Social Cognition and Media
Psychology Uncovered:
Social Representations of Chinese
on Turkish Newspapers
Assist.Prof.Dr. U...
Abstract
• The area of social cognition involves how people interpret the social phenomena such as other people, countries...
Social Representations
• Social representations are the cognitive structures
that “organise the worldviews of community
me...
Social Cognition
• Whereas social cognition “is the study of the
mental processes involved in perceiving,
attending to, re...
Stereotypes
• One of the major concepts within this context is social stereotypes which refer to simplified
mental represe...
Method
• Hurriyet Newspaper Archive
• 1 January 2013-27 September 2013
News That Involve Chinese
• Top Columnists on China
• Gila Benmayor 71
• Vahap Munyar 38
• Hadi Uluengin 34
• Emre Özpeyni...
News That Involve Chinese by Section
1 Jan 1997-27 Sept 2013

Source: Hurriyet Archive
Chinese on Turkish Newspapers
• Extraordinary news,
• Male-female imbalance,
• One child policy,
• Political issues,
• Com...
Economy & commerce news
Economy & Commerce: Metro
Economy & Commerce: Metro
Economy & Commerce: Metro
Economy & Commerce: Metro
Economy & Commerce: Metro
Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
Economy & Commerce: Fairs
Economy & Commerce: Fairs
Economy & Commerce: Fairs
Economy & Commerce: Energy
Economy & Commerce: Energy
Economy & Commerce: Energy
Economy & Commerce: Energy
Economy & Commerce: Energy
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
Economy & Commerce
ExtraordInary news
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary
Extraordinary: Nouveaux Riches
Extraordinary: Nouveaux Riches
Extraordinary: Nouveaux Riches
polItIcs news
Politics
Politics
Politics
Politics
Politics
Politics
Politics
Politics (Encounters)
Politics (Encounters)
Food news
Food
Food
Food
Food/Fair
Food/Fair
Food/Fair
Food
Culture & arts news
Culture & Arts
Culture & Art
Culture & Art
Culture & Arts
Culture & Arts
Culture & Arts
ELECTRONICS
Electronics
Electronics
Electronics
Electronics
Electronics
Electronics
WUSHU
Wushu
Wushu
Wushu
Wushu
Wushu
Wushu
ENCOUNTERS
Encounters: Tourism
Encounters: Tourism
Encounters: Tourism
Encounters/Metro
LABOR
Labor
Labor
Labor
Labor
TRAVEL
Travel
Travel
Travel
EMERGING THEMES
Emerging Themes: Space
Emerging Themes: Sports
Emerging Themes: Pollution
Emerging Themes: Pollution
Chinese on Turkish Newspapers (2013)
• Economy & Commerce
• Extraordinary
• Politics
• Food
• Culture & arts
• Wushu
• Ele...
Discussion
• Usually on economy or IT pages
• Tr restaurants in Cn & Cn restaurants in Tr.
• Martial arts.
• Travelogues.
...
Discussion
• Impression management
• Outgroup homogeneity (linked to extraordinary news)
• Post-colonial discourse?, encou...
Limitations
• Only covering printed materials; no TV, no
social media.
• Covering only one newspaper (but popular) in
a si...
Future Studies
• News as the reflection of representations vs. News building representations (both)
• The relationship btw...
Future Studies
• Yearly comparisons could be done in the future. Trendy
topics each year could be different, but some of t...
Conclusion
• Economy & Commerce
• Extraordinary
• Politics
• Food
• Culture & arts
• Wushu
• Electronics
• Labor
• Encount...
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Social Cognition and Media Psychology Uncovered: Social Representations of Chinese on Turkish Newspapers

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Gezgin, U.B. (2013). Social Cognition and Media Psychology Uncovered: Social Representations of Chinese on Turkish Newspapers. Seminar at Shanghai University, China, 11 November 2013. http://202.121.199.244/chs/ShowNews.asp?ID=165
http://www.shu.edu.cn/Default.aspx?tabid=507&ctl=Detail&mid=899&Id=84589&SkinSrc=%5BL%5DSkins%2Fnewscon1%2Fnewscon1

Abstract
The area of social cognition involves how people interpret the social phenomena such as other people, countries, nations, social groups etc. The notion of stereotypes is one of the most common topics studied as one of the keys to uncover psychology of social cognition. The Oxford Dictionary defines ‘stereotype’ as “a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing”. Due to the non-existence of Chinatowns and thus low social accessibility of Chinese people, Chinese are less known by Turkish people face-to-face. The information about Chinese are mostly acquired from news media and fictional works such as Jackie Chan films and kung-fu movies. The absence of face-to-face contact among many and the selectivity of media and films over social representations of Chinese might be held responsible for stereotypicality of social representations of Chinese in Turkey, rather than genuineness. Secondly, the area of media psychology studies the link between media and people’s psychology including people’s stereotypes and social representations. Mass communication theories consider media users as passive recipients which are shaped by media corporations, while more recent theories revamp this equation. In this paper, matching the discussions within media psychology and intercultural communication, the social representations of Chinese on Turkish newspapers are investigated. It is observed that Chinese appear on Turkish newspapers with extraordinary news, male-female imbalance, one child policy, political issues, commerce, long life, made-in-China products, consumerism, electronic products, hackers, tainted products, archeological and scientific discoveries, economic competition between China and U.S. etc.
Keywords: Media psychology, social cognition, stereotypes, Chinese, intercultural communication

