American period


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American period

  1. 1. Philippine Literature in the Twentieth Century
  2. 2. • Americans landed in Manila on AUGUST 13, 1898.• Political change was from Spanish domination to American determinism.• The cultural influences of Spain remain deeply rooted in the people’s ways and traditions.• The language of literature, following the language of the elite, the powerful, and the influential, shifted from Spanish to English. Political Changes
  3. 3. • 1901- Phil. Normal School was founded with English as a medium of instruction.• 1908- University of the Philippines came into existence.• English became the official language and the medium of instruction in the public and the private schools.The New Language
  4. 4. • THE PHILIPPINE FREE PRESS founded in 1905 began as a bilingual weekly.• By the 1920’s, a new generation had grown up in the American climate, speaking and writing in English.• By the 1930’s, the writers have mastered their craft in English.• By the 1940’s, a number of writers would be recognized abroad.The New Language
  5. 5. Writers in Spanish
  6. 6. • Worked for General Antonio Luna’s La Independencia• Editor of El Renacimiento• Co-founder of La Vanguardia• Used the pseudonyms “Fulvis Gil” and “Gil Rosas”• Collection of his verses --- Crisalidas --- was published in 1914.Fernando Ma. Guerrero
  7. 7. • Author of the lyrics of the Phil. National Anthem• Wrote for La Independencia• His book of verses --- Melancolicas --- was published in 1912. Jose Palma
  8. 8. • Wrote in Spanish and Tagalog• Won various awards in poetry and balagtasan• His verse --- Pentelicas --- was published in 1914.• Used the pseudonym “Baticuling”• Published 3 novels --- Banacarrota de Almas, Se Deshojo la Flor, El Pajaro de fuego Cecilio Apostol
  9. 9. • Won in 1913 three literary contests with his “Zapote,” “El Himno nacional filipino al Sagrado Corazon de Jesus,” and “Espana en Filipinas”• Has two books of poetry --- “Cantos del Tropico” (Songs of the Tropic, 1929) and “Perfil de Cresta” (Profile of the Top, 1957) Manuel Bernabe
  10. 10. • Won the Zobel Prize for poetry in 1929 and the 1940 Commonwealth Literary Contest in Spanish for De Mactan a Tirad• Crowned in 1926 as Rey del Balagtasan Bisaya and in 1933 as Principe del HiligaynonFlavio Zaragoza Cano
  11. 11. • Better known as a national figure in politics, being the president of the first Constitutional Convention in 1935, congressman and senator• Wrote verses which were later compiled in “Bajo los cocoteros” (Under the Coconut Tree)• His two plays --- “Solo entre las sombres” (Alone Among the Shadows) and “La ruta de Damasco” (The Road to Damascus) Claro M. Recto
  12. 12. • President of the University of the Philippines• Known for his “Biografia de Rizal”• Commonwealth Literary Awardee for biography Rafael Palma
  13. 13. • Member of the Philippine Assembly and later Director of the National Library• His works --- La Revolucion filipina, Dieterio Espiritual, Las cartas politicos de Mabini, La constitution de Malolos, and Hacia la Tierra del Zar Teodoro Kalaw
  14. 14. • Wrote Efemeridas des Filipinas in 1914 in collaboration with Mariano Ponce• Last major work was Discursos y articulos de Graciano Lopez Jaena Jayme C. de Veyra
  15. 15. • Wrote Caretes, a collection of stories which won the Zobel Prize in 1925• From Lipa, Batangas Enrique Laygo
  16. 16. Vernacular Drama
  17. 17. • A musical comedy usually of three or more acts• Introduced to the Spanish zarzuela with the arrival of Dario Cespedes, a Spanish poet and playwright and his troupe in 1878.• Most popular in the 1920s and the 1930s• Dealt mostly with romantic and domestic situations Zarzuela
  18. 18. • An Fiscal Mayor sa Simbahan (Asisclo Jimenez) 1906• Maysa a Candidato (Mena Pecson Crisologo) 1908• Codigo Municipal (Mena Pecson Crisologo) 1908• Inday (Buenaventura Rodriguez) 1917• Gugma sa Yutang Natauhan (Vicente Sotto) 1901• Managuete (Norberto Romualdez) 1920 Earlier Zarzuelas
  19. 19. Thank you!