WHAT IS MANAGING?Managing requires the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals work together in groups toward the accomplishment of common objectives
IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL DIGNITY The concept of individual dignity means that people must be treated with respect, no matter what their position in the organization
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?• Derived from Latin word, ‘movere’, meaning “to move”.• Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes, and similar forces
• “The process of initiating action” is technically called „motivation‟.• Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological need which activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal.• The process that accounts for an individual‟s intensity, direction, and persistence of efforts toward attaining a goal.• The process of activating, maintaining and directing behaviour towards a particular goal.
DIRECTING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS CERTAIN GOAL IS THE ESSENCE OF MOTIVATION
• Motivated behavior is usually goal oriented;• The goal may be associated with a drive such as hunger or thirst (called primary motivation).• Motivation can be learned (in which case it is called secondary motivation)
Steps in the Motivational Cycle PRIMARY MOTIVATION STEP 1: Need/ Drive STEP 2: Buildup of tension hunger • Worry with time • Set aside other needs STEP 4: Satisfaction and tension reduction STEP 3: Focused activities Feel freedom to satisfy other Search for food needs STEP 4: Achievement of goal Found food
Steps in the Motivational Cycle SECONDARY MOTIVATION STEP 2: Buildup of tension STEP 1: Goal • Worry that time will run out Complete a work in 2 • Doubt about abilities months • Fear of failure • Set aside other needs STEP 4: Satisfaction and STEP 3: Focused activities tension reduction • Collect all needed resources Feel freedom to satisfy other • Plan needs • Hard work STEP 4: Achievement of goal Complete the work
A Model of How Goals Can Improve Performance Goals can motivateGoals need to be forSpecific Directing attention ImprovedDifficult Encouraging effort Encouraging persistence PerformanceParticipatively set Fostering goal attainment strategies and action plans Feedback on performance
• To reach our full potential and to perform to the best of our ability.• To avoid the negative feelings.
Maslow’s-Hierarchy of Needs Theory• This theory was proposed by Abraham Maslow• It is based on the assumption that people are motivated by a series of five universal needs.• These needs are ranked, according to the order in which they influence human behavior, in hierarchical fashion.• The order of needs starts from basic survival or lower order needs to higher order needs i.e. from the level of physiological needs to self transcendence.• As one level of need is satisfied another higher order need will emerge and assume importance in life.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS self-realization, continuous self-development, and the process of becoming all that a person is desire for self-respect, self-esteem, desire for capable of becoming … reputation, prestige, status, fame, glory, Self - dominance, recognition, attention, importance, relationship with other members of the society, and appreciation… Actualization want to become an accepted member of an organised group, need a familiar environment Esteem needssecurity,family… dependency, protection, freedom such as stability,from fear and anxiety, and a need for structure, order, Belongingness & love needsand law; job security.… Food, water needs Safety … Physiological needs
McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS• According to David McClelland, regardless of culture or gender, people are driven by three motives: ACHIEVEMENT , AFFILIATION, AND POWER
McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS • ACHIEVEMENT : The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for finding solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goals, get feedback on level of success.
McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS • AFFILIATION : The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to belong, an enjoyment of teamwork, a concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need to reduce uncertainty.
McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS • POWER :The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others, a need to win arguments, a need to persuade and prevail.
McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS• According to McClelland, the presence of these motives or drives in an individual indicates a predisposition to behave in certain ways.• Therefore, from a managers perspective, recognizing which need is dominant in any particular individual affects the way in which that person can be motivated.
Theory of “X” and Theory of “Y”• Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing view points of managers about their employees,• one is negative called “Theory of X” and• one is positive called “Theory of Y”
Theory of “X” and Theory of “Y” THEORY X THEORY Y• EMPLOYEES DISLIKE • EMPLOYEES LIKE WORK WORK• THEY MUST BE • PEOPLE WILL CONTROLLED TO EXERCISE SELF- ACHIEVE GOALS CONTROL• THEY AVOID • THEY SEEK RESPONSIBILITIES RESPONSIBILITIES• MOST PUT SECURITY • THEY ARE INNOVATIVE ABOVE ALL
Theory of “X” and Theory of “Y” THEORY X THEORY Y• EMPLOYEES DISLIKE • EMPLOYEES LIKE WORK WORK• THEY MUST BE • PEOPLE WILL CONTROLLED TO EXERCISE SELF- ACHIEVE GOALS CONTROL• THEY AVOID RESPONSIBILITIES • THEY SEEK•Theory of X assumes MOST PUT SECURITY RESPONSIBILITIES Whereas Theory of Y, Maslow’s ALL level ABOVE lower • THEY ARE INNOVATIVE assumes Maslow’sneeds dominate in higher level needsemployees. dominate in employees.
GOAL SETTING THEORY• Edwin Locke proposed that setting specific goals will improve motivation.• Salient features of this theory are the following: – Specific goal fixes the needs of resources and efforts – It increases performance – Difficult goals result higher performance than easy job – Better feedback of results leads to better performance than lack of feed back. – Participation of employees in goal has mixed result, however, it increases acceptance of goal and involvements.
