Skyscraper development conference_presentation

1,963 views

Published on

Gezgin, U. B. (2011). Spatial identity formation: How urban planning and economics are forming Asian urban identities? (Paper presented at the International Conference on Asian Identities: Trends in a Globalized World. 9-11 February, 2011 Bangkok, Thailand.)


Spatial Identity Formation: How Urban Planning and Economics Are Forming Asian Urban Identities?

Dr. Ulas Basar Gezgin, PhD,
lecturer, economics
E-mail: ulasbasar@gmail.com

Abstract
Most of the Asian cities are characterized by a rapid shift from primary sector to secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors. The economic development dictates the form of the city and the form of the city constrains or allows economic development which exhibits the bidirectional relationship between economic development and the form of the city. Unlike many European cities, high rise buildings are considered to be the symbol of ‘modernity’, ‘civilization’ and wealth in the Asian sphere. Thus signature buildings have had priority over other projects. The postcard images of Asian cities are changing by the introduction of high-rise buildings in the urban skylines. These rather than historic heritages are the catching images of Asia by the rapid economic growth. On the other hand, economic sectors dictate the shape of the city as well: High-rise buildings are desired by the large multinational companies for prestige and professional convenience. They are often considered to be a way to attract foreign investment by the city governments. Asian world cities are no longer considered as cities of factories or export processing zones, but as a constellation of office spaces. Factories are moved out of the cities or smaller cities in many cases. Besides commercial uses as office space, hotels or shopping malls, high-rise buildings serve residential uses as the increasing number of high-rise apartments and service apartments would point out. In this context, this paper discusses the rise of high-rise buildings in the era of Asian growth phenomenon, and how they serve to forge an urban identity for the Asian geographies.

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,963
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Skyscraper development conference_presentation

  1. 1. Dr. Ulas Basar GezginE-mail: ulasbasar@gmail.com
  2. 2.  Gezgin, U. B. (2011). Spatial identity formation: How urban planning and economics are forming Asian urban identities? (Paper presented at the International Conference on Asian Identities: Trends in a Globalized World. 9-11 February, 2011 Bangkok, Thailand.) Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 2
  3. 3.  Most of the Asian cities are characterized by a rapid shift from primary sector to secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors. The economic development dictates the form of the city and the form of the city constrains or allows economic development which exhibits the bidirectional relationship between economic development and the form of the city. Unlike many European cities, high rise buildings are considered to be the symbol of ‘modernity’, ‘civilization’ and wealth in the Asian sphere. Thus signature buildings have had priority over other projects. The postcard images of Asian cities are changing by the introduction of high-rise buildings in the urban skylines. These rather than historic heritages are the catching images of Asia by the rapid economic growth. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 3
  4. 4.  On the other hand, economic sectors dictate the shape of the city as well: High-rise buildings are desired by the large multinational companies for prestige and professional convenience. They are often considered to be a way to attract foreign investment by the city governments. Asian world cities are no longer considered as cities of factories or export processing zones, but as a constellation of office spaces. Factories are moved out of the cities or smaller cities in many cases. Besides commercial uses as office space, hotels or shopping malls, high- rise buildings serve residential uses as the increasing number of high-rise apartments and service apartments would point out. In this context, this paper discusses the rise of high-rise buildings in the era of Asian growth phenomenon, and how they serve to forge an urban identity for the Asian geographies. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 4
  5. 5. 1) A Brief History of Skyscrapers in Shanghai within the Context of Urban Planning and Economic Development2) A Brief History of Skyscrapers in Tokyo within the Context of Urban Planning and Economic Development3) A Brief History of Skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur within the Context of Urban Planning and Economic Development4) A Brief History of Skyscrapers in Singapore within the Context of Urban Planning and Economic Development5) A Brief History of Skyscrapers in Seoul within the Context of Urban Planning and Economic Development6) A Brief History of Skyscrapers in Bangkok within the Context of Urban Planning and Economic Development Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 5
  6. 6. 7) Discussion and Conclusion7.1) Heat Island Effect and Microclimate Issues7.2) Traffic Congestion7.3) The Uses (Psychological Aspects)7.4) Privatization of Urban Planning7.5) Negative/Positive Heritage Issues7.6) City Image and Design Features7.7) Possible Positive Externalities: Compact Cities and Green Roofs7.8) Future Directions Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 6
  7. 7.  The third city with the highest number of high rise buildings in Asia after Tokyo and Hong Kong. 565 high rises An official population of 13.5 millions (the total population amounts to 19 million with floating migrant workers). Skyscraper construction is a very recent activity (it is a consequence of Deng Xiaoping policies) Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 7
  8. 8.  Before 1990: Songjiang Fang Pagoda (1077), Bund Observatory (1884), Custom House (1927), Peace Hotel (1929), Si Hang Warehouse (1931) and Bank of China (1937) were the high rises of the city, all less than 100 m. in height. A typical pattern of moving from religious and astronomical uses to uses as office, hotel and mixed uses before 1990 Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 8
  9. 9.  Oriental Pearl Tower (1994) King Tower (1996) Jin Mao Tower (1998) CAAC Pudong Tower (2001), Pudong Shangri La Hotel Extension (2005), Oasis Skyway Garden Hotel (2006), Shanghai Summit Shopping City (2006), Shanghai World Financial Center (2006), 21st Century Mansion (2009), BM Plaza (2009) and Shanghai IFC South Tower (2009) Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 9
  10. 10.  By 2014, the tallest buildings of the city will be Shanghai Tower (632 m), Shanghai World Financial Center (492 m), Jin Mao Tower (420.5 m), Shanghai Shimao International Plaza (333.3 m) and White Magnolia Plaza 1 (319.5 m). Currently, Jin Mao Tower is the tallest building in People’s Republic of China. It has world’s highest hotel rooms. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 10
  11. 11.  An example of a signature building. The construction of Shanghai World Financial Center began in 1997, but the Asian Financial Crisis delayed the construction. When it was constructed, it was intended to be the tallest building in the world. Redesigned to minimize the human and physical damages in the case of a plane crash after September 11th Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 11
  12. 12.  Before 1968: High rise buildings that are short of 100 m such as Ryounkaku (1890) and Old Marunouchi Building (1923) which did not survive. Unlike these two, National Diet Building (1936) still serves its function. Kasumigaseki Building (1968) begin the high rise development in Tokyo. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 12
  13. 13.  Tokyo World Trade Center Building (1970), Keio Plaza Hotel (1971) KDDI Building (1974) Shinjuku Sumitomo Building (1974) Shinjuku Mitsui Building (1974), Shinjuku Nomura Building (1978), Sunshine 60 (1978), Shinjuku Center Building (1979), Tokyo Metropolitian Government Building 1 (1991), Saint Lukes Tower (1994), Shinjuku Park Tower (1994), Ministry of Defense Building B (1996), Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 13
