Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Dr Gezgin Pollution In Vietnam Slideshare


Published on

Gezgin, U. B. (2009). The social consequences of environmental degradation in Vietnam: A country-level and city-level pollution haven analysis. (Paper presented at The 9th Conference of The Asia Pacific Sociological Association: Improving the Quality of Social Life: A Challenge for Sociology, June 13-15 2009, Bali, Indonesia.)

Dr. Ulas Basar Gezgin, PhD,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
His Life:
His Works:

Published in: Travel, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Dr Gezgin Pollution In Vietnam Slideshare

  1. 1. The Social Consequences of Environmental Degradation in Vietnam: A Country-level and City-level Pollution Haven Analysis Dr. Ulas Basar Gezgin, PhD, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam E-mail: [email_address] Website:
  2. 2. <ul><li>Gezgin, U. B. (2009). The social consequences of environmental degradation in Vietnam: A country-level and city-level pollution haven analysis. (Paper presented at The 9th Conference of The Asia Pacific Sociological Association: Improving the Quality of Social Life: A Challenge for Sociology, June 13-15 2009, Bali, Indonesia.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>3. Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>4. Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>5. Bibliography </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4 hypotheses <ul><li>Muradian (2004) : </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution havens </li></ul><ul><li>T he race to the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>G lobal upward convergence </li></ul><ul><li>T he environmental Kuznets curve </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pollution havens <ul><li>high income countries use low income countries for their ‘dirty’ industries, as low income countries have generally looser environmental regulations </li></ul>
  7. 7. T he race to the bottom <ul><li>competition by the low income countries which have low environmental and work standards deteriorates the standards of the high income countries </li></ul>
  8. 8. G lobal upward convergence <ul><li>globalization improves economic and social conditions of the globe </li></ul>
  9. 9. T he environmental Kuznets curve <ul><li>in the first stages of economic growth, pollution is common; but after a period of economic growth, pollution is declining </li></ul>
  10. 10. Environmental Kuznets Curve Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, NZ
  11. 11. Structural Changes & Pollution <ul><li>From agriculture to industry: high P </li></ul><ul><li>From industry to service: low P </li></ul><ul><li>Renewability of natural resources? </li></ul><ul><li>The pace of structural change vs. the pace of the renewability of the resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Human costs? </li></ul>
  12. 12. biocentric/ecocentric vs. anthropocentric approach <ul><li>B iocentric/ecocentric perspective : </li></ul><ul><li>T he aim is conserving the nature and no t disrupting the natural cycles . </li></ul><ul><li>A nthropocentric approach : </li></ul><ul><li>T he priority is the concern for human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Then whose stake would be considered? </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Dirty companies are providing jobs for people. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution that leads to cancer-related deaths vs. job loss and/or unemployment </li></ul>
  13. 13. China’s accession to WTO : 3 hypotheses <ul><li>Vennemo et al (2008) : </li></ul><ul><li>1) The scale hypothesis : pollution has increased due to economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>(a variant is pollution haven effect), </li></ul><ul><li>2) The technique hypothesis: there is a trend towards cleaner technologies (aka Pollution halo effect) </li></ul><ul><li>3) The composition hypothesis: pollution reflects the new composition of Chinese economy. (eg structural changes) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Composition Effect <ul><li>Optimist: Pollution halo effect </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaner technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Pessimist: Pollution heaven effect </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty industries dominate the markets. </li></ul>
  15. 15. generational turnover effect a cold-blooded analysis <ul><li>Pautrel (in press) : d eaths due to pollution would decrease consumption, since the newborns that would demographically replace deceased elderlies will have a lower level of consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, as a factor that limits consumption, pollution stifles growth. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>2. Problem Statement </li></ul>
  17. 17. I nternal pollution haven hypothesis <ul><li>D irty industries of Vietnam move to provincial and rural areas, and </li></ul><ul><li>the news coverage for pollution in those areas is limited. </li></ul>
  18. 18. M ultiple environmental Kuznets curves <ul><li>M ultiple environmental Kuznets curves exist within each country. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the major cities grow faster than rural areas, there may be attempts in cities to fight against pollution after a certain point in economic growth, however this fight is minimal in provincial and rural areas. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>3. Discussion </li></ul>
