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OrganicChemistry
Introduction
• Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies compound
based on carbon.
• In particular it deals ...
CARBON
• Hydrocarbons are a major source of energy in fuels and foods
(petroleum, coal, natural gas, protein, carbohydrate...
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
• Carbon can form single and multiple bonds to
other carbons which result in different
properties.
• Whe...
Introduction to Hydrocarbons
• The simplest class of organic molecules is the
hydrocarbons.
• There are four major classes...
Introduction to Hydrocarbons
• Alkynes contain a carbon-carbon triple bond.
• Example: EThyne (C2H2)
• Aromatic hydrocarbo...
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
Names and Boiling points of alkanes
• The name of the alkane varies according to the number of C atoms present in
the chai...
Homologous Series
• A series of organic compoun
ds with the same general for
mula, but that vary by a sin
gle –CH2 atom
• ...
Alkanes
• We can make a table of members of a homologous series
of straight-chain alkanes.
• Successive members differ by ...
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
• Organic compounds can be thought of as a carbon and hydrogen c
hain attached to one or more functional...
HOMOLOGOUS SERIES
Homologous series can be thought of as families of
organic compounds where:
• Successive compounds diffe...
HOMOLOGOUS SERIES: PROPERTIES
Alkane Boiling Point
°C
Methane, CH4 -164
Ethane, C2H6 -89
Propane, C3H8 -42
Butane, C4H10 -...
FORMULAS, FORMULAE
• With organic compounds it’s important to know
the difference between empirical, molecular,
structural...
R GROUP
• A group of CnH2n+1 can be represented by R.
• So an alcohol can be represented by R-OH.
• Benzene (C6H6) can be ...
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
Name Functional Group Prefix/suffix Example
Alkane None -ane CH4, methane
Alkene C=C -ene CH2=CH2, ethen...
NOMENCLATURE
• Nomenclature means naming and there are IUPAC rules
for naming organic compounds.
• The number of carbons d...
NAMING RULES
• Rule 1: Determine the longest continuous chain t
hat provides the root name.
• Rule 2: If alkyl substituent...
NAMING RULES
• Rule 5: Use a comma to separate numbers.
• Rule 6: Use a hyphen to separate the no. an
d letter.
• Rule 7: ...
Prefixes for side chains
Side chain Prefix in IUPAC name Example
-CH3 Methyl- 2-methylpropane
-C2H5 Ethyl- 3 ethylpentane
...
ALKANES
• Alkanes contain hydrogen, carbon and all bonds
are single.
• They follow the formula CnH2n+2 for ex.
• CH4 is me...
ALKENES
• Alkenes also contain only C and H but contain at
least 1 double bond.
• The formula is CnH2n.
• The start of the...
ALKENES, ALKYNES, SATURATION
• Alkynes contain a C=C triple bond.
• Alkanes are SATURATED as they only
have single bonds.
...
Ester Functional group
• When the alkyl group of alcohol has replaced the
H of carboxylic acid.
C2H5COOH + HOCH3 → C2H5COO...
Amide Functional group
They are acid derivatives when the –OH of acid is
replaced by –NH2
RCOOH RCONH2
Propanamide N-methy...
AMine functional group
• When H atom of ammonia are replaced by
alkyl group then amines are formed.
NH3 -H +CH3 NH2CH3
NH2...
• Practice Questions
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Ibdp organic introduction

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Designed to give a clear thought and knowledge of Organic chemistry among IBDP students.

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Ibdp organic introduction

  1. 1. OrganicChemistry
  2. 2. Introduction • Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies compound based on carbon. • In particular it deals with hydrocarbons rather than metal carbonates or oxides. • It was once thought that organic molecules could only be made by living things and not in the lab, hence the name. • Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain mostly H and C. Other common elements are oxygen, nitrogen and the halogens. • Biochemistry can be thought of as a specialized branch of organic chemistry.
  3. 3. CARBON • Hydrocarbons are a major source of energy in fuels and foods (petroleum, coal, natural gas, protein, carbohydrates, fats) and are the basis of drugs, materials (fabric, plastic), detergents, dy es and explosives. • Carbon is in group 4 and always forms covalent bonds. As it has 4 valence electrons it will form 4 covalent bonds to complete its valence shell. • In organic molecules, oxygen will always form 2 covalent bonds, hydrogen 1 bond, halogens 1 bond and nitrogen 3 bonds.
