Water quality standards


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Water quality standards

  1. 1. WATER QUALITY STANDARDSDr.Abhas ShahCommunity Medicine deptB.J.Medical College
  2. 2. 2Water is Precious and scarceResource• Only a small fraction (about 3%) is fresh water• India is wettest country in the world, but rainfallis highly uneven with time and space (withextremely low in Rajasthan and high in North-East)• On an avergae there are only 40 rainy days• Out of 4000 BCM rainfall received, about 600BCM is put to use so far• Water resources are over-exploited resulting inmajor WQ problems
  3. 3. Aquifiers
  4. 4. 4Water use in India (Year2000)Sector Water use inBCMpercentIrrigation 541 85.33Domestic 42 6.62Industry 8 1.26Energy 2 0.32Other 41 6.47Total 634 100.00
  5. 5. Major Factors Responsible for WQDegradationDomestic: 423 class I cities and 499 class II towns harboringpopulation of 20 Crore generate about 26254 mld of wastewaterof which only 6955 mld is treated.Industrial: About 57,000 polluting industries in India generateabout 13,468 mld of wastewater out of which nearly 60%(generated from large & medium industries) is treated.Non-point sources also contribute significant pollution loadsmainly in rainy season. Pesticides consumption is about1,00,000 tonnes/year of which AP, Haryana, Punjab, TN, WB,Gujarat, UP and Maharashtra are principal consumers.Domestic sewage is the major source of pollution in India insurface water which contribute pathogens, the main source ofwater borne diseases along with depletion of oxygen in waterbodies.Sewage alongwith agricultural run-off and industrial effluentsalso contributes large amount of nutrients in surface watercausing eutrophicationA large part of the domestic sewage is not even collected. Thisresults in stagnation of sewage within city, a good breedingground for mosquitoes and contaminate the groundwater, theonly source of drinking water in many cities.
  6. 6. 6Comparision of pollution load generation fromdomestic and industrial sources134689478177622900458035100500010000150002000025000Wastewater gen (mld) BOD Generation (t/d) BOD Discharge (t/d)IndustrialDomestic
  7. 7. 7Major Water Quality IssuesCommon issues of Surface and Ground water• Pathogenic (Bacteriological) Pollution• Salinity• Toxicity (micro-pollutants and other industrial pollutants)Surface Water• Eutrophication• Oxygen depletion• Ecological healthGround Water• Fluoride• Nitrate• Arsenic• Iron• Sea water intrusion
  8. 8. 8Water (Prevention andControl of Pollution)Act, 1974• Preamble: Maintaining and restoring ofwholesomeness of water – level of WQ• Provision for consent• Every polluter (industry or municipality) has toobtain consent from SPCBs/PCCs• Consent is conditional• Standards prescribed for effluents• Monitoring the compliance
  9. 9. 9NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MONITORINGPROGRAMME• Network Comprising of 784 stations.• Extended to 26 states & 5 Union Territories• Monitoring done or Quarterly/Monthly/Half Yearly.• Covers 168 Rivers, 53 Lakes, 5 Tanks, 2 Ponds, 3Creeks, 3 Canals, 12 Drains and 181 wells.