  20. 20. Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Dust traps, Thanh Nien Daily, 25 April 2009.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Vietnam has the third highest number of motorbikes after China and India on world ranking. </li></ul><ul><li>Cars and motorbikes are estimated to contribute 70-80% of air pollution in Vietnam . </li></ul><ul><li>With an 86 million population, more than 24 million motorbikes are registered. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 4 million motorbikes are registered in Ho Chi Minh City (official pop: 6.65 million) and 2 million motorbikes are registered in Hanoi . </li></ul><ul><li>Public transportation is very poor. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Dust hazard threatens southern metro: experts , Thanh Nien Daily, 15 April 2009. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vedan <ul><li>Vedan, a Taiwanese monosodium glutamate producer located in Dong Nai polluted Thi Vai River since 1994 by concealed underground pipes dumping its waste to the river. More than 2000 (fish, seafood and land) farmers were adversely affected by Vedan’s wastewater in Dong Nai . </li></ul><ul><li>Another Vedan factory in Ha Tinh Province was closed on April 2009, since it was dumping the wastewater to Rao Tro River. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, Vedan (Dong Nai) offered $ 1.1 million compensation for (fish, seafood and land) farmers whose farms were devastated due to the untreated wastewaters, but this is only one tenth of the losses of the farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Actually Vedan is only one of the 1000 companies on the banks of Thi Vai River in Dong Nai that are dumping their untreated wastewater to the river </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Motorbike emission tests should obtain public confidence , Thanh Nien Daily, 11 April 2009. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Pollution Fines <ul><li>The punishment is less than the cost of wastewater treatment system. The former costs tens of millions of dong while the latter costs billions of dong. </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum pollution fine is VND 70 million (less than $ 4,000). </li></ul><ul><li>This does not deter the companies from polluting, and paying fine, if they are detected . </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Plastic bags choking Ho Chi Minh City, Thanh Nien Daily, 19 March 2009. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Since loose environmental regulations will be the comparative advantage of the provincial and rural areas, the pay-off for those areas will get worse and worse. Considering environmental Kuznets curve, we would expect more pollution in Ho Chi Minh City compared to other provinces at that stage. However, if internal pollution haven proposal is correct, we would expect more pollution in rural areas, as urban areas would move their dirty industries to other provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>That dirty industries in Hanoi are ordered to be relocated to other provinces can be considered as an evidence for internal pollution haven proposal . </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Vedan at it again, Thanh Nien Daily, 31 March 2009. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 29. Plastic bags: the flower South Africa (and Vietnam?) <ul><li>50 tonnes of plastic bags are estimated to be used in Ho Chi Minh City per day. </li></ul><ul><li>That means 10 million bags are thrown away per 6.65 million city residents per day </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>4. Conclusion </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Another river polluter busted in southern region , Thanh Nien Daily, 2 March 2009. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Deaths due to air pollution is the burden of poor, and the majority of the traffic accidents involve motorbikes, which is the basic vehicle of transport for poor along with bicycles and electric bicycles. </li></ul><ul><li>The short term solution is improving the quality of public transportation and expanding the coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>The long term solution requires a reassessment of the economic growth model. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Vietnam looking for private investment in waste treatment, Thanh Nien Daily, 2 March 2009. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Tap water is dangerous in Vietnam, but the poor majority who can’t afford clean drinking water boils the tap water and drinks it. </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution, due to the ultimately destructive profit motive of foreign and local companies accompanied with officials that turn a blind eye, or that directly reap the benefits of environmental degradation, and accompanied with lax environmental regulations, led to kilotons of losses for seafood, fish and land farmers. They are back to poverty. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Hanoi to complete dealing with polluting firms this year , Thanh Nien Daily, 26 February 2009. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>However, government and officials are not the only ones to blame: The poor majority is victim and perpetrator at the same time. Black water flows through the canals of Ho Chi Minh City in residential areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental awareness campaigns are indispensable. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Poverty confronts coastal farmers as mussels die in large numbers, Thanh Nien Daily, 12 February 2009. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Pollution data for Vietnam should be rigorously collected for research and policy action. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Source: Thanh Nien News (2009). Dirty air, water hinders central locals from making a living , Thanh Nien Daily, 17 March 2009. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>5. Bibliography </li></ul>