  14. 14.  TEPCO Building (1997), Toshima Incineration Plant (1999), NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building (2000), Dentsu Headquarters Building (2002), Shiodome City Center (2003), Roppongi Hills Mori Tower (2003), GranTokyo North Tower (2007), GranTokyo South Tower (2007), Mid-Town Tower (2007), and Tokyo Mode Gakuen Coccoon Tower (2009). Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 14
  15. 15.  Almost all of the high rises of Tokyo in 60s and 70s are for office space with the exception of two hotels, Tokyo Tower (1958) which is used for communication purposes and Senso-ji Five Storied Pagoda which is for religious uses. In 1980s we see mostly skyscrapers for office use and a few hotels as well as Suginami Incineration Plant (1982) which spews out from 160 m of height. By 1989, we see significant variation in the uses of high rise buildings. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 15
  16. 16.  River City 21 River Point Tower (1989); River City 21 Kosha Tower Tsukuda (1989); River City 21 Skylight Tower (1990); River City 21 East Tower (1991), Saint Lukes Residence Tower (1994); Tomin Tower Shinonome (1996); Triton View Tower (1998); River City 21 Century Park Tower (1999); River Harp Tower Building 2 (2000); River City 21 East Towers (2000); Atago Green Hills Forest Tower (2001); Tokyo Twin Parks Left Wing (2002); Tokyo Twin Parks Right Wing (2002); Storia Shinagawa (2003); Shinagawa V-Tower (2003); Roppongi Hills Residences B (2003); Roppongi Hills Residences C (2003); Tokyo Times Tower (2004); Plaza Tower Kachidoki (2004); W-Comfort Towers East Tower (2004); Acty Shiodome (2004); Shinagawa Tower Face (2005); Bay Crest Tower (2005); Takanawa The Residence (2005); W-Comfort Towers West Tower (2005); Tornare Nihombashi-Hamacho (2005); Toranomon Towers Residence (2006); Brillia Tower Tokyo (2006); Shibaura Island Cape Tower (2006); Apple Tower (2007); Capital Mark Tower (2007); Shibaura Island Grove Tower (2007); Shibaura Island Air Tower (2007); Park Axis Aoyama 1-chome Tower (2007); Shibaura Island Bloom Tower (2008); The Tokyo Towers Mid Tower (2008); The Tokyo Towers Sea Tower (2008); and Central Park Tower La Tour Shinjuku (2010). Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 16
  17. 17.  This list shows an enormous trend towards residential uses. Tokyo residents do not only work on high rises, they also live in high rises. Educational uses of high rise buildings: Kogakuin University Shinjuku Building (1989), STEC Information Building (1992) and Tokyo Mode Gakuen Coccoon Tower (2009). The emergence of incineration plants with high rise chimneys: Nerima Incineration Plant (1992), Kita Incineration Plant (1998), Shin-Koto Incineration Plant (1998), Minato Incineration Plant (1999), Toshima Incineration Plant (1999), Shibuya Incineration Plant (2001), and Chuo Incineration Plant (2001). Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 17
  18. 18.  Rainbow Bridge (1993) is a high rise structure built for transportation purposes. There are some mixed use high rises. Government buildings such as Sumida Ward Office, Metropolitan Government Building Tower 1, Metropolitan Government Building Tower 1 and Bunkyo Civic Center are high rise. These cases are interesting because in many other cities, skyscraper construction is an exclusively private business. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 18
  19. 19.  The tallest building at its time of completion and had the fastest elevator (600m/min) It was built on the site of the prison for Japanese World War II cabinet and high officials; and witnessed execution of 7 top figures including the prime minister of World War II Japan, Hideki Tojo. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 19
  20. 20.  Starts with a hotel (Mutiara KL, 1973) and proceeds mostly by high rise for office space. 1988: Menara Maybank- 243.5 m. 1996: Menara Kuala Lumpur, a 335 m (used for communication purposes). 1998: Petronas Towers- 451.9 m. 2001: Menara Telecom (2001)- 310 m height. KILA Control Tower (used for the purposes of traffic control) Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 20
  21. 21.  1973-2000: the high rises were mostly used for office space or as hotel. 2000: high rises built for residential use 8 Persiaran Hampshire, North Block (2000), 8 Persiaran Hampshire, South Block (2000), Sri Tiara (2000), Suasana Sentral Condominiums, 1 (2001) and Suasana Sentral Condominiums, 2 (2001) Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 21
  22. 22.  A signature building, as it was constructed to be the tallest building in the world, and it was designed and built by various international companies. Built to forge a distinctive visual identity for the city. One tower is completely occupied by the national oil company. The postcard images of the city before the high rise boom in Kuala Lumpur: Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, (a colonial Moghul building) and the mosques; Now: Petronas Towers and/or KL Tower. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 22
  23. 23.  Meritus Mandarin Singapore Tower 1 (1971), a hotel with 144 m of height and Meritus Mandarin Singapore Tower 2 (1973), another hotel with 152 m of height. Until 1982, almost all high rises are office space. 1982 is the first residential high rises. 1986: Overseas Union Bank Centre (280.1 m), 8 Shenton Way (234.7 m), and Swissôtel The Stamford (226 m) 280 m is the maximum height by Sg Aviation Authority Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 23
  24. 24.  1982: Far Horizon Gardens Blk 1, 5, 7, 11, and 15 2005: Bishan Blocks 288, 290 and 291 in 1992 and by Toa Payoh Blocks 145, 146, 147 and 151 2009: Central Park Tower and Marina Bay Tower (the tallest residential high rise in Singapore) 2010: the Pinnacle at Duxton Road - Block 1A, B, C, D, E, F, G Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 24
  25. 25.  Started in 1970 by Samil Building (110 m) and since then was pursued by many office and a comparatively high number of high rise hotels with the notable exception of Seoul Tower (1975, 236.7 m) which has been used for communication purposes. 1997: the first residential high rise in Seoul (Lotte Sky Tower). Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 25