GOAL SETTING THEORY• Goal setting theory has identified two factors which influences the performance.GOAL COMMITMENTSELF EFFICIENCY
GOAL SETTING THEORY Goal commitment: • Goal setting theory presupposes that the individual is committed to the goal. • This commitment depends on the following: – Goals are made public – Individual has an internal locus of control – Goals are self-set
GOAL SETTING THEORY Self –Efficiency : • Self Efficiency is the belief or self confidence, that he/she is capable of performing task. • In the case of low self- efficiency level persons will lessen or even abandon when meeting challenges. But • Persons with high self- efficiency put up extra-efforts when they face challenges
CAUSES OF DISSATISFACTIONPractically, differnt points are:-• Inefficient administration• Incompetant supervision• Poor personal relationship• Poor leadership qualities• Low pay• Bad working conditions• Non-participation in plans of work
BARRIERS OF MOTIVATION NEGETIVE ATTITUDE POSITIVE ATTITUDE LACK SELF-CONFIDENCE OF SELF-CONFIDENCE NOT AGREEAGREE WITH THE TASK UNFULFILLED BASIC NEEDS BASIC NEEDS FULFILLED LACK REWARD OF REWARDUNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENT HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT
He spent most of his childhood in financial problems. started working at an early age to supplement his familys income. Wrote many inspirational books including “Wings of fire” and “India 2020”. Has been awarded with most prestigious highest civilian award “Bharat Ratna” in1997. who served as the 11thPresident of India from 2002 to 2007. popularly known as the “Missile Man of India”. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Lost his job in his early life.Started business and failed in 1832 at 23 yrs.Wife died of a fatal disease in 1835.Experienced nervous breakdown.Contested election for speaker in legislature and lostApplied for post of Land Officer and not selected.Contested for senate and lost in 1854.Contested for vice president and lost in 1856.Again Contested for senate and lost in1858. AND TWO YEARS LATER….. Abraham LincolnON NOV. 6, 1860 ELECTED AS PRESIDENT OF AMERICA
1969-A govt. servant at a salary of Rs. 400/- per month He started by selling yellow powder to neighbours and then to nearby localities on cycle. Now he is having a fortune of more than Rs. 14 billion, 14000 employees and more than 200 managers Selling Nirma Washing Powder at Rs.3.50 when Surf was sold at Rs.15 per kilogram AND LOOK AT HIM After the kutch earthquake in Gujrat he hired 700 buildings to house the victims Karsan Bhai Patel
A fat little girl Lost 25 kilogram and keeps the weight off permanently by power walks and sensible eating habits At one time she was responsible for 37 out of 50 most popular programmes on Indian cable television At one time one of the most 50 powerful communicators in Asia by Asia Week magazine. Absolute determination and self control Ekta kapoor
• Self motivation is the inspiration behind your behavior and actions.• It is an important mechanism that will help you to reach your goal, without external influence.• Self motivation improves your confidence and self- esteem, as well as gives you strength to achieve your goal.
• Self motivation is important in every aspect of your life, be it career, social life, relationship, health and fitness, spirituality or personality development.• Firstly, you must find out what motivates you.• Some people may get motivated by influential people; while, some by reading inspirational books, stories or poems.
• Self-motivation is a more efficient method.• If you can motivate yourself, you do not have to depend on any external factors.• Self motivation is the best inspirational technique.
• Without having a dream, you cannot achieve anything. • You must have observed how obsessed great men are with their dreams. • Everyone is aware of Martin Luther King Jrs famous speech, I Have A Dream. • Only when you have a dream, you will be determined to follow it and make it real.DREAM
• Make difficult but realistic goals. • They should not be extraordinary and unreachable. • Firstly, discover – Your strengths, and also – Your limits/ weaknesses; • only then, set your goals. • You should also have a blueprint of your plan. • Your action plan must be flexible, so that it lasts long.CONCRETE PLANS
• Your attitude is your biggest asset. • Positive thinking is extremely important as your thoughts and attitude will influence your plans and actions. • Do not let negative thoughts or people influence you. • Write your positive aspects and achievements. • It will definitely boost your self-POSITIVE confidence.ATTITUDE
• Start with a small step • It takes a lot of effort to initiate the planned course of action. • It is observed that most people have their plans ready, but they find it extremely difficult to make a start. • You must at least take a single step to begin your work. • Once you begin, it is easier to continue. • Do not fear making mistakes because the more you fear, the more likely you are to commit oneFIRST Remember that failure is followed by success.STEP
• Steadiness and regularity in your actions is very essential. • It is possible that you may get discouraged or tired, after the initial excitement is over. • But, you have to self-motivate and be focused. • Strengthen your interest and desire to succeed. • Do not complain about lack of resources or unsuitableCONSISTENCY situations.
• If you are really determined, you will accomplish your goal. • You must not let any kind of obstacles affect you or your action plans.CONSISTENCY
• Delaying your days work will lengthen your time in achieving your goal. • Avoid being lazy. • Taking breaks to get refreshed is accepted, but not putting things off for the next day. • Delaying is a hindrance in your progress.DELAYING IS YOUR ENEMY
• Harmful external forces likes negative thoughts and ideas must be completely blocked. • You should never lose your mental balance under any circumstances. • You should not be nervous or depressed.DELAYING IS YOUR ENEMY
• There may be times when things can go wrong. • But, If you follow the right plan and procedure, you are sure to succeed. • You must never lose hope. Keep on trying, find out what is wrong but do not quit. • Memorize the famous quote “Losers quit when they are tired, Champions quit when they win gold”.NEVER QUIT
• So, gear up and get started.• Reward yourself, even if you make any single accomplishment.• Believe in yourself so that you can easily self-motivate.• Recall these self motivation skills daily, and you are sure to succeed!
DR. R.B. JAIN, PROFESSOR,DEPTT. OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE THANK YOU PGIMS, ROHTAK, HARYANA