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New style prostaglandins


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New style prostaglandins

  1. 1. Therapeutic uses of Prostaglandins Dr. Vaneet Aggarwal 12/5/2013 1
  2. 2. Topics Discussion  Autacoids definition  Classification of Autacoids  Arachidonic Acid  Pathways  Prostaglandins  Therapeutic Effects and Uses  Preparations Available 12/5/2013 2
  3. 3. Autacoids  are substances that are rapidly synthesized in response to specific stimuli act quickly in the immediate environment and remain active for only a short time before degradation. 12/5/2013 3
  4. 4. Classification: Autacoids 1. Decarboxylated A/A 3. Eicosanoids • Histamine • Serotonin • Leukotrienes • Thromboxanes • Prostaglandins 2. Polypeptides • • • • Angiotensin Vasopressin Plasmakinin Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide 12/5/2013 4
  5. 5. Arachidonic Acid  In the cell arachidonic acid does not exist as a free fatty acid but rather is esterified to sn2 position of membrane phospholipids predominantly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.  Arachidonic acid is released from cellular phospholipids by the enzyme phospholipase A2 which hydrolyse Acyl ester bond. 12/5/2013 5
  6. 6. Synthesis Of Eicosanoids  Isoprostane Pathway  Epoxygenase Pathway  Lipoxygenase Pathway  Cyclooxygenase Pathway 12/5/2013 6
  7. 7. Isoprostane Pathway  Phospholipids esterified arachidonic acid is susceptible to free radical mediated peroxidation and release of these modified lipids from the phospholipids by phospholipase A2 give rise to Isoprostanes .  Two Isoprostanes in particular 8-epi-PGF2α and 8-epiPGE2 are potent vasoconstrictors.  Because the rate of formation of Isoprostanes depend on cellular oxidative conditions, Isoprostanes levels may be indicative of oxidative stress in a wide range of pathological conditions. 12/5/2013 7
  8. 8. Epoxygenase Pathway  Specific isozymes of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases convert AA to hydroxy- or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.  The products are 20-HETE, generated by the CYP hydroxylases (CYP3A, 4A, 4F) and the 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which arise from the CYP epoxygenase (2J, 2C).  The biologic actions of the EETs are reduced by their conversion to the corresponding, and biologically less active, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) through the action of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). 12/5/2013 8
  9. 9. Lipoxygenase Pathway  Besides the COX pathway the other major fate of the arachidonic acid is Lipoxygenase pathway which leads to the formation of leukotrienes and lipoxins.  Lipoxygenases are enzymes that catalyze the insertion of molecular oxygen into arachidonic acid using non haeme iron to generate specific hydroperoxides.  Three Lipoxygenases; i.e, 5- Lipoxygenase, 12Lipoxygenase and 15- Lipoxygenase are the major LOX isoforms found in humans 12/5/2013 9
  10. 10. Lipoxygenase Pathway Arachidonic acid in cell membrane Phospholipase A2 free arachidonic acid 12-LOX 5-LOX 15-LOX 15HPETE 12-HPETE 5-HPETE 5-LOX 12-HETE 5-HETE LTA4 LTC4 synthase hydrolysis 5-oxoETE LXA4 LTA4 hydrolase LTC4 γ-glutamyl transferase LTD4 5HETE EPOXYTETRAENE LXB4 LTB4 LTE4 dipeptidase 12/5/2013 10
  11. 11. Lipoxygenase Pathway  The enzyme LTA4 hydrolase converts LTA4 to LTB4 in neutrophils and erythrocytes.  LTA4 conversion to LTC4 occurs in mast cells, basophils , eosinophils and macrophages by the addition of gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine tripeptide.  LTC4 , LTD4 , LTE4 , LTF4 which represents the cysteinyl leukotrienes are inter converted by removal of amino acids portion of gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine tripeptide. 12/5/2013 11
  12. 12. Lipoxygenase Pathway  Lipoxins (lipoxigenase interaction products) are derivatives of arachidonic acid containing four conjugated double bonds and three hydroxyl groups.  The two main lipoxins , LXA4 and LXB4 modulate the actions of leukotrienes and cytokines and are important in resolution of inflammation.  At the site inflammation there is typically an inverse relationship between the amount of lipoxin and leukotriene present. 12/5/2013 12
