit each other on that day, all Muslims should give alms tothe poor.
  13. 13. Muslim Pilgrimageis the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in theirlifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so
  14. 14. Al-Haram Mosque Holds the Kaaba
  15. 15. Kaaba
  16. 16. Values: Forbids :Honor parents PolytheismBe kind to neighbors MurderProtect widows and orphans StealingGive to the poor LyingAnd many others Adultery The Quran Forbids: Regulates: Endorses: Gambling Marriage Polygamy Pork Divorce Jihad when necessary Alcohol Inheritance Business
  17. 17. Creation of Arab Empire After the death of the Prophet, Abu-Bakr becamethe leader of the Muslim nation.He was chosen to be the leader for his piousness andrighteousness.He collected the Holy Quran after shortly after thedeath of the prophet.By 650 Egypt, Syria, & Persian empire were part ofArab empire/ Done under leadership of Bakr
  18. 18. The Meaning of Jihad1. Jihad against oneself - the daily struggle against eviland temptation in life.2. Jihad with knowledge - the struggle to use knowledge,particularly from the Quran, to fight ignorance and to gainconverts to Islam not through battle, but through the powerof Quranic knowledge.3. Jihad with wealth - the struggle to give up material
  19. 19. wealth for the benefit of Islam, through charitabledonations.4. Jihad with the sword - the physical struggle to defendIslam against harm from unbelievers. Muslims believethat if they give their lives in this military jihad they willbe rewarded with eternal paradise.5. Jihad through righteousness - the struggle tocontinuously undertake good deeds to please God andbenefit humanity.
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  21. 21. Arab EmpireFirst 2 caliphs after Abu Bakr were killed In 656Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, became caliph butwas assassinated 5 years later
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  23. 23. Umayyad DynastyIn 661, general Mu’awiyah became caliph.He Was known for only using force if necessary He spread Islam in Africa.He Occupied southern Spain/ By 725 Spain was MuslimstateArabs were defeated at Battle of Tours ending Europeanexpansion
  24. 24. Damascus:Umayyad Capital
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Abbasid DynastyIn 750, Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyaddynasty & founded Abbasid which lasted until 1258In 762, Abbasid built new capital of Baghdad on theTigris river/ location took advantage of river &caravan traffic.Harun al-Rashid led dynasty through golden age/known for charity and patronage.His son, Al Ma’mun, was a great patron of learningBaghdad became center of a huge trade empire.
  27. 27. Baghdad
  28. 28. Abbasid Dynasty FallsAbbasid experienced problems; fighting oversuccession of caliphVast wealth led to financial corruptionShortage of qualified Arabs to fill government positionsallowed non-Arabs to become a dominant force in themilitary & bureaucracy which led disintegrationRulers of provinces began to break awaySpain, Morocco, Egypt = independent with owncaliphate
  29. 29. Samanid Mosque Umayyad Mosque In Bukhara In Spain
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Seljuk Turks & CrusadesFatimid dynasty became center of Islamic civilization =important because it was located on Nile river = CairoCreated a strong army by non-native soldiers = SeljukTurksSeljuk Turks = nomadic people from central Asia,converted to IslamTook over much of Abbasid empire & capturedBaghdad; held political and military powerTurks took over Anatolian plateau, Byzantine empireturned west for help
  32. 32. CrusadesByzantine emperor Alexius I asked Christian states ofEurope for help against TurksEuropeans agreed and a series of Crusades began in1096Crusaders put Muslims on defensive first1169, Saladin took control of Egypt & ended Fatimiddynasty, took offensive @ Christians1187, Saladin’s army destroyed the Christian forces inthe kingdom of JerusalemMain effect of Crusades = centuries of mistrust betweenMuslims & Christians
  33. 33.
  34. 34. MongolsPastoral people who came out of the Gobi desert inearly 13th centuryWere highly destructive conquerors whose goal was tocreate such a terror that people would not fight backThey swept the world, including some parts of theMuslim world.They embraced Islam, the first time the conquerorsembraced the religion of the qonquered.
  35. 35. MongolsMongol leaders began to convert to Islam &intermarried with local peoples14th century, Mongol empire split into separatekingdoms Islamic empire ended Because Mongolshad destroyed Baghdad, Cairo became center ofIslamic civilization
  36. 36. Genghis Khan United Mongol Cavalry
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  38. 38.
  39. 39. Islamic CivilizationArab empire was generally prosperous Based onextensive trade by ship & camel Camel caravans wentto Morocco in far west to countries beyond CaspianSeaTrade began to prosper during Abassid dynastyLarge magnificent cities began toprosper……..Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, CordobaIslamic cities had their own physical appearancePalace & mosques = most impressive buildingsFountains, public baths, bazaars
  40. 40. BAZAARS
  41. 41. Islamic SocietyMuslims live their lives in accordance with Allah’steachings revealed in the QuranIslam claims that all people are equal in the eyes ofAllah/ was not always the case in the Arab empire =well defined upper class of ruling families & wealthymerchantsSlaves were not considered equal/Muslims could not beslaves/ Slaves came from south Africa or Asia, mostlycaptives of war/treated pretty well, many were set freeWomen were not treated equal, Quran does not tellmen to do so
  42. 42. Islamic AchievementsMedicine : developed medicine as a field of study/ IbnSina wrote medical encyclopedia, Canon of Medicine, itshowed how diseases could spreadHistory : Ibn Khaldun proposed cyclical history, cause &effect, wrote Muqaddimah- Intro to HistoryLiterature: Omar Khayyam wrote Rubaiyat/ ArabianNights (1001 Nights) collection of folktales & fables thatwere first told orally & then written down over manyyearsArt/Architecture : blends together Arabic, Turkish, &Persian traditions
  43. 43. Islamic AchievementsArt is expressed in Mosques/ decorations = arabesques-geometric patterns of Arabic letters, plants, & abstractfiguresNo representation of Muhammad in any art/ prophetwarned against imitating God by creating picturesGreat Mosque of Samarra is the largest Mosque ever built= present day Iraq, covers 10 acresMosque in Cordoba, Spain = 514 columns make buildinginto a forest of treesPalaces reflected the glory of IslamAlhambra in Granada, Spain is finest Islamic palace
  44. 44. Ibn Sina
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  46. 46. Islamic Art
  47. 47. Islamic Art
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