Myths & misconceptions about HIV/AIDS eng hindi Dr Vikram Gupta
Dr. Vikram Gupta Assistant Professor-cum -I/C Rural Health Centre, PohirCommunity Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana (Punjab), India firstname.lastname@example.org
More than Half of the slides were presented by me at Sensitization Workshop organized by Department of Microbiology for Staff Nurses & other Para-Medical Staff in Hindi Languagae. Please Share & use as per your need
HISTORY/ इििहास Discovery of AIDS in 1981 in USA./अमरीका First case diagnosed among the homosexual men presenting with a rare infection caused by Pneumocystis carinii. In India the HIV infection was first detected in 6 female prostitutes in chennai in 1986./ चेननई Risk groups in India are different from American and the Europeans but similar to those in the African and the other third world countries
Epidimological features : Agentfactors / HIV वायरस की िवशे ष िा Agent is Lentivirus subfamily of retro virus./ रे ट रो वायरस Reservoir of infection : person harbouring HIV virus Source of infection is: infected semen ,blood, vaginal secretions, saliva and other body fluids Period of infectivity: life long / आजीवन संकमण The infectivity is highest in the initial stages of infection and also in the late stage when clinical manifestations appears.
HIGH-RISK GROUPS OF HIV/जयादा िरसक वाला समू ह There are subpopulations who are more vulnerable or practice high-risk behavior. These are:- Sex workers and their clients, / सेकस वकर और गाहक क men who have sex with men (MSM)/ male homosexuals, समिलंगी पुरष Trans-genders, िहजडे injecting drug users (IDUs), सू ई वाला नशा करने पर Newborn of Infected Mothers, संकिमि माँ से नवजाि को truckers, टक चालक migrant workers, पवासी शिमक spouses and children of men who are prone to risky behaviour.
MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS / पचिलि गलिधारणा HIV IS NOT TRANSMITTED BY SHAKING HANDS HUGGING DRY KISSING SNEEZING,COUGHING MOSQUITO BITE TOILET SHARING SHARING OF TELEPHONE SHARING OF OFFICES TRAVELLING TOGETHER IN BUSES AND TRAINS SHARING CUPS OR CUTLERY LIVING IN SAME ROOM DONATING BLOOD ASEPTICALLY
Susceptibility to chemical &physical agents It is an enveloped virus highly sensitive to ether. Dies outside the body with in few days. Can survive at 20-37°C for 15 days. Killed at 56°C in 30 min. at 60°C in 10 min. at 100°C in < 1min.
Susceptibility to chemical &physical agents Killed by 70% Ethanol in 10 min. by 35% isopropyl alcohol. by 3% Lysol. by 0.5% sod. hypochlorite. by 2% glutaraldehyde in 2min. by 3% H2O2. by 1% household bleach.
A monogamous person cannot contract an STI like HIV. / अगर एक साथी वफादार MYTH / गलत Individuals who are faithful to their partners may still be at risk for contracting STIs if their partners engage in sexual activity with other people. In addition, individuals who are currently monogamous with their partners may have contracted an STI/HIV from someone else in the past; therefore, they may have HIV without knowing it and/or without telling their current partners.
HIV is transmitted through contact with an HlV-positive persons infected body fluids./सं क िमि खू न , थू क , वीयकFACT / सही HIV is transmitted through contact with an HlV-positive persons infected body fluids, such as semen, pre-ejaculate fluid, vaginal fluids, blood, or breast milk. HIV can also be transmitted through needles contaminated with HlV-infected blood, including needles used for injecting drugs, tattooing or body piercing.
HIV or AIDS can be cured./ इलाजहै MYTH/ गलि To date, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS and there are no vaccines to prevent HIV infection.
Since I only have oral sex, Im not at risk for HIV/AIDS. / मु ख मै थु न से नही होिा MYTH / गलि You can get HIV by having oral sex with a man or a woman. That is why it is important to use a latex barrier during oral, vaginal, or anal sex.
