Reproductive health


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Reproductive health

  1. 1. Reproductive Health
  2. 2. Definition • Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of reproductive disease or infirmity. • Reproductive health deals with the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life
  3. 3. Components 1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevention and management 2. Prevention and management of unsafe abortion, 3. Prevention of gender-based violence, 4. Prevention of Harmful practices 5. Prevention and management of infertility 6. Family planning, 7. Prevention of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity.
  4. 4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevention and management • STDs are infections that are spread primarily through person-to-person sexual contact. • There are more than 30 different sexually transmissible bacteria, viruses and parasites. • Several, (HIV and syphilis), can be transmitted from mother to child
  5. 5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevention and management STI syndromic approach to patient management • The traditional method of diagnosing STIs is by laboratory tests. However, these are often unavailable or too expensive. • WHO has recommended a syndromic approach to diagnosis and management of STIs in patients • The syndromic approach uses flowcharts to guide diagnosis and treatment
  6. 6. Unsafe abortion • A procedure for terminating an unwanted pregnancy either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking minimal medical standards or both • It is the cause of serious complications and disability and is a prominent cause of maternal death
  7. 7. Unsafe abortion They are a result of: • Unmet need for family planning • Contraceptive failure • Lack of information about contraception • Restricted access to safe abortion services Prevention • Safe abortion • Post-abortion care.
  8. 8. Prevention of gender-based violence, • The United Nations defines violence against women as: • any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.
  9. 9. Prevention of gender-based violence, • Intimate partner violence refers to behaviour in an intimate relationship • Sexual violence ( rape)
  10. 10. Prevention of gender-based violence, • Health consequences • short- and long-term physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health problems • Impact on children • range of behavioural and emotional disturbances that can be associated with experiencing of violence later in life. • Intimate partner violence has been associated with infant and child mortality and morbidity (e.g. diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition).
  11. 11. Prevention of gender-based violence, • The social and economic costs: – Isolation – inability to work, – loss of wages – lack of participation in regular activities – limited ability to care for themselves and their children.
  12. 12. Prevention of gender-based violence, • The primary prevention strategy is school-based programmes for adolescents to prevent violence • Combine microfinance with gender equality training; • Promote communication and relationship skills within communities • Reduce access to, and the harmful use of alcohol; • Enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; • Sensitization and education of health and other service providers
  13. 13. Prevention of Harmful practices Female Genital Mutilation FGM : • comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. • FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. • FGM has no health benefits, causes severe pain and has several immediate and long-term health consequences.
  14. 14. Prevention of Harmful practices • It is mostly carried out by traditional providers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. • Increasingly, however, FGM is being performed by health care providers.
  15. 15. Prevention of Harmful practices • • • • • • • Immediate complications : Severe pain Shock Haemorrhage (bleeding), Tetanus or sepsis (bacterial infection) Urine retention Open sores in the genital region and injury to nearby genital tissue.
  16. 16. Prevention of Harmful practices Long-term consequences can include: • Recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections; • Cysts; • Infertility; • An increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths; • The need for later surgeries.
  17. 17. Prevention of Harmful practices • Education • Laws
  18. 18. Prevention and management of infertility • Infertility is the inability to conceive a child. • Primary infertility is infertility in a couple who have never had a child. • Secondary infertility is failure to conceive following a previous pregnancy. • Infertility may be caused by infection in the man or woman, but often there is no obvious underlying cause.
  19. 19. Prevention and management of infertility • Prevention and management of infections (STDs) • Safe abortion and post abortion care • Assisted Reproductive Technology: – all treatments or procedures that include the in vitro handling of both human oocytes and sperm or of embryos for the purpose of establishing a pregnancy.
  20. 20. Child and adolescent health and development • Adolescence is a period of major physical and psychological change, as well as great changes in social interactions and relationships.
  21. 21. Child and adolescent health and development They need interventions to decrease and to mitigate their vulnerability: • Information and skills • Safe and supportive environment • Appropriate and accessible health and counselling services.
  22. 22. Child and adolescent health and development • health problems affecting adolescents and their prevention • Mental health • Many mental health problems emerge in late childhood and early adolescence. • Health workers need to have the competencies to: – relate to young people – detect mental health problems early – provide treatments which include counselling, cognitivebehavioural therapy and, where appropriate, psychotropic medication
  23. 23. Child and adolescent health and development Substance use • laws • Increasing their awareness of the dangers of substance use • building their competence to resist peer pressure and to manage stress in a healthy manner
  24. 24. Child and adolescent health and development Violence • Life skills and social development programmes • Supporting teachers and parents to build skills in problem solving and non-violent disciplining • Actions to make health systems more responsive, and to build the empathy and competence of health workers • Ongoing psychological and social support
  25. 25. Child and adolescent health and development Unintentional injuries Approaches for reducing road traffic crashes: • Enforcing speed limits; • Promote seat belt (and helmet) use and to prevent driving under the influence of alcohol or other psychoactive substances; • Increasing the availability of safe and inexpensive public transport. • Actions to make the environment safer and to educate children and adolescents on how to avoid drowning, burns and falls • Prompt access to effective trauma care can be life saving.
  26. 26. Child and adolescent health and development • Nutrition • Actions to improve access to food • Improving the nutritional status of girls: – Improving access to nutritious food, to micronutrient supplementation and to preventing infections as well. • Promoting healthy lifestyles is crucial to halting the rapidly progressing obesity epidemic
  27. 27. • Family planning, • Prevention of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity.