Motivation ,emotion & stress

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Motivation ,emotion & stress

  1. 1. Human Motivation and Emotion Human Motivation Definition:Motive is something that has the power to initiate action. underlying factors that energize and direct behavior, explain why people do what they do when they do them. It is divided into needs and drives. Needs refer to the physiological aspects of emotion, psychological factors are considered Drives. Types of motivation:1- survival and social needs. 2- Curiosity motives. Human Emotion:Is the feeling, tone or response to sensory input from the external environment or mental images. Mood&Temeperament Mood is a state of emotional reaction that last for a limited period , while,temperament is the habitual expression of emotions
  2. 2. Physiological Basis of Motivation:1.Hunger. Lateral (LH)&(VMH) Ventro medial Hypothalamus regulates feeding & set body weights, not satiety centre. Osmoreceptors regulate body fluids by releasing ADH in response to dehydration. 2.Social needs. Sexual & maternal needs modified by social controls & culture 3.Curiosity motives. Inborn ( innate) drive to manipulate or explore the environment. Observed in early childhood ( PLEASURABLE). Stimulation & exploration provide new & changing sensory input essential for the integrated functioning of the CNS. Depravation lead to hallucination & other sensory distortions 4.Instincts. Innate biological forces predisposing the organism to act in certain ways e.g. flight repulsion & curiosity
  3. 3. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1.Homeostasis & The Drive Theory Maintenance of constant internal environment for optimum function leading to corrective measures to ensure certain range of: • Body temperature fluids ,chemicals, hormones,etc... • Hunger drive & glucose level, body fats 2.Psychoanalytic Theory Life Preservation instinct (Eros)& Life destruction instinct {Thantos,( Death)}are determinants of human behaviour. 3.Incentive (Behavioural) Theory Derived from learning theory it explains survival needs & sex .Engagement in certain type of behaviour if rewarded after a seeking behaviour.
  4. 4. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 2 4.Drive Reduction Theory Tension builds in some organisms if failed to satisfy certain needs. Achievement of Goals reduces tension,& associated with pleasure e.g Food.It does not satisfactorally explain all human motives like Incentive theory. 5.Humanistic Theory(Abraham Maslow) 1. Self Actualization, realization of ones potential 2.Asethetic needs( beauty & symmetry) 3.Cognitive needs (explorations & understanding) 4.Esteem needs (competence &achievement) 5. Love & belongingness 6.safety needs(security &freedom from danger) 7.Physiological needs , basic hunger, thirst & sex. Lower needs has to be fulfilled partly before higher ones can assume importance.
  5. 5. Motivation & Health Behaviour 1.Unhealthy behaviours : • Smoking , • Alcohol , • Substance abuse. 2.Theories of motivation has been used to understand why such irrational behaviour occurs 3.Motivation is used as an important therapeutic tool to change ill behaviour,.
  6. 6. Theories of Emotion • James langer theory: Bodily changes are the primary cause of emotion i.e the type of emotion elicited is determined by the physiological change that precedes it. • Canon Theory: Bodily changes occurring simultaneously with cortical reactions to a perceived situation. • Cognitive theory of Schachter & Singer: Perceived situation js followed by better understanding of the situation , eliciting more emotions & more specific bodily changes , incorporating both theories.
  7. 7. Stress and Stress Management Definition:Stress is the physical and psychological response to harmful or potentially harmful circumstances. It is a state of severe physiological and psychological tension, a non-specific response of the body to any demand. Stressor:It is the stimulus which causes stress, e.g. bereavement, divorce or a crucial event . Responses to stress are influenced by:  Personality (our strength).  The burden (type) of the stressor. Intense ,overwhelms psychological defenses. Causes of stress:• Life crises e.g. accidents, death of spouse or divorce. • Transitions e.g. divorce, bereavement and retirement. • Catastrophes--natural and otherwise e.g. earthquakes and floods. • Daily hassles. • Frustration and conflicts. • Uncertainty, doubt and inability to predict the future. • Physical and social environment. • Self, for example, type A personality which is associated with high levels of arousal, guilt and irrational feelings. • Interpersonal relationships.
