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Sustainable development of_vietnam_ulas_basar_gezgin


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Sustainable development of_vietnam_ulas_basar_gezgin

  1. 1. Sustainable Development of Vietnam Problems and Suggestions Dr Ulas Basar Gezgin E-mail:
  2. 2. Annual GDP Growth (%) Source: Google Public Data, 2011a. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 2 Dr.Gezgin
  3. 3. Share of Exports in GDP Source: Google Public Data, 2011b. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 3 Dr.Gezgin
  4. 4. Imports (% of GDP) Source: Google Public Data, 2011c. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 4 Dr.Gezgin
  5. 5. Vietnam’s Export Items• Crude oil• Textiles and garment• Rice• Coffee• Rubber• Coal• Aquaculture• Forest products• Fruits sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 5 Dr.Gezgin
  6. 6. Vietnam’s Import Items• Petroleum products• Steel• Fertilizer• Electronics• Machinery and equipment sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 6 Dr.Gezgin
  7. 7. High-Technology Exports (% of Manufactured Exports) Source: Google Public Data, 2011d. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 7 Dr.Gezgin
  8. 8. GNI per Capita PPP (*) (*) Current international $ Source: Google Public Data, 2011g. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 8 Dr.Gezgin
  9. 9. Vietnam Population PyramidSource: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.41. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 9 Dr.Gezgin
  10. 10. Children per Woman in VietnamSource: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.54. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 10 Dr.Gezgin
  11. 11. Gender Data, 2009 (%)Source: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.42. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 11 Dr.Gezgin
  12. 12. Fertility in Urban vs. Rural AreasSource: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.55. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 12 Dr.Gezgin
  13. 13. Labor Force Distribution Across Sectors Source: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.108. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 13 Dr.Gezgin
  14. 14. Labor Force Distribution Across Jobs and Gender (%) Source: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.109. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 14 Dr.Gezgin
  15. 15. Living Conditions (%) Source: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.128. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 15 Dr.Gezgin
  16. 16. Household Amenities (%)- 2009 Source: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.131. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 16 Dr.Gezgin
  17. 17. Number of Internet Users Kr’s pop: 49 m; Vn’s pop: 86 m Source: Google Public Data, 2011e. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 17 Dr.Gezgin
  18. 18. Mobile Phone Subscription per 100 People Source: Google Public Data, 2011f. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 18 Dr.Gezgin
  19. 19. Urbanization in Vietnam• 2009: Total population: 86 million.• 49.4% males, 50.6% females.• An increase of 9.5 million people in 10 years (1999-2009).• Fertility rate is declining.• 1999-2009: The average annual growth rate of the urban population: 3.4%• The average annual growth rate of the rural population was only 0.4%.• 2 cities with more than 3 million people in Vietnam:• Ho Chi Minh City (7.163 million people),• Ha Noi City (6.452 million people) (GSO, 2009). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 19 Dr.Gezgin
  20. 20. Urbanization Data Source: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, 2009, p.85, p.86. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 20 Dr.Gezgin
  21. 21. Vietnam Urban Migration MapSource: Central Population and Housingdevelopment-Vietnam- Committee, 2009, p.83. sustainable Census Steering1/27/2011 21 Dr.Gezgin
  22. 22. Climate Change in Ho Chi Minh City• HCMC’s average elevation: 19 meters.• Lack of information.• Southern HCMC: Lowland.• 1 meter sea level rise: About 500 factories and 16 industrial zones will be under water (VNN, 2010a).• 2011-2015: HCMC needs 1 billion USD to cope with climate change This will mostly be spent for research (VNN, 2010a). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 22 Dr.Gezgin
  23. 23. Climate Change in Mekong Delta• Strategic importance for Vietnam as a whole:• “grows 50 per cent of Viet Nams rice; 70 per cent of its fruits and provides 90 per cent of rice exports”• 2020: “38% of the delta can be under water for 6-8 months”.• “The sea could inundate 90 per cent of the delta with about 8.5 million local residents driven from their homes”.• “One of the worlds three deltas most vulnerable to climate with 93 per cent of the 840-kilometre coast below sea level” (VNN, 2010g). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 23 Dr.Gezgin