  4. 4. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS • Carbon can form single and multiple bonds to other carbons which result in different properties. • When carbon forms bonds to other elements these make the compounds behave in certain ways. These groups of atoms are called FUNCTIONAL GROUPS and determine the physical and chemical properties of an organic compound.
  5. 5. Introduction to Hydrocarbons • The simplest class of organic molecules is the hydrocarbons. • There are four major classes of hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics. Alkanes contain only single bonds. • These compounds are also called saturated hydrocarbons because they have the largest possible number of hydrogen atoms per carbon. • Example: ethane (C2H6). Alkenes contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. • They are also called olefins. • Example: ethene (C2H4).
  6. 6. Introduction to Hydrocarbons • Alkynes contain a carbon-carbon triple bond. • Example: EThyne (C2H2) • Aromatic hydrocarbons have carbon atoms connected in a planar ring structure. • The best known example is benzene (C6H6). • Alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons are all examples of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  7. 7. Hydrocarbons
  8. 8. Hydrocarbons
  9. 9. Names and Boiling points of alkanes • The name of the alkane varies according to the number of C atoms present in the chain.
  10. 10. Homologous Series • A series of organic compoun ds with the same general for mula, but that vary by a sin gle –CH2 atom • Ex. Methane, Ethane, Propan e, etc.
  11. 11. Alkanes • We can make a table of members of a homologous series of straight-chain alkanes. • Successive members differ by one CH2 unit. • The names each end in -ane. • The prefix assigned indicates the number of carbon atoms. • Example: CH4 is the alkane with a single carbon atom; it is called methane. • The next member of the series is C2H6, with two carbon atoms; it is called ethane. • The formulas for alkanes may be written in a notation called condensed structural formula. • This notation shows which atoms are bonded to one another but does not require that we draw in all of the bonds. • Notice that each carbon in an alkane has four single bonds.
  12. 12. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS • Organic compounds can be thought of as a carbon and hydrogen c hain attached to one or more functional group. • Carbon can form long chains that have the same functional group(s ) and only differ by the number of carbons and hydrogen's present. • This means the mass and properties vary in a regular and predict able manner. • We call a group of compounds like this a HOMO-LOGOUS SERIES. • CH3OH, C2H5OH, C3H7OH, C4H9OH • The General formula is CnH2n+1OH
  13. 13. HOMOLOGOUS SERIES Homologous series can be thought of as families of organic compounds where: • Successive compounds differ by a -CH2- unit. • The compounds all have a general formula ex. CnH2n+2 • They have similar chemical properties. • Physical properties change in a regular manner – as mass changes so do Vander Waals forces and sometimes the polarity of the molecules.
  14. 14. HOMOLOGOUS SERIES: PROPERTIES Alkane Boiling Point °C Methane, CH4 -164 Ethane, C2H6 -89 Propane, C3H8 -42 Butane, C4H10 -0.5 Pentane, C5H12 36 Hexane, C6H14 69 Heptane, C7H16 98 Octane, C8H18 125 • Note the trend in b.p. is p redictable due to increase in Vander Waals’ forces with mass but it is not line ar – the increase in chain length is proportionally greater for the small chains. • Other physical properties that vary predictably are density and viscosity.
  15. 15. FORMULAS, FORMULAE • With organic compounds it’s important to know the difference between empirical, molecular, structural and full structural formulas. • Empirical: simplest ratio of atoms ex. CH3 for ethane • Molecular: actual number of atoms ex. C2H6 • Structural (condensed): shows overall structure in one line ex. CH3CH2CH2COOH • Full structural (displayed): shows every bond and atom ex. • Skeletal Formula
  16. 16. R GROUP • A group of CnH2n+1 can be represented by R. • So an alcohol can be represented by R-OH. • Benzene (C6H6) can be represented by: • Compounds containing benzene are known a s the aromatic compounds.