  26. 26.  2002: the year of residential high rise boom by Daewoo Trumpworld One, Daewoo Trumpworld Two Tower 1, Daewoo Trumpworld Two Tower 2, Tower Palace 1 Tower D, Boramae Chereville, Tower Palace 1 Tower A, Tower Palace 1 Tower C, and Tower Palace 1 Tower B. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 26
  27. 27.  Followed by other residential high rises such as Hyundai Superville, Towers A, B and C, Mok-dong Chereville Towers 1 and 2, Galleria Palace Towers B and C, Hyundai Superville, Tower D, Tower Palace 3 Tower G, Mok-dong Hyperion Towers in 2003, LG Shindorim Xii 101, 102, 103, Daelim Acroriver, Tower A, I-Park Tower 101, 102, and 103, Academy Suite, Tower Palace 2 Towers E and F in 2004, Park Suites Seoul Towers A-B, Galleria Palace Tower A in 2005, Mokdong Hyperion II, Towers 201, 202, 203, 205 and 206, The Sharp Star City, Towers A, B, C and D in 2006, Yongsan City Park Towers 102, 103, 201, 202 in 2007, Gundae Posco The Star City Towers A and B in 2008, Sangbong - Sante Le Ciel East and West Towers and Mokdong Trapalace Towers A and C in 2009, and Hawolgok Starclass Towers A and B in 2010. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 27
  28. 28.  The last decade witnessed the rise of residential high rises eclipsing other uses. Tower Palace 3 Tower G is the tallest building of South Korea and in the top list of the tallest residential buildings worldwide. Seoul has an high rise hospital as well (Yonsei Medical Center, 2004, 106.7 m) Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 28
  29. 29.  Starts with Baiyoke Tower 1 which is a hotel with 150.9 m of height. Followed by another hotel, a residential high rise, and two office high rises in 1993. Residential high rises entered the scene in an early stage compared to other cities. Asian Financial Crisis (1998) Bangkok surpassed 300 m in 1997 by Baiyoke Tower II which is a hotel. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 29
  30. 30.  Rama 8 Bridge (2002) and Industrial Ring Road Bridge Parts I and II (2006) are notable transportation high rises. There is a high number of hotels which is not surprising when the share of tourism in Thailand’s economy would be considered. 3 tallest skyscrapers are all hotels (Baiyoke Tower II, Meritus Suites State Tower and Centara Grand Hotel). The tallest building in Thailand and Southeast Asia is Baiyoke Tower II (328 m) Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 30
  31. 31.  Since 2006, most of the high rise buildings are residential high rises: 2006: Supalai Premier Place Asoke - Tower 1, The Colony, Urbana Sathorn, The Fullerton 2007: St. Louis Grand Terrace, Le Raffine – Jambunuda, The Madison, Baan Rajprasong, The Park Residence - Tower 1, Centrepoint Ratchdamri 2008: The Infinity, Watermark Chaophraya - Tower A, Empire Place 2009: The Emporio Place, Villa Rachatewee, Emporio Place North Tower, Millennium Residence - Towers 1, 2, 3 and 4 and The MET 2010: Amanta Lumpini Condominium, The Aguston Tower A, Hansa Residence, and The Pano Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 31
  32. 32. 7.1) Heat Island Effect and Microclimate Issues7.2) Traffic Congestion7.3) The Uses (Psychological Aspects)7.4) Privatization of Urban Planning7.5) Negative/Positive Heritage Issues7.6) City Image and Design Features7.7) Possible Positive Externalities: Compact Cities and Green Roofs7.8) Future Directions Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 32
  33. 33. Baiyoke Hotel (2010). Baiyoke Hotel. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.baiyokehotel.com/>.Bangkok Municipality (2010). Bangkok Municipality. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://city.bangkok.go.th/en/bt-symbol.php>.Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts (2010). Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.banyantree.com/en/bangkok/overview>.Empire Tower Bangkok (2010). Empire Tower Bangkok. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.empiretower.co.th/main.html>.Emporis (2010). Emporis. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.emporis.com>.Jin Mao Tower (2010). Jin Mao Tower. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.jinmao88.com/en/jinmao_edifice.htm>.K Residence, KL (2010). K Residence, KL. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.kresidence.com.my/>.Kuala Lumpur Municipality (2010). Kuala Lumpur Municipality. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.dbkl.gov.my/index.php?lang=en>.Lee, C.C. (2005). Environmental engineering dictionary. The Scarecrow Press, Inc: Maryland.Petronas Twin Powers (2010). Petronas Twin Powers. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.petronastwintowers.com.my>.Seoul Municipality (2010). Seoul Municipality. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://english.seoul.go.kr/gtk/cg/cityhall.php?pidx=2>.Shanghai Municipality (2010). Shanghai Municipality. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/shanghai/node23919/index.html>.Shanghai World Financial Center (2010). Shanghai World Financial Center. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.swfc- shanghai.com/en/>.Skyscraperpage (2010). Skyscraperpage. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://skyscraperpage.com/>.Swiss Hotel (2010). Swiss Hotel. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.swissotel.com/EN/Destinations/Singapore/Swissotel+The+Stamford/Hotel+Home/Hotel+Description>.The Economist (2010). The Economist. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.economist.com/research/economics/alphabetic.cfm?letter=e#externality>.The MET Bangkok (2010). The MET Bangkok. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.met-bangkok.com/>.Tokyo Municipality (2010). Tokyo Municipality. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/index.htm>.World Buildings Directory (2010). World Buildings Directory. viewed 26 October 2010, <http://www.worldbuildingsdirectory.com>. Asian spatial identity-Dr Gezgin 2/26/2011 33

×