SKIN
<ul><li>It consist of Skin & Accessory organs (hair, nails & gland) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the largest sense organ </li><...
Structure of Skin <ul><li>It consist of 3 layers </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Su...
<ul><li>Dermis(cornium): below epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of blood & lymph vessels, nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li...
Colors of Skin <ul><li>White: Leukoderma, e.g palms & soles </li></ul><ul><li>Black: Melanoderma, e.g all our body </li></...
Accessory organ <ul><li>Hair: made up of cells of epidermis , but are filled with keratin, melanocytes lie at the base, gr...
Skin/cutaneous lesion: It is a localized area of damage to tissue by disease or trauma <ul><li>Albinism:congenital absence...
<ul><li>Eczema:inflammation of skin, charact. by redness, oozing, crusting & scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Electolysis:hair re...
Disorder of skin <ul><li>Acne:inflammation of sebaceous gland,ocurs during puberty, because of hormonal changes and infect...
Skin neoplasm <ul><li>Benign: Leukoplakia, nevus , warts </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant: </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Cell carcini...
Drugs associated with skin lesion <ul><li>Keratolytic agents:salicyclic acid, tretinoin & benzyl peroxide </li></ul><ul><l...
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Skin(Integumentary System)

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Skin:Anatomy, Pathology,treatment, abbreviations

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Skin(Integumentary System)