  10. 10. 10pHTemperatureConductivityDissolved OxygenBiochemical OxygenDemandNitrate-NNitrite-NFaecal ColiformTotal ColiformCOD ChlorideTKN SulphateAmmonia Total AlkalinityTotal Dissolved Solids P-AlkalinityTotal Fixed Solids PhosphateTotal Suspended Solids SodiumTurbidity PotassiumHardness CalciumFluoride MagnesiumBoronWeatherApproximate depth of main stream/depth of water tableColour and instensityOdorVisible efluent dischargeHuman activities around stationStation detailSaprobity IndexDiversity IndexP/R RatioArsenic Nickel Copper Mercury Chromium TotalCadmium Zinc Lead Iron TotalBHC(Total) Dieldrin Carbamate 2.4 DDDT(Total) Aldrin EndosulphanParameters for National Water Quality MonitoringCore Parameters (9)General Parameters (19)Field Observations (7)Bio-Monitoring Parameters (3)Trace Metals (9)Pesticide (7)
  11. 11. Colour, Hazen UnitsIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 5 Hz. , Permissible : 25 Hz.Risks or effects Visible tint, acceptance decreasesSourcesTannins, Iron, Copper, ManganeseNatural depositsTreatment Filtration, Distillation, Reverse osmosis, Ozonisation
  12. 12. Taste & OdourIS 10500-1991 UnobjectionableRisks or effects Rotten egg, Musty, ChemicalSourcesChlorine, Hydrogen sulfide, Organic matter, Septiccontamination, Methane gasTreatment Activated carbon, Air stripping, oxidation, Filtration
  13. 13. TurbidityIS 10500-1991 Desirable-<5 NTU,Permissible-<10 NTURisks or effectsInteferes with disinfection & microbiologicaldeterminationSourcesInorganic particulate matter,maybe due to inadequatetreatment or resuspension in distribution systemTreatment Storage in a reservoir
  14. 14. pHIS 10500-1991 Desirable :6.5 – 8.5, Permissible :No relaxationRisks or effectsLow pH - corrosion, metallic tasteHigh pH – bitter/soda taste, depositsSources NaturalTreatmentIncrease pH by soda ashDecrease pH with white vinegar / citric acid
  15. 15. Substances that change pH ofwater• Acidic• Industries• Sugar - 5 – 6• Distillery 3 - 4• Electro-Plating unit 2.5-4• Pickle 2 - 3• Basic• Paper 8 – 10• Textile 8.5-11• Fertiliser 6.5- 9• Oil Refineries6.5-9.5
  16. 16. Batteryacids<1.0 Milk 6.7CarbonatedBeverages2 – 4 Rain water 6.5Lemon juice 2.3 Blood 7.5Orange juice 4.2 Seawater8.0Vinegar 3 Ammoniasolution11.3Domesticsewage6.5-8.5 Ground 7.5-8.5
  17. 17. AlkalinityIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 200 mg/l , Permissible : 600 mg/litRisks or effectsLow Alkalinity (i.e. high acidity) causes deterioration ofplumbing and increases the chance for many heavy metals inwater are present in pipes, solder or plumbing fixtures.SourcesPipes, landfillsHazardous waste landfillsTreatment Neutralizing agent
  18. 18. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)IS 10500-1991 Desirable : 500 mg/l , Permissible : 2000 mg/lRisks or effectsHardness, scaly deposits, sediment, cloudy colored water,staining, salty or bitter taste, corrosion of pipes and fittingsSourcesLivestock waste, septic systemLandfills, nature of soilHazardous waste landfillsDissolved minerals, iron and manganeseTreatment Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, deionization by ion exchange
  19. 19. HardnessIS 10500-1991 Desirable :300 mg/l , Permissible : 600 mg/lRisks or effects Scale in utensils and hot water system, soap scumsSourcesDissolved calcium and magnesium from soil and aquiferminerals containing limestone or dolomiteTreatment Water Softener,Ion Exchanger,Reverse Osmosis
  20. 20. HARDNESS• Capacity of water for reducing anddestroying the lather of soap• It is total concentration of calcium andmagnesium ions• Temporary hardness – Bicarbonates ofCalcium and Magnesium• Permanent hardness –Sulphates, chlorides and nitrates ofcalcium and magnesium
  21. 21. Hardness – contd…• 0 – 50 mg/l - soft• 50 – 150 mg/l - moderately hard• 150 – 300 mg/l - hard• 300 above - very hard• Surface water is softer than ground water• Causes encrustations in water supplystructures
  22. 22. Iron, FeIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 0.3 mg/l , Permissible : 1.0 mg/lRisks or effectsBrackish color, rusty sediment, bitter or metallic taste, brown-green stains, iron bacteria, discolored beveragesSourcesLeaching of cast iron pipes in water distribution systemsNaturalTreatment Oxidizing Filter , Green-sand Mechanical Filter