I would know if a loved one or I had HIV. / अगर HIV होगा , मु झे पिा चल जाएगा MYTH / गलि A person with HIV may not show any symptoms for up to 10 years. Since HIV affects each person differently, many people with HIV can look and feel healthy for years. The only sure way to know is to get tested.
Birth control methods do not prevent the transmissionof sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as HIV. /गभक िनरोधक क उपयोग से HIV का सं क मण नही ेरकिा FACT / सही Birth control methods do not prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as HIV. They only aim to prevent pregnancy. Only condoms if used correctly and consistently can be used for preventing HIV and STIs.
Antiretroviral drugs dont keep you from passing thevirus to others. /दवाई खाने क बावजू द वायरस फल सकिा है े ै FACT / सही Antiretroviral drugs dont keep you from passing the virus to others. Therapy can keep the viral load down to undetectable levels, but HIV is still present in the body and can still be transmitted to others.
Youth are particularly vulnerable to HIV/नवयु व को मे जयादा FACT / सही HIV is disproportionately higher among young people than adults for both biological and behavioral reasons. The highest reported cases of STIs are among young people (ages 15 to 24).
Condoms reduce the risk for contractingSTIs, including HIV infection. FACT/ सही After abstinence, latex condoms are the most effective way to prevent STIs, including HIV infection. However, latex condoms are not 100% effective. Some groups have reported inaccurate research that suggests that HIV can pass through latex condoms, but this is not true. In fact, laboratory tests show that no STI, including HIV, can penetrate latex condoms (Gardner, Blackburn, & Upadhyay, 1999).
Disposal of waste/सं क िमि कचरे कािनषपादन Solid wste are to be disinfected with sodium hypochlorite o.5% and then incinerated or buried. Liquid waste are disinfected and then flushed out
Disposal of dead bodies of individuals whohave died of HIV/AIDSHIV/ AIDS पीिडि क मृ ि शरीर का ेिनषपादन It is preferable to use gloves while giving ceremonial bath. All orifices (nose, ears, mouth vagina and anus to be packed with cotton wool The body is then best disposed by cremation. If it has to be buried the body is then wrapped in a plastic bag. Bleaching powder may be sprinkled below and above the body or in the coffin box.
Post Exposure Prophylaxis(PEP) This procedure consist of taking anti viral drugs by the health care worker as soon as possible after exposure to HIV Steps to be taken Needle sticks and cuts should be washed with soap and water, Splashes to the nose, mouth or skin should be flushed with water. Eyes should be irrigated with clean water or saline. Pricked finger should not be put in to the mouth, but squeezed to encourage bleeding and then applied an antiseptic such as spirit.
PEP recommendationsIt should be instituted with in 72 hours Basic Regimen: 4 weeks treatment with -AZT (Zidovudine) 600 mg/d in two or three divided doses (usually 300 mg b.d.)+ -Lamivudine 150 mg b.d.
Universal Precautions for HIV Washing hands with soap and water before and after all patient care. Hands and other skin surfaces should be washed immediately and thoroughly if contaminated with blood or body fluids. Use appropriate barrier precautions. Gloves should be worn for patient examinations and for procedures. Gloves should be changed after contact with each patient. Masks, protective eye wear or face shields, and gowns or aprons should be worn when splashes are anticipated.
Universal Precautions……… Prevent injuries caused by needles, scalpels etc. DO NOT recap needles after use. Needles should not be purposely bent, broken, or otherwise manipulated by hand. After use, the disposable sharps should be placed in puncture-proof containers for disposal
Universal Precautions…….. To minimize the need for mouth to mouth resuscitation, resuscitation bags should be available. Although HIV has been recovered from saliva, there is no conclusive evidence that saliva is involved in HIV transmission. Resuscitation equipment should be used once only and discarded, or thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.
Universal Precautions……. HCWs with exudative lesions should refrain from all direct patient care and from handling patient care equipment. Pregnant HCWs: not known to be at greater risk of contracting HIV. However, if a HCW develops HIV infection during pregnancy, the infant is at risk. So pregnant HCWs should strictly adhere to these precautions.