  1. 1. SKIN
  2. 2. <ul><li>It consist of Skin & Accessory organs (hair, nails & gland) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the largest sense organ </li></ul><ul><li>Forms a barrier between internal & external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The weight is 8-10 pounds, total surface area is 22 Sq.ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin on ventral surface & thinner on dorsum </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature regulation </li></ul>Integumentary system
  3. 3. Structure of Skin <ul><li>It consist of 3 layers </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis:consist of two layers </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum Corneum </li></ul><ul><li>Basal layer: cell formation, </li></ul><ul><li> Melanocyte=melanin=protects from UV light </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Dermis(cornium): below epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of blood & lymph vessels, nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>Accessory organ: Hair follicle, Sweat & sebaceous gland </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting tissue: Connective (elastic & Collagen) , fibrous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch Mark: In women after child birth because of breakdown of elastic & collagen fibres. </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous tissue: contains lipocytes, which manufacture & store fat thus protecting and insulating deeper tissue </li></ul>
  5. 5. Colors of Skin <ul><li>White: Leukoderma, e.g palms & soles </li></ul><ul><li>Black: Melanoderma, e.g all our body </li></ul><ul><li>Blue: Canoderma, e.g VSD, Varicose vein </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow: Xanthoderma. e.g Jaundice </li></ul><ul><li>Red: Erythroderma, e.g skin of lip </li></ul>
  6. 6. Accessory organ <ul><li>Hair: made up of cells of epidermis , but are filled with keratin, melanocytes lie at the base, grow at a rate of ½ inch a month </li></ul><ul><li>Nails:made of hard keratin material, grow at a rate of 1mm /week, finger>toe nail </li></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous gland:secrete oil called sebum, overproduction leads to acne & blackheads </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat gland:all over body, more over palm & soles, open by ducts as pore. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skin/cutaneous lesion: It is a localized area of damage to tissue by disease or trauma <ul><li>Albinism:congenital absence of melanin </li></ul><ul><li>Anhidrosis: genetic condition of inability to sweat </li></ul><ul><li>Atheletes foot:superficial skin infection of foot </li></ul><ul><li>Alopecia:localised loss of hairs </li></ul><ul><li>Burns:injury to tissue by heat, electrical, chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li> Ist degree:superficial epidermal lesion, e.g sunburn </li></ul><ul><li> 2 nd degree: epidermis & dermis </li></ul><ul><li> 3 rd degree:all the layers are damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Burns severity is measured in terms of percentage of affected area </li></ul><ul><li>Callus: area of hardened & thickened skin, seen at pressure site </li></ul><ul><li>Carbuncle:painful inflammation of subcutaneous tissue with pus </li></ul><ul><li>Comedo:sebaceous material over duct of sebaceous gland,e.g. blackhead </li></ul><ul><li>Corn:conical thickening of skin over toe joint & between toes </li></ul><ul><li>Cyst: sac containing fluid or semisolid material, e.g sebaceous& pilonoidal cyst </li></ul><ul><li>Dermabrasion:removal of acne, scar, tattoo </li></ul><ul><li>Dermatome:instrument to cut skin for grafting </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Eczema:inflammation of skin, charact. by redness, oozing, crusting & scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Electolysis:hair removal by electric current </li></ul><ul><li>Erythema:redness of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Ecchymosis:bluish black mark on skin, e.g IIry to injury </li></ul><ul><li>Fissure:groove or crack in skin, e.g anal fissure </li></ul><ul><li>Furuncle:a boil, abcess from infection of hair follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Macule: flat discoloured lesion, e.g flat mole, tattoo, freckles </li></ul><ul><li>Nevus:pigmented flat area, present since birth, e.g mole, birthmark </li></ul><ul><li>Papule: small round elevation, size pinpint to pea, e.g peas </li></ul><ul><li>Pustule:elavation with pus </li></ul><ul><li>Polyp:tumour on the stem, found on mucus membrane, e.g nasal polyps </li></ul><ul><li>Pruritis: itching </li></ul><ul><li>Petechiae: small pin point haemorrhage over skin </li></ul><ul><li>Intradermal:Inside skin </li></ul><ul><li>Urticaria: acute allergic reaction, red round wheals on skin </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcer: large erosion of skin/mucus membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicle/blisters: small collection of clear fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Vitiligo: loss of pigment in areas of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Wheal: smooth elevated edematous area, e.g allergy, mosquito bite </li></ul>
  9. 9. Disorder of skin <ul><li>Acne:inflammation of sebaceous gland,ocurs during puberty, because of hormonal changes and infection, four basic lesion are comedones,papules, pustules & cyst, treated by antibiotics & accutane </li></ul><ul><li>Impetigo: superficial skin infection caused by staphylococci/streptococci </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE):autoimmune inflammatory disease, occurs in young women, associated with other connective disorder e.g rheumatoid arithritis, rheumatic fever. Characteristic butterfly lesion over face, treated with immunosuppressive & corticosteroids </li></ul><ul><li>Psoriasis:chronic disease characterized by reddish, slightle raised plaques or papules covered with scales, involving scalp, elbow, knee back & buttocks, treatment by topical lubricant, keratolytics, steroid, PUVA </li></ul><ul><li>Decubitus ulcer/bedsore/trophic ulcer: seen in patients who are bedridden, seen over sacrum, heels, ankles, buttocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Warts:caused by virus causing epidermal growth, seen on genitals, anal </li></ul><ul><li>Cold sore/fever blister: secondary to fever </li></ul><ul><li>Sunburn: due to prolonged exposure of skin to UV light </li></ul><ul><li>Scabies:caused due to parasite(mite) </li></ul><ul><li>Scleroderma: chronic progressive thickening of skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Gangrene: death of skin IIry to DM </li></ul>
  10. 10. Skin neoplasm <ul><li>Benign: Leukoplakia, nevus , warts </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant: </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Cell carcinima:malignany of basal cell layer </li></ul><ul><li>Kaposki sarcoma:malignant vascular nodule </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant melanoma:cancerous growth of melanocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous cell carcinoma: malignant tumor of squamous epidermis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Drugs associated with skin lesion <ul><li>Keratolytic agents:salicyclic acid, tretinoin & benzyl peroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Depilatories:calcium hydroxide, calcium thioglycollate, strontium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Caustics:glacial acetic acid & trichloroacetic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Astringents:aluminium salt </li></ul><ul><li>Dusting powder: talc, magnesium oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Protective dressings: colloidon </li></ul><ul><li>Corticosteroids; hydrocortsone, prednisone, deflazacort </li></ul><ul><li>Sunscreening agents: </li></ul>Laboratory test: Abbreviations: Fungal scrapping DLE:discoid lupus erythematosus Skin biopsy PPD:purified protein deravative Skin test PUVA:psorlen ultraviolet light theraphy Procedures: SLE:systemic lupus erythematosus Cryosurgery bx: biopsy Skin biopsy subq: subcutaneous

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