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Microteaching by dr. vikram gupta


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..Its regarding details of Micro-teaching putting a teacher under microscope n improving the teaching skills ..

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Microteaching by dr. vikram gupta

  1. 1. Microteaching Dr. Vikram Gupta Assistant Professor, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana
  2. 2. What is Teaching? <ul><li>Teaching is not merely imparting knowledge to students, nor merely giving advice. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is not passing information to the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is not sharing one’s own experience . </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Teaching? <ul><li>The best approach to understanding the nature of teaching is establishing a harmonious relationship between teacher, student and subject . </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is the activity of facilitating learning . </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness in teaching does not relate to teacher’s age, sex, and teaching experience . </li></ul><ul><li>One can become an effective teacher irrespective of his/her age, sex and experience. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Defects in Teaching <ul><li>Defects in Teaching: </li></ul><ul><li>More Teacher’s talk : Most of the time in the classroom, is devoted to teacher’s talk, and students get very little opportunity to express themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Only memory level: During classroom interaction, teacher tends to promote mostly learning requiring memory level thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Defects in Teaching <ul><li>More information & less explanation: Most of the teachers spend more time in giving information and less on clarifying ideas and still less time for giving explanations. </li></ul><ul><li>Less chance of encouragement: A very low percentage of teacher’s time in the classroom is used for making encouraging remarks. </li></ul><ul><li>No planning: Most of the teachers are not systematic in planning and carrying out instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is learning? <ul><li>“ Change in behavior brought about by activity, training or experiences”. </li></ul><ul><li>* Learning never ends. </li></ul><ul><li>*Anyone who stops learning is old , whether at twenty or eighty. </li></ul><ul><li>* Anyone who keeps learning stays young . </li></ul><ul><li>*Effective learning is based on what the learner already knows </li></ul>
  7. 7. How learning happens? ….: <ul><li>Learning – Knowledge acquired by study. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning happens and knowledge is generated in an environment where interaction between teachers, students and content takes place in interactive ways . </li></ul><ul><li>There is a famous saying: </li></ul><ul><li>I hear… I forget; </li></ul><ul><li>I see … I remember; </li></ul><ul><li>I do … I understand. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How learning happens? ….: <ul><li>Research around the world also suggest: </li></ul><ul><li>We remember .. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of what we hear; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of what we see; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of what we see and hear; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of what we see, hear & do. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cont……. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Changes in Teacher Role <ul><li>A shift from: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Knowledge transmitter, primary source of information, content expert, and source of all </li></ul><ul><li>answers. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teacher controls and directs all aspects of learning </li></ul><ul><li>A shift to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Learning facilitator, collaborator, coach, mentor, knowledge navigator, and co-learner. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teacher gives students more options and </li></ul><ul><li>responsibilities for their own learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Changes in Student Role <ul><li>A shift from: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Passive recipient of information. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reproducing knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Learning as a solitary activity </li></ul><ul><li>A shift to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Active participant in the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Producing and sharing knowledge, participating at times as expert. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Learning collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>with others </li></ul>
  11. 11. Introduction <ul><li>Medical teachers unlike most other teaching professionals are unique in that no special prior or in service training in pedagogic techniques is considered necessary for their recruitment as teachers or for their continued efficient performance in that capacity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Under these circumstances their ability to teach is largely dependant on one of two modalities of self training – </li></ul><ul><li>viz. </li></ul><ul><li>a) observation of other teachers or </li></ul><ul><li>b) by a process of trial and error while actually teaching in a classroom situation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The former has the inherent disadvantage of being essentially a passive process where one learns by imitation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is time consuming and there is always the inherent possibility of bad role models. </li></ul><ul><li>The latter process of learning &quot;while doing&quot; is even more risky. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from increased time and effort involved, there is no attempt at discriminating between various teaching skills to individualise the learning of the teacher. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>There is hardly any constructive feedback and even on the rare occasions when one does get a feedback, there is no opportunity to reteach the lesson to implement what one has learnt from the feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>The method of learning how to teach is like a beginner being thrown into a swimming pool as the first lesson on swimming on the off-chance that faced with the necessity to save himself he will learn to swim. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Practising while teaching is also adversarial towards students' interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The conventional methods, therefore, fail to be ideal for training medical teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Microteaching, which was evolved by Alien and his group in the late sixties to improve the skills of teachers is an excellent vehicle of providing medical teachers with an opportunity to improve their teaching skills. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Defintion <ul><li>“ Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and time - D.W.Allen(1966) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Microteaching is defined as a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specified teaching behaviour and to practice teaching under controlled conditions.” - D.W. Allen & A.W.Eve (1968) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a group of five pupils for a small period of 5 to 20 minutes” - L.C. Singh (1977) </li></ul>
  18. 18. History <ul><li>The idea of micro-teaching originated for the first time at Stanford University in USA, when an Experimental Project on the identification of teaching skills was in progress under the guidance and supervision of the faculty members (Bush, Allen, McDonald Acheson and many others) in 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>This project was aided by Ford Foundation and Kettering Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>The team of experts was assigned the development of testing and evaluation tools to measure the attainment of teaching skills. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>At this juncture Keath Acheson, a research worker was investigating the utility of video tape recorder in the development of technical teaching skills. </li></ul><ul><li>This instrument could be used for recording the class interaction and the behaviours of the trainee vividly and accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to the development of a systematic and accurate method of giving feedback to the teacher trainee. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Since then this technique of teacher training has been widely used in almost all Colleges and Universities of Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, it is being used with great emphasis in all the teacher training programmes of developing teaching skills and competencies among teacher trainees. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Microteaching <ul><li>Microteaching is so called since it is analogous to putting the teacher under a microscope so to say while he is teaching so that all faults in teaching methodology are brought into perspective for the observers to give a constructive feedback. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>It eliminates some of the complexities of learning to teach in the classroom situation such as the pressure of length of the lecture, the scope and content of the matter to be conveyed, the need to teach for a relatively long duration of time (usually an hour) and the need to face large numbers of students, some of whom are hostile temperamentally. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Microteaching also provides skilled supervision with an opportunity to get a constructive feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>To go back to the analogy of the swimmer, while classroom teaching is like learning to swim at the deeper end of the pool, microteaching is an opportunity to practice at the shallower and less risky side. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Concept of Micro-teaching <ul><li>Micro-teaching is a teacher training technique which helps the teacher trainee to master the teaching skills. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires the teacher trainee 1. to teach a single concept of content 2. using a specified teaching skill 3. for a short time 4. to a very small member of pupils </li></ul>
  25. 25. Objectives of Microteaching <ul><li>To enable teacher trainees to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable teacher trainees to master a number of teaching skills. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable teacher trainees to gain confidence in teaching. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Component Skills Approach <ul><li>Inherent in the process of microteaching is what is called the &quot;component skills approach&quot;, i.e., the activity of teaching as a whole is broken down for learning purposes to its individual component skills. </li></ul><ul><li>These individual skills which go to make teaching are: </li></ul>
  27. 27. Skills of Micro Teaching Dr G L Gulhane 2. Skill of Probing Questions 1. Introduction Skill 3. Skill of Explanation 4. Skill of Stimulus Variation 5. Skill of Black-board Writing 6. Skill of Achieving Closure
  28. 28. i) Lesson planning <ul><li>having clear cut objectives, and an appropriate planned sequence </li></ul>
  29. 29. ii) Set induction <ul><li>- the process of gaining pupil attention at the beginning of the class </li></ul>
  30. 30. iii) Presentation <ul><li>- explaining, narrating, giving appropriate illustrations and examples, planned repetition where necessary </li></ul>
  31. 31. iv) Stimulus variation <ul><li>- avoidance of boredom amongst students by gestures, movements, focusing, silence, changing sensory channels etc. </li></ul>
