Coral Reefs and Climate Change


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The effects of climate change on coral reefs and mangroves. This is a podcast for the program Sea Change at the Evergreen State College, with narration by students and accompanying music.

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Coral Reefs and Climate Change

  1. 1. Reef Formation
  2. 2. Reef Formation
  3. 3. Reef Formation
  4. 4. Reef Formation
  5. 5. Formation of reefs proposed by DarwinThe Great Barrier ReefA Typical Reef
  6. 6. Mangrove Forests(Global Explorers Blog)
  7. 7. Distribution(“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores”)
  8. 8. Ecological Services• Sediment trapping• Buffer• Habitat• Carbon sinkAerial View (Laman)(The Mangrove Hub)
  9. 9. Community(“Mangrove Forests of Australasia”) French grunt fish (“Florida Keys”)(M., Vincent)
  10. 10. (Waycott et al. 2011)
  11. 11. Tree Structure• Pneumatophores: aerialroots• Lenticels: location of gasexchangeSalt Excretion(“Adaptations to salinity”)Lenticels (NHMI)Pneumatophores (“Mangrove pneumatophores”)
  12. 12. Forest Structure• 80 species• Tolerant to 0-90 ppt salinityZonation (Waycott et al. 2011)
  13. 13. Threats: From the Land• Mangrove clearing has caused10% of deforestation-basedCO₂ emissions(ELAW)Shrimp Farms (Smithsonian)
  14. 14. Threats: From the Sea• Rise due to loss of land ice and thermal expansion of oceansSea Level Over Time (Church et al. 2008)
  15. 15. Mitigation for Climate Change(Reef Ball Foundation)(Trip Advisor)
  16. 16. Bibliography“Adaptations to salinity.” <>Bering, A. J. “Plant the Mangrove Propagules.” Trip Advisor. <>Bruckner, Andrew. A Partially Bleached Brain Coral, D. Labyrinthiformis. Digital image. WCMC Global Coral DiseaseDatabase. Web. 29 May 2013.Church, J. A., White, N. J., Aarup, T., Wilson, W. S., Woodworth, P. L., Domingues, C. M., Hunter, J. R., and Lambeck, K.(2008). Understanding global sea levels: past, present and future. Sustainable Science 3, 9-22.“Coastal Development or Devastation.” Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (2012).<>“Declining mangroves shield against global warming.” <>“Environment—Tropical Shelf Seas and Shores—System Description.”<>“Florida Keys.” <>“Former Mangrove Forest.” Smithsonian. <>Grol, M. G. G., Nagelkerken, I., Bosch, N., and Meesters, E. (2011). Preference of early juveniles of a coral reef fish fordistinct lagoonal microhabitats is not related to common measures of structural complexity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Series432, 221-233.“Indonesia: The Mangroves.” Global Explorers Blog (2012). <>Kumara, M. P., Jayatissa, L. P., Krauss, K. W., Phillips, D. H., and Huxham, M. (2010). High mangrove density enhancessurface accretion, surface elevation change, and tree survival in coastal areas susceptible to sea-level rise. Oecologia164, 545-553.
  17. 17. Bibliography (cont.)Laman, Tim. <>M., Vincent. “The Amazing Mangroves.”<>“Mangrove Facts and Myths.” The Mangrove Hub. <>“Mangrove Forests.” NOAA Ocean Service Education.<>“Mangrove Forests of Australasia.”<>”Mangrove pneumatophores.” <>“Morphological and Physiological Adaptations.” Newfound Harbor Marine Institute.<>Mumby, P. J., Edwards, A. J., Arias-Gonzalez, J. E., Lindeman, K. C., Blackwell, P. G., Gall, A., Gorczynska, M. I.,Harborne, A. R., Pescod, C. L., Renken, H., Wabnitz, C. C. C., and Llewellyn, G (2004). Mangroves enhance thebiomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427, 533-536.“Plant Mangroves.” Reef Ball Foundation. <>Staats, Eric. “Push is on to restore dying mangrove forest near Marco Island.”<>Stecker, Tiffany. “Restoring Mangroves May Prove Cheap Way to Cool Climate.” Scientific American.<>Waycott, M., McKenzie, L. J., Mellors, J. E., Ellison, J. C., Sheaves, M. T., Collier, C., Schwarz, A., Webb, A.,Johnson, J. E., and Payri, C., E. (2011). Vulnerability of mangroves, seagrasses, and intertidal flats in the tropicalPacific to climate change. In Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change (297-368).
  18. 18. Bibliography (cont.)•••••••• Music: Kevin MacLeod (Atlantean Twilight, Light Thought var 3, Brittle Rille)
  19. 19. Bibliography (cont.)•••,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.46340616,d.cGE&biw=1166&bih=856&um=1&ie=UTF-8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=UQ6MUczJH6LhiAKm5oAw#facrc=_&••,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.46340616,d.cGE&biw=1166&bih=856&um=1&ie=UTF-8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=UQ6MUczJH6LhiAKm5oAw#facrc=_&••,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.46340616,d.cGE&biw=1166&bih=856&um=1&ie=UTF-8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=UQ6MUczJH6LhiAKm5oAw#facrc=_&
  20. 20. Bibliography (cont.)• Bruckner, Andrew. A Partially Bleached Brain Coral, D. Labyrinthiformis. Digital image. WCMCGlobal Coral Disease Database. Web. 29 May 2013.• Expedition 18. Atafu Atoll. Digital image. NASA Earth Observatory. N.p., 6 Jan. 2009. Web. 29May 2013.• Pascal, John. Large scale reef bleaching at Reunion island. Digital image. N.p., 2 Dec. 2010.Web. 29 May 2013.