  8. 8. Pressure/Stressor& stress Pressure /stressor To achieve ordinary or extraordinary pursuit in life Genetic, biological, personality, physical psychological & social state environmental, past &present life experiences, future expectations, coping styles, culture immunity factors OUTCOME/STRESS Achievement in Life Pursuit, Physical. Psychological &social health status &related symptoms behaviour etc Adjustment disorder, clinical syndromes disorder.
  9. 9. Stress and Output:1. Normal to mild stress.(pressure to achieve positively co related with out put)symptoms not disabling 2. Moderate to severe stress.(pressure to achieve does not lead to an increase in out put)symptoms increase & clinically predominant 3. Pathological stress: debilitating symptoms and the output declines. the stress symptoms become the primary focus. Clinical syndromes and disorders ,require attention on their own. Other Considerations:1. Pressure and stressors at times are necessary drives for people to achieve certain goals in life. 2. Pressure to achieve produces signs and symptoms that become the problem. 3. The Challenges: i. Stressed people don’t know symptoms of stress . They are only Suffering merely from a physical or unexplained illness. ii. Do Family members & friends know he is stressed? Usually not. They tend to see him as merely sickly or abnormal. iii. Do health care professionals recognize when their clients are stressed? Usually not .they tend to over-investigate along physical lines. 4. Health education to both the client and support system , including the professionals on how to recognize and manage stress. 5. Most people can be helped to cope with or minimize normal life stresses while leading relatively normal and productive lives.
  10. 10. Responses to Stress:1. Psychological responses. 2. Physiological responses. Psychological responses:• The individual may display self destructive life styles and risk taking behavior, such as (excess drug intake, suicidal gestures and self neglect. They may start stuttering, they may also experience frustration and become aggressive) • Anxiety can be the most dangerous psychological symptoms of stress ( it may manifest with physical symptoms of autonomic hyper arousal and activity). • Depression can be also a sign of stress, it can be a real danger, one may also suffer inhibited sexual desire. • Spiritual signs and symptoms of excessive stress may include doubts about one’s faith, loss of self confidence or loss of purpose. At times there is renewed faith in God. Physiological responses:• The body prepares itself either to fight or flight. After the escape the animal relaxes. However in situations where the individual is subjected to chronic stress some physical symptoms may appear.
  11. 11. Health and Stress:• Cardiovascular system. • Neurological system. • Gastro-intestinal system. • Immune system. • Muscle-skeletal system. • Endocrine system. Chronic stress can lead to ulcers, high blood pressure and heart disease. It can also impair the immune system decreasing the body’s ability to fight invading bacterial and viruses. One may develop allergies, cancers and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  12. 12. Controlling the causes of stress:Controlling the environment: • Avoid noisy surroundings. • Live in a large space. • Keep your surroundings clean and neat. • Save free time for relaxation. • Dedicate time to your partner and family. • Create a good working environment. Bodily control:  Choose the healthy way to eat and drink.  Rest.  Drink a lot of water.  Do moderate, regular exercises.  Avoid drugs and toxic stimulants.  Do not use any type of tranquilizing drug unless it is prescribed.  Breathe properly (breathing as relaxation technique)
  13. 13. Mental control :  Plan your activities without becoming a slave to your own plans or other’s.  Think positively.  Maintain a positive mental attitude.  Worry constructively and free yourself from worry.  Share your talents.  Choose to be assertive.  Accept your mistakes.  Free yourself from guilt.  Practice relaxation.