  32. 32. v) Proper use of audio - visual aids
  33. 33. vi) Reinforcement- <ul><li>Recognising pupil difficulties, listening, encouraging pupil participation and response. </li></ul>
  34. 34. vii) Questioning <ul><li>- fluency in asking questions, passing questions and adapting questions </li></ul>
  35. 35. viii) Silence and nonverbal cues (body language)
  36. 36. ix) Closure - method <ul><li>of concluding a teaching session so as to bring out the relevance of what has been learnt, its connection with past learning and its application to future learning </li></ul>
  37. 37. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques <ul><li>The components of the skill of blackboard writing are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legibility ( Easy to read ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and alignment ( In a straight line ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlighting main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of the space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blackboard summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correctness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position of the teacher and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with the pupils. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Steps of Micro-teaching <ul><li>Step I   Particular skill to be practiced is explained to the teacher trainees in terms of the purpose and components of the skill with suitable examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Step II   The teacher trainer gives the demonstration of the skill in Micro-teaching in simulated conditions to the teacher trainees. </li></ul><ul><li>Step III   The teacher trainee plans a short lesson plan on the basis of the demonstrated skill for his/her practice. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Step IV   The teacher trainee teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils. His lesson is supervised by the supervisor and peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Step V   On the basis of the observation of a lesson, the supervisor gives feedback to the teacher trainee. The supervisor reinforces the instances of effective use of the skill and draws attention of the teacher trainee to the points where he could not do well. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Step VI   In the light of the feed-back given by the supervisor, the teacher trainee replans the lesson plan in order to use the skill in more effective manner in the second trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Step VII   The revised lesson is taught to another comparable group of pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>Step VIII   The supervisor observes the re-teach lesson and gives re-feed back to the teacher trainee with convincing arguments and reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Step IX   The ‘teach – re-teach’ cycle may be repeated several times till adequate mastery level is achieved. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Microteaching Cycle
  43. 44. Plan <ul><li>This involves the selection of the topic and related content of such a nature in which the use of components of the skill under practice may be made easily and conveniently. </li></ul><ul><li>The topic is analyzed into different activities of the teacher and the pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>The activities are planned in such a logical sequence where maximum application of the components of a skill is possible. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Teach <ul><li>This involves the attempts of the teacher trainee to use the components of the skill in suitable situations coming up in the process of teaching-learning as per his/her planning of activities. </li></ul><ul><li>If the situation is different and not as visualized(in the planning of the activities, the teacher should modify his/her behaviour ás per the demand of the situation in the Class. He should have the courage and confidence to handle the situation arising in the class effectively. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Feedback <ul><li>This term refers to giving information to the teacher trainee about his performance. The information includes the points of strength as well as weakness relating to his/her performance. </li></ul><ul><li>This helps the teacher trainee to improve upon his/her performance in the desired direction. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Re-plan <ul><li>The teacher trainee replans his lesson incorporating the points of strength and removing the points not skillfully handled during teaching in the previous attempt either on the same topic or on another topic suiting to the teacher trainee for improvement. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Re-teach <ul><li>This involves teaching to the same group of pupils if the topic is changed or to a different group of pupils if the topic is the same. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done to remove boredom or monotony of the pupil. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher trainee teaches the class with renewed courage and confidence to perform better than the previous attempt. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Re-feedback <ul><li>This is the most important component of Micro-teaching for behaviour modification of teacher trainee in the desired direction in each and every skill practice. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Time duration for the microteaching <ul><li>Teach : 6 Minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback : 6 Minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Plan :12 Minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Teach : 6 Minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Feedback : 6 Minutes. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Phases of Micro-teaching <ul><li>1. Knowledge Acquisition Phase. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Skill Acquisition Phase. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Transfer Phase of Micro-teaching. </li></ul>