  13. 13. Cyclooxygenase Pathway  Cyclooxygenase are glycosylated homodimeric, membrane bound haeme containing enzymes that are ubiquitous in animal cells from invertebrates to humans.  Two cyclooxygenase iso forms , denoted COX1 and COX2 are found in humans .  Protein kinetics studies suggest that there may be a third functional cyclooxygenase isoform COX3 which appears to be expressed primarily in the central nervous system, may be a potential site of action of acetaminophen.  Each COX catalyses two sequential reactions. The first reaction, the COX step, is the oxygen dependent cyclization of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2); the second reaction , the peroxidase step , is the reduction of PGG2 to PGH2. 12/5/2013 13
  14. 14. Cyclooxygenase Pathway Arachidonic Acid PGI2 prostacyclin synthase PGD2 COX 1 AND COX 2 PGG2 (ENDOTHELIUM) COX 1 AND COX 2 6-keto-PGIα PGD2 isomerase (BRAIN AND MAST CELLS) PGH2 TxA2 thromboxane synthase (PLATELETS) PGF2α reductase PGE2 isomerase (UTERUS, LUNG) (MACROPHAGES, MAST CELLS) TxB2 PGE2 PGF2α 12/5/2013 14
  15. 15. Cyclooxygenase Pathway  The constitutively expressed COX1 is believed to function in physiological, or housekeeping activities such as vascular homeostatsis, maintenance of renal and gasterointestinal blood flow etc.  A number of as needed or specialized functions are attributed to the products of the inducible COX2 enzyme including roles in inflammation, fever, pain, transduction of painful stimuli in the spinal cord etc. 12/5/2013 15
  16. 16. Thromboxanes And Prostacyclins  Platelets express high level of the enzyme thromboxane synthase but do not contain prostacyclin synthase. Therefore TxA2 is the chief eicosanoid product of platelets.  In contrast the vascular endothelium lacks thromboxane synthase but expresses a prostacyclin synthase. Therefore PGI2 is the primary eicosanoid product of vascular endothelium.  The local balance between TxA2 and PGI2 levels is critical in the regulations of systemic blood pressure and Thrombogenesis. Imbalances can lead to hypertension, ischemia, thrombosis, coagulopathy, myo cardial infarction and stroke. 12/5/2013 16
  17. 17. PROSTAGLANDINS  Prostoglandins are a large family of structurally similar compounds that have potent and specific biological action. 12/5/2013 17
  18. 18. History of Prostaglandins :  In 1930, Kurzrok and Leib demonstrated the activity of human semen on isolated strips of human uterine muscles.  This was conformed by Von Euler (1935) who demonstrated a substance present in the extracts of human seminal fluid, which caused contraction of the isolated intestine and uterine muscles and vasodilation.(Nobel Prize 1970)  This substance was named prostaglandin because of its probable origin from the prostate. Bergstrom (Nobel Prize 1982) and associates showed that various PG’s are closely related derivatives of the lipid soluble prostanoic Acid. 12/5/2013 18
  19. 19. Chemical Structure O COOH HO OH PGE2 12/5/2013 19
  20. 20. Classification of PGs  PG-E group: PGE-1, PGE-2 & PGE-3 Functional group: βhydroxyketone  PG-F group: PGF1α, PGF2α & PGF3α Functional group: 1,3-diols  PG-A group: PGA-1, PGA-2 & 19-OH PGA-1 Functional group: β unsaturated ketone  PG-B group: PGB-1, PGB-2 & 19-OH PGB-1 12/5/2013 20
  21. 21. . Eicosanoid Major Site(s) of Synthesis Major Biological Activities inhibits platelet and leukocyte aggregation, decreases T-cell proliferation and lymphocyte migration and secretion of IL1Α and IL-2; induces vasodilation and production of cAMP PGD2 mast cells PGE2 increases vasodilation and cAMP production, enhancement of the effects of bradykinin and histamine, induction of uterine kidney, spleen, contractions and of platelet aggregation; decreases T-cell heart proliferation and lymphocyte migration and secretion of IL1Α and IL-2 PGF2α kidney, spleen, increases vasoconstriction, bronchoconstriction and smooth muscle heart contraction PGH2 many sites PGI2 inhibits platelet and leukocyte aggregation, decreases T-cell heart, vascular proliferation and lymphocyte migration and secretion of ILendothelial cells 1Α and IL-2; induces vasodilation and production of cAMP TXA2 platelets induces platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, lymphocyte proliferation and bronchoconstriction TXB2 platelets induces vasoconstriction a short-lived precursor to thromboxanes A2 and B2, induction of platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction
  22. 22. Prostaglandins Receptors 12/5/2013 22
  23. 23. Clinical Pharmacology  First, stable oral or parenteral long-acting analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandins have been developed.  Second, enzyme inhibitors and receptor antagonists have been developed to interfere with the synthesis or effects of the eicosanoids.  Third, efforts at dietary manipulation—to change the polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors in the cell membrane phospholipids and so change eicosanoid synthesis—is used extensively in over-the-counter products and in diets emphasizing increased consumption of cold water fish. 12/5/2013 23
  24. 24. Effects and uses Prostaglandins 12/5/2013 24
  25. 25. Female Reproductive System 12/5/2013 25
  26. 26. Effects  PGF 2α, TXA 2, and low concentrations of PGE 2 contract uterine muscle.  PGI 2 and high concentrations of PGE 2 cause relaxation.  PGF 2α, together with oxytocin, is essential for the onset of parturition. 12/5/2013 26
  27. 27. Uses  PGE 2 and PGF 2α have potent oxytocic actions. The ability of the E and F prostaglandins and their analogs to terminate pregnancy at any stage by promoting uterine contractions has been adapted to common clinical use.  The drugs are used for first- and second-trimester abortion and for priming or ripening the cervix before abortion.  These prostaglandins appear to soften the cervix by increasing proteoglycan content and changing the biophysical properties of collagen.  Dinoprostone, a synthetic preparation of PGE 2, is administered vaginally for oxytocic use.  It is approved for inducing abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy, for missed abortion, for benign hydatidiform mole, and for ripening of the cervix for induction of labor in patients at or near term. 12/5/2013 27
  28. 28.  Dinoprostone stimulates the contraction of the uterus throughout pregnancy. As the pregnancy progresses, the uterus increases its contractile response, and the contractile effect of oxytocin is potentiated as well.  Antiprogestins (eg, mifepristone) have been combined with an oral oxytocic synthetic analog of PGE 1(misoprostol) to produce early abortion.  An analog of PGF 2α is also used in obstetrics. This drug, carboprost tromethamine is used to induce second-trimester abortions and to control postpartum hemorrhage that is not responding to conventional methods of management. 12/5/2013 28
  29. 29.  Facilitation of labor:  Numerous studies have shown that PGE 2, PGF 2α , and their analogs effectively initiate and stimulate labor, but PGF 2α is one tenth as potent as PGE 2 .  PGF 2α is a bronchoconstrictor and should be used with caution in women with asthma  PGE 2 and PGF 2α should be superior to oxytocin for inducing labor in women with preeclampsia-eclampsia or cardiac and renal diseases because, unlike oxytocin, they have no antidiuretic effect. In addition, PGE 2 has natriuretic effects. 12/5/2013 29
  30. 30.  Primary dysmenorrhea is attributable to increased endometrial synthesis of PGE 2 and PGF 2α during menstruation, with contractions of the uterus that lead to ischemic pain. NSAIDs successfully inhibit the formation of these prostaglandins and so relieve dysmenorrhea in 75–85% of cases 12/5/2013 30
  31. 31. Male Reproductive System 12/5/2013 31
  32. 32. Effects  Testosterone promotes prostaglandin production.  Thromboxane and leukotrienes have not been found in seminal plasma.  Men with a low seminal fluid concentration of prostaglandins are relatively infertile.  Smooth muscle-relaxing prostaglandins such as PGE 1 enhance penile erection by relaxing the smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa. 12/5/2013 32