  14. 14. Conflict & Adjustment Frustration Blocking of a motive by some kind of an obstacle e.g traffic jam , conflicting motives, (Intolerance , aggression, very likely to misunderstand others & hurt them verbally) Conflict :Is the simultaneous arousal of more incompatible motives. It’s a pair of goals that cannot be attained. Types of conflict:• Approach-approach conflict : there are two goals and to attain one means that the other goal must be given up. • Avoidance-avoidance conflict: both alternatives are unpleasant and yet one has to choose either. • Approach-avoidance conflict: fulfilling a motive which will have both pleasant and unpleasant consequences. • Double-approach-avoidance conflict: the individual is torn between goals, which have both pleasant and unpleasant consequence.
  15. 15. Adjustment to conflicts:Frustrations and conflicts cause physical and psychological symptoms, stress is not necessarily bad. It helps the person reach desired goals, General adaptation syndrome is a sequence of responses that individuals go through during stressful circumstances as follows : Phase 1 (alarm phase) The body mobilizes it’s resources to meet the threats . Phase 2 (resistance phase) Attempt to resolve the stress makes some adjustments and appears to be doing well. One may use defense mechanism to cope. Phase 3 (exhaustion) Fails to resist the stress, sign of stress start appearing (physical or psychological ) e.g., fatigue, anxiety, or depression. Poor adjustments to stress is associated with aggression, risk taking, wishful thinking, denial and dangerous escapism. .
  16. 16. Coping strategies:Problem-focused • Defining the problem. • Coming up with alternatives. • Weighing the alternatives-costs and benefits. • Choosing among alternatives. • Implementing the chosen alternatives. Emotion-focused These are used with uncontrollable problems: 1. Behavioral strategies • Exercising. • Using alcohol or other drugs. • Venting anger. • Seeking emotional support from friends
  17. 17. 2. Cognitive strategies • Temporarily setting aside thoughts about the problems. • Changing the meaning of the situation. • Reappraising the situation. 3. Other coping strategies • Isolation oneself. • Thinking about How badly one feels. • Worrying. • Repetitively thinking about how bad things are. • Engaging in pleasant activity e.g. going to parties.
  18. 18. Defense Mechanisms • The unconscious strategies that people use to deal with negative emotion. Life threatening and anxiety cues can be excluded. They are invoked automatically as psychological measures, inadequate use of defense mechanism can lead to overt anxiety or depression. The defense mechanisms: Do not alter the stressful situation.  Have an element of self deviation.  Help during rough times, but delay the solutionseeking behavior.  Are unconscious processes as opposed to other methods of coping with problems. If it is the dominant mode of responding. it may become a personality maladjustment.
  19. 19. Common Defense Mechanisms Repression is considered the central and basic psychological defense mechanism. Thoughts or feelings which our consciousness find unacceptable are repressed. Dealing with unbearable aspects of inner life; so that aggressive or sexual feelings, fantasies or desires are thrust into the unconsciousness. It is a mental process arising from the pleasure principle (Id) and the reality principle(Ego), impulses and desires are in conflict with enforced standards of conduct (superego),painful emotions arise and the conflict is resolved by repression. Displacement:Transfer of affect, usually fear or anger from one person, situation or object to another. e.g. the wife who is irritated by her husband always coming home late she vents her anger, not on the husband but on the children. Rationalization :Justifying by reasoning after the event, providing logical and believable explanation to persuade that the irrational behavior is justified and therefore should not be criticized. Projection:Unconsciously disowns an attitude or attribute of his own and describes it to someone else.
  20. 20. Isolation:Dangerous memories are allowed back into the consciousness, but the associated motives and emotion are not recalled. The memories are isolated from their associated feelings. Seen in people who suffered severe physical or psychological trauma such as in concentration camps. Denial:Involuntary and automatic distortion of an obvious aspects of external reality. Reaction formation:The repressed wish is warded off by its diametrical opposite. Repressed hostility can still be detected underneath the loving exterior. Sublimation:Potentially dangerous urges are given a socially acceptable expression usually carried out with vigour &success. Introjections:Take in and swallows the values of others. Accepting the values of the enemy through identification with the aggressor. Identification:People who fell inferior may identify themselves with successful causes, organization or persons perceived as worthwhile against anxiety of inferiority. Compensation:Masking of perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations. Socially incompetent may develop their intellectual capacities and spend their time in lonely academic pursuits. Ritual and undoing:Make right the wrong they feel for some perceived misdeed. A rejecting father Alleviate his guilt by flooding his son with presents.