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  • Social Cognition and Media Psychology Uncovered: Social Representations of Chinese on Turkish Newspapers

    1. 1. Social Cognition and Media Psychology Uncovered: Social Representations of Chinese on Turkish Newspapers Assist.Prof.Dr. Ulas Basar Gezgin E-mail: ulasbasar@gmail.com
    2. 2. Abstract • The area of social cognition involves how people interpret the social phenomena such as other people, countries, nations, social groups etc. The notion of stereotypes is one of the most common topics studied as one of the keys to uncover psychology of social cognition. The Oxford Dictionary defines ‘stereotype’ as “a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing”. Due to the non-existence of Chinatowns and thus low social accessibility of Chinese people, Chinese are less known by Turkish people face-to-face. The information about Chinese are mostly acquired from news media and fictional works such as Jackie Chan films and kung-fu movies. The absence of faceto-face contact among many and the selectivity of media and films over social representations of Chinese might be held responsible for stereotypicality of social representations of Chinese in Turkey, rather than genuineness. Secondly, the area of media psychology studies the link between media and people’s psychology including people’s stereotypes and social representations. Mass communication theories consider media users as passive recipients which are shaped by media corporations, while more recent theories revamp this equation. In this paper, matching the discussions within media psychology and intercultural communication, the social representations of Chinese on Turkish newspapers are investigated. It is observed that Chinese appear on Turkish newspapers with extraordinary news, male-female imbalance, one child policy, political issues, commerce, long life, made-in-China products, consumerism, electronic products, hackers, tainted products, archeological and scientific discoveries, economic competition between China and U.S. etc. • Keywords: Media psychology, social cognition, stereotypes, Chinese, intercultural communication
    3. 3. Social Representations • Social representations are the cognitive structures that “organise the worldviews of community members and guide their interpretation of reality and their everyday practices” (Campbell & Jovchelovitch, 2000, p.260). In contrast to the purely cognitive approaches, they “do not originate from pure reasoning or information processing. They are rooted in the past, culture, tradition and language” (Markova, 2003, p.xii).
    4. 4. Social Cognition • Whereas social cognition “is the study of the mental processes involved in perceiving, attending to, remembering, thinking about, and making sense of the people in our social world” (Moskowitz, 2005, p.3). The social cognition approach exclusively focuses on the individual (Augoustinos, Walker & Donaghue, 2006), while social representations approach situates him/her within a social context.
    5. 5. Stereotypes • One of the major concepts within this context is social stereotypes which refer to simplified mental representations about a particular group of people. They are usually negative, but positive stereotyping is possible as well. Stereotypes don’t correctly represent the social world, since they are just simplifications which are not capable of capturing the complexity of the social world. McGarty, Yzerbyt & Spears (2002) states that • [w]ithout individuals there could be no society, but unless individuals also perceive themselves to belong to groups, that is, to share characteristics, circumstances, values and beliefs with other people, then society would be without structure or order. These perceptions of groups are called stereotypes (McGarty, Yzerbyt & Spears, 2002, p.1).
    6. 6. Method • Hurriyet Newspaper Archive • 1 January 2013-27 September 2013
    7. 7. News That Involve Chinese • Top Columnists on China • Gila Benmayor 71 • Vahap Munyar 38 • Hadi Uluengin 34 • Emre Özpeynirci 27 • Yalçın Bayer 27 • Engin Kratzer 20 • Doğan Hızlan 15 • Sevil Atasoy 18 • Kanat Atkaya 14 • Yalçın Doğan 13 • Serdar Turgut 12 • Fatih Altaylı 11 • (Caution: The start date for each columnists) • Source: Hurriyet Archive
    8. 8. News That Involve Chinese by Section 1 Jan 1997-27 Sept 2013 Source: Hurriyet Archive
    9. 9. Chinese on Turkish Newspapers • Extraordinary news, • Male-female imbalance, • One child policy, • Political issues, • Commerce, • Long life, • Made-in-China products, • Consumerism, • Electronic products, • Hackers, • Tainted products, • Archeological and scientific discoveries, • Economic competition between China and U.S. etc.
    10. 10. Economy & commerce news
    11. 11. Economy & Commerce: Metro
    12. 12. Economy & Commerce: Metro
    13. 13. Economy & Commerce: Metro
    14. 14. Economy & Commerce: Metro
    15. 15. Economy & Commerce: Metro