  33. 33. Uses  Intracavernosal injection or urethral suppository therapy with alprostadil (PGE 1) is a second-line treatment for erectile dysfunction.  Doses of 2.5–25 mcg are used.  Penile pain is a frequent side effect, which may be related to the algesic effects of PGE derivatives; however, only a few patients discontinue the use because of pain.  Prolonged erection and priapism are side effects that occur in less than 4% of patients and are minimized by careful titration to the minimal effective dose.  When given by injection, alprostadil may be used as monotherapy or in combination with either papaverine or phentolamine. 12/5/2013 33
  34. 34. Gasterointestinal System 12/5/2013 34
  35. 35.  GIT: Longitudinal muscle is contracted by PGE 2 (via EP 3) and PGF 2α (via FP), whereas circular muscle is contracted strongly by PGF 2α and weakly by PGI 2, and is relaxed by PGE 2 (via EP 4).  Administration of either PGE 2 or PGF 2α results in colicky cramps.  In the stomach PGE2 and PGI2 contribute to increased mucus secretion, and reduced pepsin content. 12/5/2013 35
  36. 36.  Misoprostol is an orally active synthetic analog of PGE 1. The FDA-approved indication is for prevention of NSAID-induced peptic ulcers.  The drug is administered at a dosage of 200 mcg four times daily with food.  This and other PGE analogs (eg, enprostil) are cytoprotective at low doses and inhibit gastric acid secretion at higher doses.  Misoprostol use is low, probably because of its adverse effects including abdominal discomfort and occasional diarrhea.  Dose-dependent bone pain and hyperostosis have been described in patients with liver disease who were given long-term PGE treatment 12/5/2013 36
  37. 37. Platelets 12/5/2013 37
  38. 38.  Low concentrations of PGE 2 enhance (via EP 3), whereas higher concentrations inhibit (via IP), platelet aggregation.  Both PGD 2 and PGI 2 inhibit aggregation via, respectively, DP 1 and IP-dependent elevation in cAMP generation.  TXA 2 is the major product of COX-1, the only COX isoform expressed in mature platelets. It induces shape change through G12/G13 mediated Rho-Rho kinase dependent regulation of myosin light-chain phosphorylation and aggregation through Gq dependent activation of PKC. 12/5/2013 38
  39. 39.  Eicosanoids are involved in thrombosis because TXA 2 promotes platelet aggregation while PGI 2 , and perhaps also PGE 2 and PGD 2 , are platelet antagonists  TXA 2, in addition to activating platelets, amplifies the response to other platelet agonists; hence inhibition of its synthesis inhibits secondary aggregation of platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate, by low concentrations of thrombin and collagen, and by epinephrine 12/5/2013 39
  40. 40. Cardiovascular System 12/5/2013 40
  41. 41.  In most vascular beds PGE2, PFI2, and PGD2 elicit vasodilation and drop in blood pressure.  PGE2 can cause vasoconstriction through activation of EP1 and EP3 receptors.  Infusion of PGD2 results in flushing, nasal stuffiness and hypotension.  PGI2 relaxes vascular smooth muscle causing hypotension and reflex tachycardia on I.V. administration.  PGF2α does not alter blood pressure .  Cardiac output is generally is increased by infusion of PGs of E and F series.  LTC4 and LTD4 results in hypotension. 12/5/2013 41
  42. 42.  Pulmonary hypertension:  PGI 2 (epoprostenol) approved for treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension improves symptoms, prolongs survival, and delays or prevents the need for lung or lungheart transplantation.  Side effects include flushing, headache, hypotension, nausea, and diarrhea. The extremely short plasma half-life (3–5 minutes) of epoprostenol necessitates continuous intravenous infusion through a central line for long-term treatment, which is its greatest limitation.  Iloprost (half-life about 30 minutes) is usually inhaled six to nine times per day, although it has been delivered by intravenous administration outside the USA.  Treprostinil (half-life about 4 hours) may be delivered by subcutaneous or intravenous infusion. 12/5/2013 42
  43. 43. Peripheral Vascular disease  PGE1 or PGI2 infused i.v. can promote ulcer healing in acute intermittent claudication.  Beraprost is a stable oral PGI2 derivative which is given thrice a day for treating peripheral vascular disease.  To reduce infarct size: intravenous infusion of PGI2 Iloprost in the immediate post MI period can help reducing the infarct size but efficacy is doubtful.  A number of studies have investigated the use of PGE 1 and PGI 2 compounds in Raynaud’s phenomenon and peripheral arterial disease. However, these studies are mostly small and uncontrolled, and these therapies do not have an established place in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. 12/5/2013 43
  44. 44. Patent Ductus Arteriosus  Patency of the fetal ductus arteriosus depends on COX-2derived PGE 2 acting on the EP 4 receptor.  Adverse effects include apnea, bradycardia, hypotension, and hyperpyrexia. Because of rapid pulmonary clearance (the half-life is about 5–10 minutes in healthy adults and neonates), the drug must be continuously infused at an initial rate of 0.05–0.1 mcg/kg/min, which may be increased to 0.4 mcg/kg/min. Prolonged treatment has been associated with ductal fragility and rupture.  In delayed closure of the ductus arteriosus, COX inhibitors are often used to inhibit synthesis of PGE 2 and so close the ductus. Premature infants in whom respiratory distress develops due to failure of ductus closure can be treated with a high degree of success with indomethacin. 12/5/2013 44
  45. 45. Eye 12/5/2013 45
  46. 46.  Although PGF2αinduces constriction of the iris sphincter muscle, its overall effect is lower intraocular pressure by increased outflow of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber via the uveoscleral pathway and trabecular meshwork pathway.  A variety of FP receptors agonists have proven effective in the treatment of open angle glaucoma, a condition associated with loss of COX2 expression in the pigment epithelium of the ciliary body. 12/5/2013 46
  47. 47. Glaucoma  Latanoprost, a stable long-acting PGF2α derivative, was the first prostanoid used for glaucoma.  The success of latanoprost has stimulated development of similar prostanoids with ocular hypotensive effects, and bimatoprost, travoprost, and unoprostone are now available.  These drugs act at the FP receptor and are administered as drops into the conjunctival sac once or twice daily.  Adverse effects include irreversible brown pigmentation of the iris and eyelashes, drying of the eyes, and conjunctivitis. 12/5/2013 47
  48. 48. Respiratory System 12/5/2013 48
  49. 49. RS: Effects  Respiratory smooth muscle is relaxed by PGE 2 and PGI 2 and contracted by PGD 2, TXA 2, and PGF 2α.  The cysteinyl leukotrienes are also bronchoconstrictors. They act principally on smooth muscle in peripheral airways and are a thousand times more potent than histamine, both in vitro and in vivo. 12/5/2013 49
  50. 50. RS: Uses  PGE 2 is a powerful bronchodilator when given in aerosol form. Unfortunately, it also promotes coughing, and an analog that possesses only the bronchodilator properties has been difficult to obtain.  PGF 2α and TXA 2 are both strong bronchoconstrictors and were once thought to be primary mediators in asthma.  The cysteinyl leukotrienes—LTC 4, LTD 4 , and LTE 4 —probably dominate during asthmatic constriction of the airways.  Corticosteroids and cromolyn are also useful in asthma. Corticosteroids inhibit eicosanoid synthesis and thus limit the amounts of eicosanoid mediator available for release. Cromolyn appears to inhibit the release of eicosanoids and other mediators such as histamine and platelet-activating factor from mast cells. 12/5/2013 50
  51. 51. Effects and Inhibitors 12/5/2013 51
  52. 52. Renal System 12/5/2013 52
  53. 53. Renal System  The major renal eicosanoid products are PGE 2 and PGI 2, followed by PGF 2α and TXA 2. The kidney also synthesizes several hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, leukotrienes, cytochrome P450 products, and epoxides.  Prostaglandins play important roles in maintaining blood pressure and regulating renal function, particularly in marginally functioning kidneys and volume-contracted states.  PGE 2 and PGI 2 maintain renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate through their local vasodilating effects. These prostaglandins also modulate systemic blood pressure through regulation of water and sodium excretion. 12/5/2013 53