  21. 21. Health Professionals And Work Stress • Doctors and lawyers work under a lot of stress and tend to drink more alcohol compared to other professionals. General sources of stress:• Poor working condition -Lack of facilities to facilitate recovery. -Lack of equipment. -Lack of office space. • Poor relationships e.g. professional conflicts with colleagues. • Long working hours. • Heavy work load. • Not receiving gratitude from clients. • Unachievable High goals. • When transference interferes with the treatment process, countertransference a result of being overprotective of a patient, rejection of patients or dual relationships. • Dealing with severely ill patient or when a patient dies.
  22. 22. Outcome of stress:Professional burnout Burnout is a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion characterized by : • Physical depletion, feelings of hopelessness, helplessness or powerlessness. • Negative attitude towards oneself, others, work and life. • Fatigue, loss of energy and loss of enthusiasm. • Feel drained, empty and fragmented. • Feel impaired of therapeutic skills. Symptoms of burnout: Day dreaming & fantasies. Cancellation of important appointments. Tendency to abuse drugs. Therapy sessions loose their excitement &spontaneity. Health workers social life suffers. Heath workers are reluctant to explore the causes & cure of their conditions.
  23. 23. Coping with Burn Out A high degree of self-awareness and a deep respect and concern for patients & safe guards. Ability to build therapeutic relationships with the patient, lessens anxiety. Recognize transference and countertransference in the relationships and deal with it.
  24. 24. Crisis and Crisis Management What is a crisis? A state of emotional upset, it is a state of disequilibrium and disorganization faced with a problem which needs an urgent solution. A crisis situation is overwhelming and may involve danger to the individuals personal security. A characteristics feature of crisis is the search by the affected person for a solution. When the threat of personal danger posed by the event is over, state of relaxation together with the accompanying sense of threat persists, mental alertness and the state of readiness persist. The end result is the development of a stress-related state of fatigue, it is the point that a stressful event becomes a crisis situation. Changing the situation or environment this is know by coping, coping involves making changes, controlling the situation, avoiding the stressful situation, changing the way one responds to the problem.
  25. 25. Types of crisis:1. Maturational or Transitional. 2. Situational. Maturational crisis:Occurs as a result of human development from one developmental stage to another. Crucial stages as beginning school, leaving home, beginning first employment, marriage and retirement . At each stage one is forced to make adjustment, resolve anxiety and conflicts . Successful resolution of maturational crisis normally leads to personal growth , emotional stability and good mental health. Unsuccessful resolution may result in unresolved anxiety and internal conflicts, unstable emotional disposition , depression, maladaptive behavior or disorders of personality.
  26. 26. Situational crisis :Results from a specific hazardous event or threat to one’s life these include:Suicidal behavior Self-intentional cessation. Due to the following factors: • Biological factors: vulnerability to depression. • Psychological factors : hostility, despair, shame, guilt, dependency and helplessness. • Intra-psychic factors. • Family history of suicide. Attempted suicide Where the goal is to attract attention, attempted suicide should be taken seriously and the survivor assessed for suicide intent. Accidents Events that occur unexpectedly, they may cause physical injuries, destruction of property, loss of life and destruction of lifestyle and livelihoods. Death and bereavement Thanatology is the study of the phenomenon of death , emotional and psychological.
  27. 27. Sources of Crises • A severely disabling accident. • Natural or unnatural disasters. • Being diagnosed with a potentially fatal disease such as AIDS or inoperable cancer. • Coronary thrombosis/myocardial infarction (heart-attack) • Being raped. • Being arrested for a serious offence. • Break-up of a relationship. • Failure of examination. • Forced retirement. • Separation or threatened separation. Stressful events can occur in human experience without undue effects.

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