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LASERS USED IN OPERATIVE DENTISTRY

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LASERS USED IN OPERATIVE DENTISTRY

  1. 1. GOOD AFTERNOON<br />
  2. 2. LASERS USED IN OPERATIVE DENTISTRY <br />GUIDED BY:<br /> Prof. H.D.Adhikary Dept. of Conservative Dentistry<br />Dr.R.Ahmed Dental College & Hospital<br />
  3. 3. CONTENTS<br />Introduction<br />History of lasers<br />Components of lasers<br />Types of lasers<br />Application of lasers in operative dentistry<br />Summary<br />
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION<br />Dentistry has advanced a lot.<br />Among various advances, one which have good scope of improvement is the use oflasersin dentistry.<br />Recent advances in laser technology will bring revolution in dentistry.<br />Laser is an acronym forlightamplification by stimulatedemission ofradiation.<br />
  5. 5. DISCOVERY OF LASERS:<br />It was discovered by Shallow & Towns in 1958.<br /> First working laser was built by Mailman of<br />Hughesresearch laboratories in 1960.<br />HISTORY OF LASERS IN DENTISTRY:<br />Vain used a ruby laser & reported extensive deep <br /> destruction of carious tissue along with<br /> melting of dentin.<br />Paghdiwala[U.S.A] in 1988,first time tested the <br /> ability of Er:yag laser on dental hard tissue.<br /> In 1997,Er:yag laser was cleared for marketing by<br /> Food & drug administration of U.S.A.<br />
  6. 6. COMPONENTS OF LASER<br />There are 3 main parts of laser delivery system.<br />(1).LASING OR ACTIVE MEDIUM<br /><ul><li>It is the material which is capable of absorbing </li></ul> the energy produced by the external source<br />through subatomic configuration of its <br /> component molecules & subsequently giving the<br />excess energy as photons of light.<br /><ul><li>It can be solid, liquid or gas.</li></li></ul><li>(2).ENERGY OR PUMPING SOURCE<br /><ul><li>It is used to excite or pump the atoms in</li></ul>lasing medium to their higher energy levels<br /> that are essential for laser production.<br /><ul><li>It can be electrical,thermal,chemical or</li></ul>optical.<br />(3).OPTICAL OR RESONATING CHAMBER<br /><ul><li>The lasing medium is located within the</li></ul>optical chamber.<br /><ul><li>It is a cylindrical structure with fully</li></ul>reflecting mirror on one side & partially <br /> reflecting mirror on other side--parallel <br /> to each other. <br />
  7. 7. <ul><li>This arrangement allows reflection of photons</li></ul>of light, back & across the chamber.<br /><ul><li>It will result in production of intense photo </li></ul> resonance within the medium. <br />
  8. 8. TYPES OF LASERS<br />2 categories of lasers are used in medicine & dentistry<br />(1).HARD LESARS<br /> -Longer wavelength<br />- Cuts the tissue by ablation.<br />- Used for tooth & bone applications.<br />(2).SOFT LASERS OR LOW LEVEL LASERS<br />- Low energy wavelengths<br /> - Cuts tissues by coagulation,vapourisation & carbonisation.<br />
  9. 9. - They are believed to stimulate circulation<br /> & cellular activity & causes various effects<br />such as anti-inflammatory,vascular,muscle<br />relaxant,analgesia& tissue healing.<br />There are many types of lasers used in <br /> dentistry, depending upon their active medium<br />(1).CARBONDIOXIDE LASER<br />- WAVELENGTH:10.6um<br /> - USES: SOFT TISSUES , DENTIN DESENSITIZATION<br />(2).ARGON LASERS<br />- WAVELENGTH:488,514.5um<br /> - USES: CURING , SOFT TISSUE DESENSITIZATION<br />
  10. 10. (3).Nd:YAG[NEODYMIUM:YTTRIUM-ALLUMINIUM<br /> GARNET] LASER<br />- WAVELENGTH:1.064um<br /> - USES: SOFT TISSUE DESENSITIZATION , ANALGESIA<br />TOOTH WHITENING , PERIODONTICS,<br /> ENDODONTICS<br />(4).KTP[POTASIUM-TITANYL PHOSPHATE] LASER<br />(5).HELIUM-NEON[He-Ne]<br />(6).RUBY LASER<br />(7).EXCIMER LASER<br />
  11. 11. (8).HOLMIUM[Ho]:YAGLASER<br />(9).ERBIUM[Er]:YAG LASER<br />- WAVELENGTH:2.94um<br /> - USES: HARD TISSUE<br />(10).ERBIUM-CHROMIUM[Er-Cr]:YSGG LASER<br />- WAVELENGTH: 2.79um<br /> - USES: HARD TISSUE<br />(11).DIODE<br />- WAVELENGTH: 800-830um<br /> - USES:SOFT TISSUE , PERIODONTICS<br />
  12. 12. Effects of lasers<br />
  13. 13. Effects on tissues on certain temperatures<br />60`<br />100`<br />200`<br />
  14. 14. APPLICATION OF LASERS IN OPERATIVEDENTISTRY<br />DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES<br />(A).INFRARED LASER FLUORESCENCE<br />[DIAGNODENT]<br />- Diagnodent is an instrument, recently designed to facilitate the detection of dental caries.<br /> - Used for detection of caries on occlusal & smooth surface.<br />
  15. 15. (B).LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE<br /> -Kutsch in 1992,illuminated carious & non carious tissue with argon laser along with dark field photography.<br /> - He reported that while illuminating, carious lesion<br />has clinical appearance of dark,fiery,orange-<br />red colour.<br />
  16. 16. CARIES DETECTION<br />
  17. 17. CAVITY PREPARATION WITH LASER<br />- NUMBER OF STUDIES HAVE BEEN PERFORMED FOR THE USE OF Er:yag LASER FOR CAVITY PREPARATION.<br /> - Results of studies says that little or no noticeable pulp reaction is produced while preparing the cavity with Er:yag laser.<br /> - It is safe & can be used for cavity preparation.<br />
  18. 18. CAVITY PREPARATION<br />WITH LASERS<br />
  19. 19. Effect on carious lesions<br />
  20. 20. ADDITIONAL BENEFITS<br />A.)minimises patient fear of the drill.<br />B.)no irritating sound like traditional drills.<br />C.)the cavity with laser preparation appears open,patent,fresh & devoid of all debris.<br />D.)mono-infection with Enterococcusfaecalis is avoided - hence sterile cavity.<br />E.)melts the dentin & blocks the tubules,thus hydrodynamic theory of dentin sensitivity is ruled out.<br />
  21. 21. PREVENTION OF DENTAL CARIES WITH<br />LASERS<br />Laser can be used for prevention of dental caries.<br />Different types of lasers increases the resistance to dental caries by reducing the rate of demineralization of substance of enamel & dentin.<br />Argon laser alters the surface characteristics of enamel to make it caries resistant.<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />-<br />
  22. 22. MECHANISM OF ACTION<br />Carbonate is lost from carbonated appetite mineral of tooth during laser irradiation<br />Pulsed co2 laser irradiation interacts with the <br />phosphate group in dental materials<br />It gets preferentially absorbed & transformed<br />efficiently to heat<br />Carbonated hydroxyapetite in the surface & in the <br />immediate subsurface of enamel is heated at temp.<br />greater than 400`c<br />Carbonate is decomposed, leaving behind the a <br />hydroxyapetitelike mineral that is less soluble<br />
  23. 23. BLEACHING WITH LASERS<br />- Power bleaching is the term used for accelerated<br />in-office tooth whitening procedures, using laser or<br /> Xenon plasma arc-curing light.<br />(A).ARGON LASER<br />- A true laser light is delivered to chemical agent.<br /> - The action is to stimulate crystals in the chemical.<br /> - No thermal effect, so less dehydration of enamel.<br /> - The treatment time is 10sec. per application per tooth.<br />It is the advantageous for clinician & patient.<br />
  24. 24. (B).DIODE LASER<br />- A true laser light produced from a solid state<br />source.<br /> - It is ultra fast, taking 3 to 5 sec. to activate<br />bleaching agent.<br /> - This type of lasers produce no heat.<br />
  25. 25. PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION OF COMPOSITE RESIN WITH LASER<br /> - ARGON LASERS ARE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE.<br /> - FOR POLYMERIZATION OF CAMPHORQUINONE<br /> ACTIVATED COMPOSITE RESIN,THE ARGON LASER<br />INCREASES;<br />~ THE DEPTH OF CURE<br /> ~ THE DIAMETRIC TENSILE STRENGTH<br /> ~ ADHESIVE BOND STRENGTH<br /> ~ DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION OF <br /> MATERIELS.<br />
  26. 26. REDUCES;<br />~ Acid solubility of surrounding enamel<br /> Decreases the time of activation<br /> Significantly.<br />
  27. 27. ADVANTAGES OF LASERS<br />(1).Minimal damage to surrounding tissues.<br />(2).Haemostatic effect by sealing blood vessels.<br />(3).Reduction of postoperative inflammation &<br /> edema.<br />(4).Little postoperative scarring.<br />
  28. 28. (5).Reduction in postoperative pain sensation<br />since nerve endings are blocked.<br />(6).Dressing & suturing is not required for<br />wound closer.<br />(7).Operating time is reduced.<br />(8).Sterilization of wound due to reduction in<br />in amount of microorg. exposed to laser<br />irradiation.<br />(10).Excellentwound healing.<br />(11).Laser exposure to tooth enamel causes <br /> reduction in caries activity.<br />
  29. 29. (12).Patient becomes free of fear & anxiety.<br /> (13).Advantageous for medically compromised patients,since no medication is required like antibiotics or pain-killers.<br />
  30. 30. DISADVANTAGES OF LASERS<br />(1).Laser beam could injure the patient or operator<br /> By direct beam or reflected light, causing retinal<br />burns.<br />
  31. 31. (2).It available only at big hospital & treatment is <br /> very expensive.<br />(3).Specially trained person is needed.<br />
  32. 32. SUMMARY<br />As the research on use of laser in dentistry isgiving bright results, lasers are getting more & <br />more famous among dentists.<br />
  33. 33. Special thanks goes to:<br />a.) Dr. Soumen Pal<br />b.) Mr.AbhisekChatterjee<br />c.) Mr.NurulHasanMollah<br />d.)Mr.Tousif Ahmed<br />
  34. 34. Thank you….<br />

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