  23. 23. Manganese, MnIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 0.1 mg/l , Permissible : 0.3 mg/lRisks or effectsBrownish color, black stains on laundry and fixtures at .2mg/l, bitter taste, altered taste of water-mixed beveragesSourcesLandfillsDeposits in rock and soilTreatmentIon Exchange , Chlorination, Oxidizing Filter , Green-sandMechanical Filter
  24. 24. Sulphate, SO4IS 10500-1991 Desirable : 200 mg/l, Permissible : 400 mg/lRisks or effectsBitter, medicinal taste, scaly deposits, corrosion, laxativeeffects, "rotten-egg" odor from hydrogen sulfide gasformationSourcesAnimal sewage, septic system, sewageBy-product of coal mining, industrial wasteNatural deposits or saltSulphate Treatment Ion Exchange , Distillation , Reverse Osmosis
  25. 25. Nitrate, NO3-IS 10500-1991 Desirable : 45 mg/l, Permissible : 100 mg/litRisks or effects Methemoglobinemia or blue baby disease in infantsSourcesLivestock facilities, septic systems, manure lagoons,fertilizersHousehold waste water, fertilizersFertilizersNatural DepositsTreatment Ion Exchange, Distillation, Reverse Osmosis
  26. 26. Chloride, ClIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 250 mg/l , Permissible : 1000 mg/lRisks or effectsHigh blood pressure, salty taste, corroded pipes, fixtures andappliances, blackening and pitting of stainless steelSourcesFertilizersIndustrial wastesMinerals, seawaterTreatment Reverse Osmosis , Distillation, Activated Carbon
  27. 27. Fluoride, FIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 1.0 mg/l, Permissible : 1.5 mg/lRisks or effects Brownish discoloration of teeth, bone damageSourcesIndustrial wasteGeologicalTreatmentActivated Alumina, Distillation, Reverse Osmosis, IonExchange
  28. 28. FLOURIDE CAUSESThree types ofFluorosis1. Dental Fluorosis2. SkeletalFluorosis3. Non-skeletalFluorosis
  29. 29. Arsenic, AsIS:10500-1991 Desirable: 0.01 mg/l Permissible: No relaxation(0.05 mg/l??)Risks or effectsWeight loss; Depression; Lack of energy; Skin and nervoussystem toxicity,dermatosis,keratosis,melanosisSourcesPreviously used in pesticides (orchards)Improper waste disposal or product storage of glass orelectronics, MiningRocksTreatmentActivated Alumina Filtration, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation,Chemical Precipitation, Ion exchange, lime softening
  30. 30. Chromium, CrIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 0.05 mg/l, Permissible : No relaxationRisks or effectsSkin irritation, skin and nasal ulcers, lung tumors,gastrointestinal effects, damage to the nervous system andcirculatory system, accumulates in the spleen, bones, kidneyand liverSourcesSeptic systemsIndustrial discharge, mining sitesGeologicalTreatment Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation
  31. 31. Copper, CuIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 0.05 mg/l, Permissible : 1.5 mg/lRisks or effectsAnemia, digestive disturbances, liver and kidney damage,gastrointestinal irritations, bitter or metallic taste; Blue-greenstains on plumbing fixturesSourcesLeaching from copper water pipes and tubing, algaetreatmentIndustrial and mining waste, wood preservativesNatural depositsTreatment Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation
  32. 32. CyanideIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 0.05 mg/l, Permissible : No relaxationRisks or effects Thyroid, nervous system damageSourcesFertilizerElectronics, steel, plastics miningTreatment Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Chlorination
  33. 33. Lead, PbIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 0.05 mg/l, Permissible : No relaxationRisks or effectsReduces mental capacity (mental retardation), interference withkidney and neurological functions, hearing loss, blooddisorders, hypertension, carcinogenesis, death at high levelsSourcesPaint, diesel fuel combustionPipes and solder, discarded batteries, paint, leaded gasolineNatural depositsTreatment Ion Exchange, Activated Carbon , Reverse Osmosis, Distillation
  34. 34. Mercury, HgIS 10500-1991 Desirable : 0.001 mg/l, Permissible : No relaxationRisks or effectsLoss of vision and hearing, intellectual deterioration, kidneyand nervous system disorders, death at high levelsSourcesBatteries, fungicidesMining, electrical equipment, plant, paper and vinyl chlorideNatural depositsTreatment Reverse Osmosis, Distillation