  51. 53. 1. Knowledge Acquisition Phase (Pre-Active Phase) <ul><li>It includes the activities such as; Ø Provide knowledge about teaching skills. Ø Observe the demonstration of teaching skill. Ø Analyze and discuss the demonstration of the teaching skill. </li></ul>
  52. 54. 2. Skill Acquisition Phase (Inter-active Phase) <ul><li>It includes the activities such as; Ø Planning and preparation of micro lesson for a skill. Ø Practicing the skill. Ø Evaluation of the practiced skill (Feedback). Ø Re-plan , Re-teach and re-feedback till the desired level of skill is achieved. </li></ul>
  53. 55. 3.  Transfer Phase (Post –Active Phase) <ul><li>Ø Giving opportunity to use the mastered skill in normal class room teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Ø Integrate the different skill practiced </li></ul>
  54. 56. Link Practice (Integration of Teaching Skills) <ul><li>When mastery has been attained in various skills ,the teacher trainee is allowed to teach the skills together. </li></ul><ul><li>This separate training programme to integrate various isolated skills is known as ‘Link Practice’ </li></ul>
  55. 57. <ul><li>It helps the trainee to transfer effectively all the skills learnt in the micro teaching sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to bridge the gap between training in isolated teaching skills and the real teaching situation faced by a student teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable Number of Pupils :15-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Preferable Duration :20minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable Number of Skills :3-4 Skills </li></ul>
  56. 58. Microteaching Swirl
  57. 59. Merits of Microteaching <ul><li>It helps to develop and master important teaching skills. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to accomplish specific teacher competencies. </li></ul><ul><li>It caters the need of individual differences in the teacher training. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more effective in modifying teacher behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an individualized training technique. </li></ul>
  58. 60. <ul><li>It employs real teaching situation for developing skills. </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces the complexity of teaching process as it is a scaled down teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching. </li></ul>
  59. 61. Limitations of Microteaching <ul><li>It is skill oriented; Content not emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>A large number of trainees cannot be given the opportunity for re-teaching and re-planning. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very time consuming technique. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires special classroom setting. </li></ul><ul><li>It covers only a few specific skills. </li></ul><ul><li>It deviates from normal classroom teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>It may raise administrative problem while arranging micro lessons </li></ul>
  60. 62. Microteaching teaching Vs Traditional Class room
  61. 63. Microteaching Traditional Class Room Teaching Teaching is Relatively Simple Complex Activity controlled situation Uncontrolled takes up one skill at a time several skill Less no. of students More Teaching time is 5 to 10 mts 40 to 50 mts Student teacher provided immediate feedback No immediate Feedback Provision for reteaching No Students gains confidence in teaching Tense and scared
  62. 64. Microteaching in India <ul><li>The department of Teacher education in the NCERT designed a project to study the effectiveness of Microteaching in 1975 in collaboration with the Centre of Advanced Study in Education (CASE) Baroda. </li></ul><ul><li>Research and training programmes for teacher educators were also initiated in collaboration with the department of Education, University of Indore. </li></ul><ul><li>Passi, Singh and Jangira developed instructional materials which were used to train teacher educators. </li></ul>
  63. 65. FORMAT OF MICRO LESSON PLAN <ul><li>CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>TIME </li></ul><ul><li>SKILL (ONE OR TWO) </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC CONTENT </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVORAL OBJECTIVES </li></ul>
  65. 67. SUMMARY <ul><li>Microteaching involves presentation of micro lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Audience….small group of peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback given by peers role playing as students </li></ul><ul><li>Participants learn about strengths & weakness in themselves as teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Plan strategies for improvement in performance </li></ul>
  66. 68. Why teaching profession is good?
  67. 69. Remember!!! <ul><li>Even the best teacher can learn a great deal from his or her students </li></ul>
  68. 70. Secret
  69. 71. Need of the hour <ul><li>Working Together, We Can achieve our goal and expected qualities in higher education </li></ul>
  70. 72. Present Teacher Expected Teacher Dr G L Gulhane
  71. 73. THANX ……
  72. 74. Instrument: Assessment Rubric <ul><li>quality and volume of voice </li></ul><ul><li>correct pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>use of fillers </li></ul><ul><li>amount of eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>clarity of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>attention-getting motivational technique that elicits prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>continuity and pace of lesson (made appropriate use of time) </li></ul><ul><li>use of chalkboard, audiovisual aids, computer, overhead projector, </li></ul><ul><li>questioning skills, including use of appropriate wait-time </li></ul><ul><li>accuracy of subject-area content and solid application to students’ lives </li></ul><ul><li>(scale 1-5) </li></ul>