    16. 16. Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
    17. 17. Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
    18. 18. Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
    19. 19. Economy & Commerce: Automobiles
    20. 20. Economy & Commerce: Fairs
    21. 21. Economy & Commerce: Fairs
    22. 22. Economy & Commerce: Fairs
    23. 23. Economy & Commerce: Energy
    24. 24. Economy & Commerce: Energy
    25. 25. Economy & Commerce: Energy
    26. 26. Economy & Commerce: Energy
    27. 27. Economy & Commerce: Energy
    28. 28. Economy & Commerce
    29. 29. Economy & Commerce
    30. 30. Economy & Commerce
    31. 31. Economy & Commerce
    32. 32. Economy & Commerce
    33. 33. Economy & Commerce
    34. 34. Economy & Commerce
    35. 35. Economy & Commerce
    36. 36. Economy & Commerce
    37. 37. ExtraordInary news
    38. 38. Extraordinary
    39. 39. Extraordinary
    40. 40. Extraordinary
    41. 41. Extraordinary
    42. 42. Extraordinary
    43. 43. Extraordinary
    44. 44. Extraordinary
    45. 45. Extraordinary
    46. 46. Extraordinary
    47. 47. Extraordinary
    48. 48. Extraordinary
    49. 49. Extraordinary: Nouveaux Riches
    50. 50. Extraordinary: Nouveaux Riches
    51. 51. Extraordinary: Nouveaux Riches
    52. 52. polItIcs news
    53. 53. Politics
    54. 54. Politics
    55. 55. Politics
    56. 56. Politics
    57. 57. Politics
    58. 58. Politics
    59. 59. Politics
    60. 60. Politics (Encounters)
    61. 61. Politics (Encounters)
    62. 62. Food news
    63. 63. Food
    64. 64. Food
    65. 65. Food
    66. 66. Food/Fair
    67. 67. Food/Fair
    68. 68. Food/Fair
    69. 69. Food
    70. 70. Culture & arts news
    71. 71. Culture & Arts
    72. 72. Culture & Art
    73. 73. Culture & Art
    74. 74. Culture & Arts
    75. 75. Culture & Arts
    76. 76. Culture & Arts
    77. 77. ELECTRONICS
    78. 78. Electronics
    79. 79. Electronics
    80. 80. Electronics
    81. 81. Electronics
    82. 82. Electronics
    83. 83. Electronics
    84. 84. WUSHU
    85. 85. Wushu
    86. 86. Wushu
    87. 87. Wushu
    88. 88. Wushu
    89. 89. Wushu
    90. 90. Wushu
    91. 91. ENCOUNTERS
    92. 92. Encounters: Tourism
    93. 93. Encounters: Tourism
    94. 94. Encounters: Tourism
    95. 95. Encounters/Metro
    96. 96. LABOR
    97. 97. Labor
    98. 98. Labor
    99. 99. Labor
    100. 100. Labor
    101. 101. TRAVEL
    102. 102. Travel
    103. 103. Travel
    104. 104. Travel
    105. 105. EMERGING THEMES
    106. 106. Emerging Themes: Space
    107. 107. Emerging Themes: Sports
    108. 108. Emerging Themes: Pollution
    109. 109. Emerging Themes: Pollution
    110. 110. Chinese on Turkish Newspapers (2013) • Economy & Commerce • Extraordinary • Politics • Food • Culture & arts • Wushu • Electronics • Labor • Encounters • Travel • Emerging
    111. 111. Discussion • Usually on economy or IT pages • Tr restaurants in Cn & Cn restaurants in Tr. • Martial arts. • Travelogues. • Sport news not covered. • Beijing Olympics effect. • News about China and about Chinese elsewhere (including Turkey). • China vs. Chinese (country vs. people). • News from Atlantic agencies vs. Chinese sources vs. Turkish sources.
    112. 112. Discussion • Impression management • Outgroup homogeneity (linked to extraordinary news) • Post-colonial discourse?, encounters • China as a mediator in Syrian conflict (but not Chinese). • Temporality and impact of news • Encounters can cover fairs, sports and culture & arts events as well. • Categories are not mutually exclusive.
    113. 113. Limitations • Only covering printed materials; no TV, no social media. • Covering only one newspaper (but popular) in a single year (2013).
    114. 114. Future Studies • News as the reflection of representations vs. News building representations (both) • The relationship btw social realities vs. News. • What are worthy of news, how they are omitted or included, how they are doctored etc. • How the same news are represented on Chinese media. • How Turkish are represented on Chinese media. • Differences in centrality of the news (e.g. Percentage of Turkish/Chinese on headlines); • Interviews with top Turkish columnists on China about media representations. • Comparisons of other Turkish newspapers. • Newspapers vs. other media sources. • Who represents? Foreign agencies, Turkish agencies, Turkish media companies, journalists, governments? etc. • Reader comments
    115. 115. Future Studies • Yearly comparisons could be done in the future. Trendy topics each year could be different, but some of them are common. Recurring themes provide the underlying representations. • Recurring themes vs. Emerging themes vs. Trendy themes • In numerical comparisons, annual ups and lows should be considered. Also before 1997 & 1973.
    116. 116. Conclusion • Economy & Commerce • Extraordinary • Politics • Food • Culture & arts • Wushu • Electronics • Labor • Encounters • Travel • Emerging

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