  35. 35. Zinc, ZnIS 10500-1991 Desirable :5 mg/l, Permissible : 15 mg/lRisks or effects Metallic tasteSourcesLeaching of galvanized pipes and fittings, paints, dyesNatural depositsTreatment Ion Exchange Water Softeners, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation
  36. 36. Total Coliform BacteriaIS 10500-199195% of samples should not contain coliform in 100 ml10 coliform / 100mlRisks or effects Gastrointestinal illnessSourcesLivestock facilities, septic systems, manure lagoonsHousehold waste waterNaturally occurringTreatment Chlorination , Ultraviolet, Distillation, Iodination
  37. 37. E.coliform BacteriaIS 10500-1991 Nil / 100mlRisks or effects Gastrointestinal illnessSourcesLivestock facilities, septic systems, manure lagoonsHousehold waste waterNaturally occurringTreatment Chlorination , Ultraviolet, Distillation, Iodination
  38. 38. Virological AspectsDisinfection with 0.5mg/l of free chlorine forat least 30 min at a pH of 8.0 is sufficientto inactivate all virusBiological Aspects• Protozoa : Entamobia HistolyticaGiardia• Helminth : Roundworms and Flatworms• Free living organism
  39. 39. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PARAMETERSParameter BIS Guideline value(maximumallowable)General & Health effectTotal dissolvedsolids2000 mg/L Undesirable taste; gastro intestinal irritations;corrosion or incrustationPH 6.5-8.5 Affects mucous membrane; bitter taste; corrosion;affects aquatic lifeAlkalinity 600 mg/L Boiled rice turns yellowishHardness 600 mg/L Poor lathering with soap; deterioration of the quality ofclothes; scale forming; skin irritation; boiled meatand food become poor in qualityCalcium 200 Poor lathering and deterioration of the quality ofclothes; incrustation in pipes; scale formationMagnesium 100 Poor lathering and deterioration of clothes; with sulfatelaxativeIron 1.0 Poor or sometimes bitter taste, color and turbidity;staining of clothes materials; iron bacteria causingslimeManganese 0.3 Poor taste, color and turbidity; staining; black slime
  40. 40. ParameterBIS Guideline value(maximum allowable)General & Health effectAluminum 0.2 Neurological disorders; Alzheimers diseaseCopper 1.5 Liver damage; mucosal irritation, renal damage anddepression; restricts growth of aquatic plantsZinc 15 Astringent taste; opalescence in water; gastro intestinalirritation; vomiting, dehydration, abdominal pain,nausea and dizzinessAmmonia - Indicates pollution; growth of algaeNitrite - Forms nitrosoamines which are carcinogenicNitrate 100 Blue baby disease (methemoglobineamia); algal growthSulfate 400 Taste affected; laxative effect; gastro intestinal irritationChloride 1000 Taste affected; corrosiveFluoride 1.5 Dental and skeletal fluorosis; non-skeletalHEALTH EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
  41. 41. ParameterBIS Guidelinevalue(maximumallowable)General & Health effectPhosphate - Algal growthArsenic 0.05 Toxic; bio-accumulation; central nervous system affected;carcinogenicMercury 0.001 Highly toxic; causes minamata disease-neurologicalimpairment and renal disturbances; mutagenicCadmium 0.01 Highly toxic; causes itai-itai disease-painful rheumaticcondition; cardio vascular system affected; gastrointestinal upsets and hyper tensionLead 0.05 Causes plumbism-tiredness, lassitudes, abdominal discomfort,irritability, anaemia; bio-accumulation; impairedneurological and motor development, and damage tokidneysChromium 0.05 Carcinogenic; ulcerations, respiratory problems and skincomplaintsDetergent - Undesirable foamingHEALTH EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
  42. 42. Pesticides• Cancer• Birth defects• Blood disorder• Nervous disorder• Genetic damage
  43. 43. Common problemsVisible effects ReasonIron taste, change in colour afterexposure to atmosphere, changein colour of cloths,utensils Oilyappearance on top of water bodyIronSoap not lathering hardnessBrownish black streaks on teeth FlourideGrowth of Algae Nitrate,phosphateFish kills Low pHless DOSalty taste chloride
  44. 44. Common problems contdVisible effects Reasonswater turns black,smell Waste waterAcidic taste Low pHAlkaline taste High pHBoiled Rice hard andyellowHigh AlkalinityWhite deposits on boiling Hardness