  24. 24. Environmental Violations in Vietnam in 2010• 43% higher in number compared to 2009.• More than 6,500 violations.• 88 of them involves lawsuits.• 1/5 involves discharged untreated water and hazardous gas.• 1/5 involves illegal exploitation of natural resources and mines• (eg bauxite mining)• Secret underground pipes to discharge wastewater to the rivers is common.• Only 1/5 of hospitals has a proper waste treatment system.• Garbage dumps are full.• Import of industrial waste including radioactive waste!• Vague laws and lack of enforcement (VNN, 2011a).• 443,245 violations of the forestry law (1998-2005) (VNN, 2010k). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 24 Dr.Gezgin
  25. 25. Rivers Polluted by Industrial Wastewater• Long An Province (Mekong)• A tributary of Dong Nai River• 14 of 23 industrial parks of the province has no waste treatment system.• “Treatment systems are costly.”• They discharge 400-500 tonnes of solid waste and 50,000-70,000 cubic meters of effluents.• Not only industrial pollution, but also household and agricultural pollution:• Fertilizers and insecticides• River as dump site of household waste• Also waste coming from HCMC, Tay Ninh and Dong Nai.• An industrial solid waste treatment plant is planned to be built (VNN, 2011b).• 3.7 million tonnes of solid waste goes to Mekong delta annually (VNN, 2010i). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 25 Dr.Gezgin
  26. 26. Pollution in Dong Nai River• 586 km long.• A basin of 36,000 square kilometers.• Runs through 11 provinces of Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Ba Ria - Vung Tau, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, Long An and Tay Ninh, and HCM City• Agricultural pollution: Fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides.• Medical Waste: 35% of medical waste goes into Dong Nai without treatment.• 35 of 97 industrial parks on Dong Nai basin has no wastewater treatment system.• Urban household pollution• Sand exploiation is damaging the riverbed (VNN, 2010d; 2010e). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 26 Dr.Gezgin
  27. 27. E-waste in Vietnam• Especially, fridges, computers and mobile phones.• High toxic content. Dangerous for human nervous system.• 6 times more e-waste in 2020 compared to 2010 in Vn.• 2007: “More than 742,000 televisions, 217,000 computers and 2.8 million mobile phones were discarded”• Collected by informal scrap collectors manually (no protection)• Trieu Khuc Village, Thanh Tri District, Hanoi and• Phan Boi Village in Di Su Commune, Hung Yen Province:• E-waste recycling villages• (contaminated soil with toxics;• high levels of water and air pollution ) (Chi, 2010). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 27 Dr.Gezgin
  28. 28. Other Waste Management Problems• Overloaded landfills.• Water seepage from the landfills.• Contamination of groundwater. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 28 Dr.Gezgin
  29. 29. Problems of Water Management• Urban flooding.• Sinking (soil subsidence).• Groundwater depletion.• Saltwater intrusion. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 29 Dr.Gezgin
  30. 30. Social Sustainability• GDP growth (2010): 6.78% (GSO)• CPI: 11.75% (Dec 2009-2010)• Food and housing inflation.• Poverty rate is declining.• Rural-urban gap.• Income inequality is rising.• Gender imbalance at birth.• Youth unemployment.• Crime rates. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 30 Dr.Gezgin
  31. 31. Loss of Green Areas• Deforestation.• Loss of urban green areas due to construction pressures. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 31 Dr.Gezgin
  32. 32. Unsustainable Energy Use• Electric consumption is up.• 13.7% increase annually; double the GDP growth rate; electric consumption per person doubled in last 5 years.• It is costly for industries to switch to updated systems that are energy-efficient (VNN, 2010j).• Industrial use and household use.• Air cons vs. ventilation-friendly vernacular architecture.• Increasing use of oil (motorbikes).• Oil dependency.• Power shortage in dry season (insufficient amount of water, energy imports). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 32 Dr.Gezgin
  33. 33. Internationalized Green Crimes• “Environmental police seized two tonnes of South African elephant tusks in co-operation with Interpol in May and 17 containers of electronic waste transported from Hong Kong to Viet Nam in August” (VNN, 2010f).• Wildlife trade sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 33 Dr.Gezgin
  34. 34. Traffic Congestion• More motorbikes?• More cars?!• Vietnam & HCMC: Highest motorbike per capita in the world. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 34 Dr.Gezgin
  35. 35. What Can Be Done? sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 35 Dr.Gezgin
  36. 36. Solar Power Pilot Project• Schneider Electric Viet Nam• Quang Binh Province (Central Vietnam)• A mountain village in Thuong Trach Commune, in Bo Trach District.• Cost: USD 160,000.• Serves 150 villagers (VNN, 2010c).• Replicable?• How much saved? sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 36 Dr.Gezgin
  37. 37. Nuclear Energy Plans for Vietnam• Two nuclear power plants approved (at Ninh Thuan). Will start in 2014, to be completed in 2020.• High construction costs (US$ 12 billion).• Low operation and maintenance costs.• Low carbon production compared to other options.• No independent regulatory agency.• Lack of skilled labor (VNN, 2011c).• Nuclear waste?• Security? sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 37 Dr.Gezgin