  54. 54. Renal System  PGE 2 is thought to stimulate renin release through activation of EP 4 or EP 2.  PGI 2 can also stimulate renin release and this may be relevant to maintenance of blood pressure in volumecontracted conditions and to the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension  TXA 2 causes intrarenal vasoconstriction (and perhaps an ADHlike effect), resulting in a decline in renal function. The normal kidney synthesizes only small amounts of TXA 2  Hypertension is associated with increased TXA 2 and decreased PGE 2 and PGI 2 synthesis in some animal models.  PGF 2α may elevate blood pressure by regulating renin release in the kidney. 12/5/2013 54
  55. 55. RS: Inhibition  Increased biosynthesis of prostaglandins has been associated with one form of Bartter’s syndrome.  This is a rare disease characterized by low-to-normal blood pressure, decreased sensitivity to angiotensin, hyperreninemia, hyperaldosteronism, and excessive loss of K +. There also is an increased excretion of prostaglandins, especially PGE metabolites, in the urine.  After long-term administration of COX inhibitors, sensitivity to angiotensin, plasma renin values, and the concentration of aldosterone in plasma return to normal. Although plasma K + rises, it remains low, and urinary wasting of K + persists 12/5/2013 55
  56. 56. Immune System 12/5/2013 56
  57. 57. Inflammation and Immunity  PGE 2 and PGI 2 are the predominant prostanoids associated with inflammation.  Both markedly enhance edema formation and leukocyte infiltration by promoting blood flow in the inflamed region.  PGE 2 and PGI 2, through activation of EP 2 and IP, respectively, increase vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration.  PGE 2 and TXA 2 may play a role in T-lymphocyte development by regulating apoptosis of immature thymocytes.. 12/5/2013 57
  58. 58. Inflammation and Immunity  PGE 2 suppresses the immunologic response by inhibiting differentiation of B lymphocytes into antibody-secreting plasma cells, thus depressing the humoral antibody response.  It also inhibits cytotoxic T-cell function, mitogen-stimulated proliferation of T lymphocytes, and the release of cytokines by sensitized TH1 lymphocytes.  PGD2 a major product of mast cells, is a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils in which it also includes degranulation and leukotriene biosynthesis  PGD 2 also induces chemotaxis and migration of TH 2 lymphocytes mainly via activation of DP 2 , although a role for DP 1 has also been established. 12/5/2013 58
  59. 59. IS: Inhibition  Cell mediated Organ Transplant Rejection  Administration of PGI 2 to renal transplant patients has reversed the rejection process in some cases.  Experimental in vitro and in vivo data show that PGE 2 and PGI 2 can attenuate T-cell proliferation and rejection, which can also be seen with drugs that inhibit TXA 2 and leukotriene formation.  In organ transplant patients, urinary excretion of metabolites of TXA 2 increases during acute rejection.  Corticosteroids, the first line drugs used for treatment of acute rejection because of their lymphotoxic effects, inhibit both phospholipase and COX-2 activity. 12/5/2013 59
  60. 60. IS: Inhibition  Inflammation  COX-2 appears to be the form of the enzyme most associated with cells involved in the inflammatory process.  COX-1 also contributes significantly to prostaglandin biosynthesis during inflammation.  Aspirin and other anti inflammatory agent that inhibit cox are used for inflammation. 12/5/2013 60
  61. 61. IS: inhibition  Rheumatoid Arthritis  immune complexes are deposited in the affected joints, causing an inflammatory response that is amplified by eicosanoids.  Lymphocytes and macrophages accumulate in the synovium, whereas leukocytes localize mainly in the synovial fluid.  The major eicosanoids produced by leukocytes are leukotrienes, which facilitate T-cell proliferation and act as chemoattractants.  Human macrophages synthesize the COX products PGE2 and TXA2 and large amounts of leukotrienes. 12/5/2013 61
  62. 62. Effects 12/5/2013 62
