Etiopathogenesis of neonatal sepsis

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Etiopathogenesis of neonatal sepsis

  1. 1. PRESENTED BYDR.MAYANK SHARMAGOVT MEDICAL,KOTA
  2. 2.  SYSTEMIC BACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN NEONATES IS KNOWN AS NEONATAL SEPSIS(NNS). NNS IS THE MOST COMMON MORBIDITIES SEEN AT THE COMMUNITY AND FACILITY LEVEL. IT INCORPORATES PNEUMONIA,MENINGITIS, GASTROENTRITIS AND POLYNEPHRITIS.
  3. 3.  ESCHERICHIA COLI,STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND KLEBSIELLA SP. ARERESPONSIBLE FOR MOST CASES OF NNS. OTHERS ARE ADENOVIRUS,ENTEROVIRUS,TORCH,TRIC HOMONIASIS,SYPHILIS,GONORRHOEA. CH.PNEUMONAE,H.INFLUENZAE,SPECIES OF BACTEROIDES AND CLOSTRIDIUM HAVE BEEN FOUND WITH NNS.
  4. 4.  NNS IS OF TWO TYPES:- 1 EARLY NNS(LESS THAN 72 HOURS AFTER BIRTH). 2 LATE NNS(GREATER THAN 72 HOURS AND WITHIN 90 DAYS OF BIRTH).
  5. 5. EARLY NSS LATE NNS1 WITHIN 72 HOURS. 1 FROM 72 HOURS TO 90 DAYS.2 CAUSED BY ORGANISM PRESENT IN 2 CAUSED BY ORGANISM PRESENT INMATERNAL GUT. THE EXTERNAL ENVIORMENT.3 PREDISPOSING FACTORS:-A. LBW A.LBWB.PROLONG RUPTURE OF B.LACK OF BREAT FEEDING,POOR.MEMBRANES,PROLONGED LABOR. CORD CAREC. FOUL SMELLING C. SUPERFICIAL INFECTION.LIQUOR,ASPIRATION OF MECONIUM.D.MULTIPLE PERVAGINUM D.ASPIRATION OF FEEDS,DISRUPTIONEXAMINATION. OF SKIN INTEGRITY WITH NEEDLE PRICKS,USE OF IV FLUIDS.
  6. 6.  NEONATAL IMMUNE SYSTEM IS LESS DEVELOPED. PMNs ARE DEFICIENT IN CHEMOTAXIS AND KILLING CAPACITY. THEY ARE LESS DEFORMABLE. CAPACITY OF NEONATAL PMNs FOR PHAGOCYTOSIS ARE REDUCED.
  7. 7.  FINALLY PMN RESERVES ARE EASILY DEPLETED. MACROPGHAGE CHEMOTAXIS IS IMPAIRED. THERE NUMBER IS ALSO DECREASED. CYTOKININ PRODUCTION IS DECREASED.
  8. 8.  POPULATION OF T-CELLS IN NEONATES ALSO IMMATURE. B-CEEL STIMULATION AND PROLIFERATION ALSO DECREASED. ALL THESE REASONS LEAD TO NNS.

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