Occupational health 23 nov 2012

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Occupational health 23 nov 2012

  1. 1. Abdelmageed Osman Musa Community Medicine Specialist
  2. 2. History of Occupational H. 12/17/13 Occupational Health 2
  3. 3. Cont. History of Occupational H  Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) Italy  De Morbis Artificum Diatriba - (1700) 12/17/13 Occupational Health 3
  4. 4. History of Occup. H. in Sudan  1908 – Child labor Act  1949 – Factory and Workshops Act  1968 – Establishment of Occup. H. Dept. 12/17/13 Occupational Health 4
  5. 5. Definition of Occupational Health Promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of all workers in all occupations 12/17/13 Occupational Health 5
  6. 6. The importance (rationale) of studying Occup. H.  Annual deaths > 200 000.  Annual diseases > over 120 millions  New introduced chemicals  Affects economics directly  Chemical epidemics are serious  Industrialization is growing –  Developing countries use pollutant industries. 12/17/13 Occupational Health 6
  7. 7. 12/17/13 Occupational Health 7
  8. 8. Types of Occupational Hazards 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 12/17/13 Physical Chemical Biological Mechanical Psychosocial Occupational Health 8
  9. 9. Physical Hazards 12/17/13 Occupational Health 9
  10. 10. Effects of Heat Direct effects of heat exposure: Burns  Heat exhaustion  Heat stroke  Heat cramps  Indirect effects of heat: Decreased efficiency  Increased fatigue  Enhanced accident rates  12/17/13 Occupational Health 10
  11. 11. Sources of heat  Climate  Foundries  Ovens It is a hazard mainly for:  Construction workers  Foundry workers  Textile workers 12/17/13 Occupational Health 11
  12. 12. Accepted levels of temperature  Measured by the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)  It measures the radiant temperature  Accepted temperature 20 – 27° C 12/17/13 Occupational Health 12
  13. 13. Wet Bulb Globe 12/17/13 Occupational Health 13
  14. 14. Effects of Cold on health: Effects are due to vasoconstriction:     12/17/13 Chilblains (cold + humidity) Erythrocaynosis discoloration on the legs and thighs (chronic exposure of cold) Immersion foot (a painful disorder of the foot) Frostbite (damage to skin and other tissues due to freezing) Occupational Health 14
  15. 15. Erythrocaynosis Chilblains Immersion foot Frostbite 12/17/13 Occupational Health 15
  16. 16. Light Effects of poor illumination:  Eye strain  Headache  Miner’s nystagmus Effects of intense light:  Visual fatigue  Blurring of vision 12/17/13 Occupational Health 16
  17. 17. Measuring Light  Light meters  Intensity of light is measured according to the function of the worker  Unit of measuring is the lux (symbol: lx)  Examples:   12/17/13 Normal Office Work, Study Library, 500 Supermarkets, Mechanical Workshops, 750 Occupational Health 17
  18. 18. Noise Effects of noise:  Auditory effects (temporary or permanent hearing loss)  Non-auditory effects:      12/17/13 Nervousness Fatigue Difficult communication Hypertension Cardiovascular diseases Occupational Health 18
  19. 19. Recommended levels  80 – 90 dB(A) for workplaces 40 hr/week  Noise levels could be reduced by ear plugs or ear muffs 12/17/13 Occupational Health 19
  20. 20. Noise Measurements  Noise is measured by Sound level meters  Occupational hearing loss is detected by audiometers (The 4000 Hz Dip) 12/17/13 Occupational Health 20
  21. 21. Vibration  Vibrations encounter in work with drills and hammers  It may cause disorders and injuries of the joints, the hands and elbow 12/17/13 Occupational Health 21
  22. 22. Ultraviolet radiation  It is affects mainly welders through radiation  Such radiation affects the eyes causing intense conjunctivitis and keratitis (Welder’s Flash) 12/17/13 Occupational Health 22
  23. 23. Ionizing radiation  It is increasing in medicine and industry  It had different effects on health:       12/17/13 Cancers Genetic changes Malformations Sterility ... Death Occupational Health 23
  24. 24. Chemical Hazards 12/17/13 Occupational Health 24
  25. 25. 1. Local Actions  Primary    irritant chemicals cause: Dermatitis Eczema Cancers  Absorbed Chemicals (aromatic nitro and amino compounds) may cause systematic effects to some organs (hepatotoxicants, neurotoxicants ..) 12/17/13 Occupational Health 25
  26. 26. 2. Inhalation of chemicals i.     12/17/13 Dust Dust particles < 10 microns settle on the ground but small particles remain in the air Dust is released during crushing, loading, grinding .. Inorganic dusts (silica, coal, asbestos ..) Organic dusts (cotton dust, bagasse dust. grain dust ...) Occupational Health 26
  27. 27. Main diseases caused by dust  Byssinosis (cotton textile factories)  Bagassosis (sugar cane factories)  Silicosis (construction works, foundries ..)  Asbestosis (asbestos manufacturing)  Farmer’s lung (inhalation of grain dusts ..)  Anthracosis (coal workers) 12/17/13 Occupational Health 27
  28. 28. ii. Gases  Simple gases (Oxygen, hydrogen)  Asphyxiating gases (carbon monoxide, cyanide, sulphur dioxide, chlorine)  Anesthetic gases (chloroform, ether ..) 12/17/13 Occupational Health 28
  29. 29. iii. Metals  Lead (the most common poisoning)  Antimony  Arsenic  Beryllium  The most common mode of entry is inhalation of dusts and vapors  Metal poisoning respond to cessation and treatment 12/17/13 Occupational Health 29
  30. 30. Solvents  Benzene  Acetone  Chloroform 12/17/13 Occupational Health 30
  31. 31. Biological Hazards 12/17/13 Occupational Health 31
  32. 32. Biological Hazards  Macro-organisms:   Wild animals Scorpions, snakes ...  Microorganisms:     12/17/13 Brucellosis Tetanus Anthrax Viruses (HIV, Hepatitis B ..) Occupational Health 32
  33. 33. Mechanical Hazards 12/17/13 Occupational Health 33
  34. 34. 1. Accidents in industry  Human         12/17/13 factors: Physical Psychosocial Sex (males ↑) - Age (young age ↑) Time and duration of work Experience Carelessness, overconfidence Slow cerebration Use of drugs and alcohol Occupational Health 34
  35. 35. Environmental factors of Accidents in industry  Unsafe machines  Noise  Poor illumination  Poor housekeeping  Unsafe tools  Unsafe buildings 12/17/13 Occupational Health 35
  36. 36. 2, Ergonomic disorders 12/17/13 Occupational Health 36
  37. 37. Ergonomics  Ergonomics: Adjustment of Man & Machine”  Ergo-friendly tools: Tools which reduce the stresses or problems resulting work 12/17/13 Occupational Health 37
  38. 38. 12/17/13 Occupational Health 38
  39. 39. Factors of Psychosocial hazards  Lack of job satisfaction  Insecurity  Poor interpersonal relations  Work pressure  Poor management  Poor incentives 12/17/13 Occupational Health 39
  40. 40. Psychological & behavioural changes  Aggressiveness,  Anxiety,  Depression,  Addiction  Sickness absenteeism  Accidents  Systemic disorders 12/17/13 Occupational Health 40
  41. 41. Organic disorders  Hypertension,  headache,  body-ache,  peptic ulcers,  asthma,  diabetes,  heart disorders, etc. 12/17/13 Occupational Health 41
  42. 42. Thank you Ref: • Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine • Lecture notes on occupational health • Handout • Internet 12/17/13 Occupational Health 42

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