  63. 63. Central and Peripheral Nervous System  Fever: PGE 2 increases body temperature, predominantly via EP 3 , although EP 1 also plays a role, especially when administered directly into the cerebral ventricles.  Exogenous PGF 2α and PGI 2 induce fever, whereas PGD 2 and TXA 2 do not .  Sleep: When infused into the cerebral ventricles, PGD 2 Induces natural sleep via activation of DP 1 receptors.  PGE 2 infusion into the posterior hypothalamus causes wakefulness 12/5/2013 63
  64. 64. Central and Peripheral Nervous System  PGE compounds inhibit the release of norepinephrine from postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings  PGE 2 and PGI 2 sensitize the peripheral nerve endings to painful stimuli by increasing their terminal membrane excitability. Prostaglandins also modulate pain centrally.  PGE 2, and perhaps also PGD 2, PGI 2, and PGF 2α, contribute to so-called central sensitization, an increase in excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons, that augments pain intensity, widens the area of pain perception, and results in pain from normally Innocuous stimuli. 12/5/2013 64
  65. 65. Bone Metabolism  Prostaglandins are abundant in skeletal tissue and are produced by osteoblasts and adjacent hematopoietic cells. The major effect of prostaglandins (especially PGE 2, acting on EP 4 ) in vivo is to increase bone turnover, ie, stimulation of bone resorption and formation.  COX inhibitors can also slow skeletal muscle healing by interfering with prostaglandin effects on myocyte proliferation, differentiation, and fibrosis in response to injury.  Prostaglandins may contribute to the bone loss that occurs at menopause; it has been speculated that NSAIDs may be of therapeutic value in osteoporosis and bone loss prevention in older women. 12/5/2013 65
  66. 66. Cancer  PGE 2, which is considered the principal oncogenic prostanoid, facilitates tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis through multiple biologic effects, increasing proliferation and angiogenesis, inhibiting apoptosis, augmenting cellular invasiveness, and modulating immunosuppression.  TXA 2 emerging as another likely procarcinogenic mediator, deriving either from macrophage COX-2 or platelet COX-1. 12/5/2013 66
  67. 67. Endocrine System  Several species shows the systemic administration of PGE2 increasing the circulating concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone, prolactin, and gonadotropins.  Stimulation of steroid production by the adrenals, stimulation of insulin release, and thyrotropin-like effects on the thyroid.  The critical role of PGF2α in parturition relies on its ability to induce an oxytocin-dependent decline in progesterone levels.  PGE2 works as positive-feedback loop to induce oocyte maturation required for fertilization during and after ovulation. 12/5/2013 67
  68. 68. Dietary Manipulation  Because arachidonic acid is derived from dietary linoleic and α-linolenic acids, which are essential fatty acids, the effects of dietary manipulation on arachidonic acid metabolism have been extensively studied.  The first adds corn, safflower, and sunflower oils, which contain linoleic acid (C18:2), to the diet.  The second approach adds oils containing eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acids (C22:6), so- called omega-3 fatty acids, from cold-water fish. 12/5/2013 68
  69. 69. 12/5/2013 70
  70. 70. References 1. Smyth E.M., Fitzgerald G.A. The eicosanoids: Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, Leukotrienes and Related Compounds In: Katzung B.G., Master S.B.,Trevor A.J. editors. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.12th ed. Mc Graw Hill; 2012:313-29. 2. Golan D.E., TashjianA.H.,Armstrong E.J.,Armstrong A.W. Principles Of Pharmacology.3rd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;2012: 74060. 3. Brunton L.L., Chabner B.A., Knollmann B.C. Goodman and Gillman’s The Pharmacological Basis Of Therapeutics. 12th ed. Mc Graw Hill; 2012:936-57 4. Sharma HL., Sharma KK. Principles Of Pharmacology . 2nd ed. Paras Publications;2013:354-62 5. Tripathi KD. Essential of Medical Pharmacology.7th ed. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(p) Limited;2013:181-91 6. 12/5/2013 71
  71. 71. Thank youooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo For patient listening !!!!! 12/5/2013 72