  38. 38. Energy Projects• Song La Hydro-power Plant.• Started on 7 January 2011.• The biggest hydro-power plant in Southeast Asia.• Many other hydro-power plants and thermal power plants• (33 power plants under construction in Vietnam as of Dec 2010).• Wind power plant projects.• Promotion of solar energy.• A small number of biomass plants, biogas plants, and rice husk plants.• Dung Quat Oil Refinery (Quang Nai Province): First oil refinery in Vietnam. Started in 2009. Cost: US$ 3 billion.• Annual Processing Capacity: 6.5 million tonnes of crude oil.• Produced 7.2 million tonnes of products since 2009 (VNN, 2011e; 2010l). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 38 Dr.Gezgin
  39. 39. International Cooperation for Forest Protection• Vietnam-Germany Biodiversity Project.• USD 3.96 million.• The Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry and GTZ.• Protection of biodiversity in the forests.• Cooperation between the Agriculture and Rural Development Ministries of Vietnam and South Korea. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 39 Dr.Gezgin
  40. 40. The Vietnamese – Netherlands Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) on Water• “the plan to develop the delta region;• co-operation between Rotterdam and HCM City;• exchange of knowledge; and• the Vietnamese – Netherlands water forum”• “for mitigating sea-level rise” (VNN, 2010h). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 40 Dr.Gezgin
  41. 41. Sustainable Tourism Project• EU grant (11 million Euros) for `environmentally and socially responsible’ tourism in Vietnam.• Will be spent mostly for training of tourism officials and employees in the next 5 years (VNN, 2011d). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 41 Dr.Gezgin
  42. 42. Green Buildings• Use of green energy?• Embodied energy?• A more efficient ventilation system?• Energy-saving devices? sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 42 Dr.Gezgin
  43. 43. Recycling of Industrial Wastewater• As a solution to water scarcity and pollution.• A pilot project by the HCM City University of Technology (HCMUT), Thailand-based Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and the Institute National des Sciences Appliques (INSA) in France (VNN, 2010b). sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 43 Dr.Gezgin
  44. 44. Public Transportation Projects• Bullet train project (Ho Chi Minh City-Hanoi).• Metro lines in HCMC.• (+)s & (-)s of motorbikes. sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 44 Dr.Gezgin
  45. 45. References• Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee (2009). The 2009 Population and Housing Census.• Chi, N.K. (2010). Toxic waste poses environmental threat. Vietnam News, 24 December 2010.• Google Public Data (2011a). GDP growth (annual %).• Google Public Data (2011b). Exports of goods and services (% of GDP). &dl=eng• Google Public Data (2011c). Imports of goods and services (% of GDP). &dl=eng• Google Public Data (2011d). High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports).• Google Public Data (2011e). Internet users.• Google Public Data (2011f). Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people).• Google Public Data (2011g). GNI per capita PPP (current international $).• GSO (2009). The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census.• VNN (2011a). Environmental violations soar 43%. Vietnam News, 10 January 2011.• VNN (2011b). Long Ans waters suffer from factory waste. Vietnam News, 13 January 2011.• VNN (2011c). Nuclear future poses challenges. Vietnam News, 19 January 2011.• VNN (2011d). EU gives $15m to develop sustainable tourism. Vietnam News, 15 January 2011.• VNN (2011e). PM opens Dung Quat refinery. Vietnam News, 7 January 2011.• VNN (2010a). Need for climate-change data. Vietnam News, 30 December 2010.• VNN (2010b). Nation joins pilot scheme to recycle industrial wastewater. Vietnam News, 22 December 2010.• VNN (2010c). Solar power to be generated in Quang Binh. Vietnam News, 15 December 2010.• VNN (2010d). Pollution threatens Dong Nai Rivers future. Vietnam News, 14 December 2010.• VNN (2010e). Pollution a growing threat to Dong Nai River. Vietnam News, 2 December 2010.• VNN (2010f). Joint effort sought on ‘green crimes. Vietnam News, 25 November 2010.• VNN (2010g). Delta to face long period of flooding. Vietnam News, 17 November 2010.• VNN (2010h). Dutch aid Mekong Delta climate battle. Vietnam News, 12 November 2010.• VNN (2010i). Delta struggles with waste as landfills keep on overflowing. Vietnam News, 11 November 2010.• VNN (2010j). Power plans help save energy. Vietnam News, 16 December 2010.• VNN (2010k). Central floods spark call for dam review. Vietnam News, 15 November 2010.• VNN (2010l). Oil refinery confirms nations vision. Vietnam News, 12 November 2010.• Coverpage Photo Credit: sustainable development-Vietnam-1/27/2011 45 Dr.Gezgin
  46. 46. Sustainable Development of Vietnam Problems and Suggestions Dr Ulas Basar Gezgin E-mail: