Asthma therapy :
from cigarettes to inhalers
FAWZIA ABO ALI
AIN SHAMS FACULTY OF MEDICINE
Inhalation therapy
Inhalation has been employed as a
method of delivering medication to
the lung for centuries, in forms
r...
Inhalation in ancient Egypt.
The first recordings of inhaling the herbs
was around 4,000 B.C.
The Ancient Egyptians had pl...
• Physicians used belladonna as a remedy for just
about any respiratory illness. The dried and crushed
herbs were heated, ...
Ancient India
In ancient India around 100
A.D. There were many herbs
the Indians had access to ,such
as datura strammonium...
Asthma Cigarettes
1800-1985:
A long time passed before British physician and
asthmatic James Anderson visited India and
en...
The secret ingradient
Atropine
Atropine (secret ingredient the cigarettes) was first
derived from the belladonna plant in 1833.
By 1867 Atropine...
Asthma Cigarette craze!!
By the mid 19th century the market for inhaling
ingredients grew steadily. Belladonna,
stramonium...
Asthma cigarettes brands
• Asthma cigarettes from a
variety of companies could be
found on pharmacy shelves.
According the...
Charles Dickens
(1812­1870)
• Charles Dickens suffered severe
recurrent attacks of asthma.
• He found relief from his "che...
Invention of nebulizers:
Asthma cigarettes continued to be
popular even after the discovery of
epinephrine in 1900 and as ...
First inhaler
while asthma cigarettes were
the preferred choice due to
convenience and cost, that all
changed in 1957 with...
The end of asthma cigarettes
the cigarettes were still a viable over the counter
option until the early 1980s.
The end cam...
H.L. Elliot and J.L. Reid described in a 1980 article published in
the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacy a study that c...
1. “Asthma cigarettes made of "herbal preparations
containing Atropine­like alkaloids" were just as
effective as using ipa...
The end of asthma cigarettes
• By 1985 asthma cigarettes were
removed from the shelves of all
U.S. Stores. By this time th...
The pMDI was initially used for the administration
of the non-selective beta-agonists adrenaline and
isoprenaline.
However...
Lastly,
Over the last 10
years, the long-acting
beta-agonists
(LABAs) have
become an important
add-on therapy for
the mana...
References:
1. Encyclopecia.com
2. "Sneader, Walter, "Drug discovery: a history, 2005, England, page
96
3. "The Scarcity o...
Asthma therapy from cigarettes to inhalers
Asthma therapy from cigarettes to inhalers
Asthma therapy from cigarettes to inhalers
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Asthma therapy from cigarettes to inhalers

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evolution of asthma inhalers
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prof.fawzia abo ali
faculty of medicine,ain shams university
egypt

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Asthma therapy from cigarettes to inhalers

  1. 1. Asthma therapy : from cigarettes to inhalers FAWZIA ABO ALI AIN SHAMS FACULTY OF MEDICINE
  2. 2. Inhalation therapy Inhalation has been employed as a method of delivering medication to the lung for centuries, in forms ranging from smoke to vapour. Ancient man discovered medicinal plants by observation and experience. Inhaling the smoke or odours of some plants was tried to get pleasure and relief of lung troubles . Incense Inhalation
  3. 3. Inhalation in ancient Egypt. The first recordings of inhaling the herbs was around 4,000 B.C. The Ancient Egyptians had plentiful access to atropa belladonna plant. Encyclopedia.com describes how Egyptian women squirted drops in their eyes "for the allure given by large, black pupils: hence the name belladonna — ‘fine lady'.“ It made pretty eyes prettier and helped beautiful Egyptian women woo men. www.encyclopedia.com
  4. 4. • Physicians used belladonna as a remedy for just about any respiratory illness. The dried and crushed herbs were heated, and the smoke was inhaled to provide breathing relief. • However, there were risks, such as dry mouth, increased heart rate, dilated pupils, nausea and excitation.
  5. 5. Ancient India In ancient India around 100 A.D. There were many herbs the Indians had access to ,such as datura strammonium.   Like belladonna, the leaves, stems and roots were dried and crushed into a fine powder the Indians stuffed into their pipes and smoked it.
  6. 6. Asthma Cigarettes 1800-1985: A long time passed before British physician and asthmatic James Anderson visited India and enjoyed breathing relief after smoking a cigarette containing datura strammonium. The year was 1802. Dr. Sims a friend of Anderson in Edinbergh, noted the benefits, and published a report in the Edinbrugh Medical and Surgical Journal. After this report ,asthma cigarettes were entered into British and American pharmacopoeia, and became popular for the treatment of asthma in these western nations. Sneader, Walter, "Drug discovery: a history, 2005, England, page 96
  7. 7. The secret ingradient
  8. 8. Atropine Atropine (secret ingredient the cigarettes) was first derived from the belladonna plant in 1833. By 1867 Atropine was isolated. It was then determined to be a component alkaloid of the various nightshade plants found in India, including the datura  strammonium, atropa belladonna, and the hyoscyamus  niger (black henbane). Early studies showed that atropine :dried secretions, increased heart rate, opened air passages, and produced a hallucinogenic effect. www.encyclopedia.com
  9. 9. Asthma Cigarette craze!! By the mid 19th century the market for inhaling ingredients grew steadily. Belladonna, stramonium, henbane, atropine, and even cannabis were widely sold to patients. Some inhaled powder on plates, others stuffed it into pipes, or rolled it into cigarettes. The products were marketed for any respiratory condition, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, whooping cough, catarrh, and hay fever. By the 1880s technology progressed so some companies pre-rolled cigarettes and sold them at pharmacies.
  10. 10. Asthma cigarettes brands • Asthma cigarettes from a variety of companies could be found on pharmacy shelves. According the Inhalatorium, the most famous brands were: • Potter's Asthma Cigarettes • Blosser’s • Marshall’s • Kinsman’ • Dr Guild’s green Mountain • Kellogg’s • Page’s • Regesan’s www.inhalatorium.com
  11. 11. Charles Dickens (1812­1870) • Charles Dickens suffered severe recurrent attacks of asthma. • He found relief from his "chest troubles" only with asthma cigarettes, the popular asthma remedy of that time.
  12. 12. Invention of nebulizers: Asthma cigarettes continued to be popular even after the discovery of epinephrine in 1900 and as the solutions of epinephrine and atropine became options for home use with the invention of bulb syringe nebulizers. Rau, Joseph L., "Inhaled Adrenergic Bronchodilators: Historical Development and Clinical Application," at AARC.org (American Association of Respiratory Care, July, 2000, Vol. 45, number 7),
  13. 13. First inhaler while asthma cigarettes were the preferred choice due to convenience and cost, that all changed in 1957 with the invention of the inhaler, and the release of the Medihaler-Iso and the Medihaler Epi. These inhalers provided instant relief, inexpensive, and easily carried in pockets and purses.
  14. 14. The end of asthma cigarettes the cigarettes were still a viable over the counter option until the early 1980s. The end came due to growing concerns teenagers were purchasing asthma cigarettes not for asthma relief but for their hallucinogenic effects.
  15. 15. H.L. Elliot and J.L. Reid described in a 1980 article published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacy a study that concluded;
  16. 16. 1. “Asthma cigarettes made of "herbal preparations containing Atropine­like alkaloids" were just as effective as using ipatropium bromide (Atrovent)”. 2. "an overdose of of asthma cigarettes is capable of producing (hallucinations, delerium, tachycardia." 3. “the dose of medication getting to the lungs is "variable and unpredictable.“ 4. "In view of increasing evidence of abuse, there appears to be good reason to restrict availability of these preparations. “
  17. 17. The end of asthma cigarettes • By 1985 asthma cigarettes were removed from the shelves of all U.S. Stores. By this time there were many other options of inhalers which have taken over since the introduction of the first modern -the pressurised metered- dose inhaler (pMDI).
  18. 18. The pMDI was initially used for the administration of the non-selective beta-agonists adrenaline and isoprenaline. However, the epidemic of asthma deaths which occurred in the 1960s led to these drugs being outdated by the selective short-acting beta-agonist salbutamol, and the first inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) beclomethasone. At the same time, sodium cromoglycate was introduced, to be administered via the first dry- powder inhaler--the Spinhaler--but owing to its relatively weak anti-inflammatory action, its use is now very limited.
  19. 19. Lastly, Over the last 10 years, the long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) have become an important add-on therapy for the management of asthma, and they are now often used with ICS either separate or in a single combination inhaler.
  20. 20. References: 1. Encyclopecia.com 2. "Sneader, Walter, "Drug discovery: a history, 2005, England, page 96 3. "The Scarcity of Cubebs," The Chemist and Druggist," 1887, Feb. 26, page 268 of Chemist and Druggist: A Weekly Trade Journal, 1887, Vol. XXX, January to June 1887 4. H.L. Elliot and J.L. Reid, " The Clinical Pharmacology of a Herbal Asthma Cigarette"British Journal of Clinical Pharmacy (1980, 10, 480-490) 5. Smyth, Hugh D.C, Anthony J. Hickey, "Controlled Pulmonary Drug Delivery," 2100, Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London 6. www.hardluck asthma.com 7. www.Inhalatorium.com. 8. Crompton G, A brief history of inhaled asthma therapy over the last fifty years.Prim Care Respir J. 2006 Dec;15(6):326-31. Epub 2006 Nov 7.

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