  17. 17. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Name Functional Group Prefix/suffix Example Alkane None -ane CH4, methane Alkene C=C -ene CH2=CH2, ethene Alkyne C=C -yne CH=CH, ethyne Alcohol -OH -anol (or hydroxy) CH3OH, methanol Aldehyde -CHO -anal CH3CHO, ethanal Ketone -CO -anone CH3COCH3, propanone Carboxylic Acid -COOH -anoic acid CH3COOH, ethanoic acid Halogenoalkane -X (F, Cl, Br or I) Halogeno- (fluoro ) CH3CH2Cl, chloroethane Amine -NH2 -ylamine (or amino) CH3CH2NH2, ethylamine Amide -CONH2 -anamide CH3CONH2, ethanamide Ester R-CO-O-R’ Alkyl -alkanoate CH3COOCH3, methyl ethanoate Nitrile -CN -anenitrile (or cyano-) CH3-CN, ethanenitrile (cyanomethane)
  18. 18. NOMENCLATURE • Nomenclature means naming and there are IUPAC rules for naming organic compounds. • The number of carbons determines the start of the name Number of C atoms Stem Side Chain 1 meth methyl 2 eth ethyl 3 prop propyl 4 but butyl 5 pent pentyl 6 hex hexyl Benzene ring benz phenyl
  19. 19. NAMING RULES • Rule 1: Determine the longest continuous chain t hat provides the root name. • Rule 2: If alkyl substituents are present as branc hed chains the name for the branch will b deter mined by the no. of carbon atoms the suffix will c hange from ‘–ane’ to ‘ –yl.’ • Rule 3: when no. the longest carbon chain the p osition of any substituent must be lower . • When there are several different substituents arr ange them in alphabetical order prior to root na me.
  20. 20. NAMING RULES • Rule 5: Use a comma to separate numbers. • Rule 6: Use a hyphen to separate the no. an d letter. • Rule 7: The no. of multiple substituents are shown by di, tri, tetra, pent prefixes. • Rule 8: Successive words are merged in on e word.
  21. 21. Prefixes for side chains Side chain Prefix in IUPAC name Example -CH3 Methyl- 2-methylpropane -C2H5 Ethyl- 3 ethylpentane -C3H7 Propyl- 4-propylheptane -F,-Cl, -Br, -I Fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- , iodo- Tetrachloromethane -NH2 Amino- 2-aminoethanoic acid
  22. 22. ALKANES • Alkanes contain hydrogen, carbon and all bonds are single. • They follow the formula CnH2n+2 for ex. • CH4 is methane • CH3-CH3 is called ethane • CH3-CH2-CH3 is propane • CH3CH2CH2CH3 is butane
  23. 23. ALKENES • Alkenes also contain only C and H but contain at least 1 double bond. • The formula is CnH2n. • The start of the name denotes the number of car bons followed by a number to show which carbo n the double bond is on followed by the ending –ene. • CH2=CH-CH2-CH3 is but-1-ene. • CH3-CH=CH-CH3 is but-2-ene.
  24. 24. ALKENES, ALKYNES, SATURATION • Alkynes contain a C=C triple bond. • Alkanes are SATURATED as they only have single bonds. • Alkenes and alkynes are UNSATURATED as they contain multiple bonds. These bonds are stronger and mean that the molecules can react more. • Alkenes are very important in the petrochemical industry as they are the starting place to make many other compounds.
  25. 25. Ester Functional group • When the alkyl group of alcohol has replaced the H of carboxylic acid. C2H5COOH + HOCH3 → C2H5COOCH3 Methyl propanoate CH3CH2CH2COOC2H5 Name it ?
  26. 26. Amide Functional group They are acid derivatives when the –OH of acid is replaced by –NH2 RCOOH RCONH2 Propanamide N-methylpropanamide N,N-dimethylpropanamide Primary amine Sec. Amine Tert. Amine - OH + NH2
  27. 27. AMine functional group • When H atom of ammonia are replaced by alkyl group then amines are formed. NH3 -H +CH3 NH2CH3 NH2CH3 NH(CH3)2 NH(CH3)2 N(CH3)3
  28. 28. • Practice Questions

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