Hematology  <ul><li>Blood:red body fluid flowing thru the b.v is called the blood </li></ul><ul><li>8%of total body weight...
Anaemia :decrease in Hb below 13% in male & 11 % female. Etiology: ↓bone marrow production Lack of iron,amino acid Loss of...
Made of water & solute Blood clotting Plasma IDIPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA: ↓ platelets Bone marrow 5 to 9 days Blood...
LAB TEST <ul><li>RETICULOCYTE COUNT/HEMATOCRIT </li></ul><ul><li>To know about the rbc count </li></ul><ul><li>Differentia...
<ul><li>ABO:blood groups </li></ul><ul><li>Baso;basophils </li></ul><ul><li>BMT:bone marrow transplantation </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Name    </li></ul><ul><li>Ref  -  </li></ul><ul><li>HAEMOGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>TEST  OBSERVATION  NORMAL RANGE </...
<ul><li>Name  -      </li></ul><ul><li>Ref  -  </li></ul><ul><li>URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>TEST  OBSERVA...
<ul><li>Test  Result  Normal </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sugar ( F ) 70  - 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sugar ( PP ) 100  - 160...
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Haematology

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Haematology for Medical Transcriptionist Students

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Haematology

  1. 1. Hematology <ul><li>Blood:red body fluid flowing thru the b.v is called the blood </li></ul><ul><li>8%of total body weight, male: 5 L, female 4 L </li></ul><ul><li>Function : </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients to cell & elimination of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones & enzymes transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of PH & body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Clotting mechanism, preventing loss of fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul>Proteins Albumin, immunoglobulins Fibrin(serum) Erythrocytes(RBC) Leukocytes(WBC) 1.granular Neutrophils Eosinohils Basophils 2. Agranular Lymphocytes Monocytes 3.Thrombocytes (platelets) Plasma (55%) Cells(45%)
  2. 2. Anaemia :decrease in Hb below 13% in male & 11 % female. Etiology: ↓bone marrow production Lack of iron,amino acid Loss of blood Signs & symptoms Fatigue, palpitations,breathlessness Pallor of skin, mucosa,edema POLYCYTHEMIA:↑ rbc Lack of concentration, headache,fatigue, CVA SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA: Inherited Hb conditions THALESSIMIA : APLASTIC ANEMIA:failure of rbc to form PERNICIOUS ANEMIA:lack of vit b12 HAEMORRHAGIC ANEMIA:removal or destruction of RBC HEMOCHROMATOSIS:excessive deposit of iron in body Bone marrow in sternm, ribs, vertebra & pelvis 120 day .Carry o2& co2 .Antigens A,B,AB & 0 .Rh type RBC,s Biconcave disc contains haemoglobin made of iron +protein diseases Production Life span Function Structure
  3. 3. Made of water & solute Blood clotting Plasma IDIPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA: ↓ platelets Bone marrow 5 to 9 days Blood clotting Platelets: disc shaped without nucleus LEUKEMIA:cancer of blood Types: ALL:acute lymphoblastic leukemia AML:---------myeloid------------- CLL:chronic lympoblastic---- CML:----------myeloid------ Etiology:radiation exposure, cytotoxic drugs, HIV Symptoms:tiredness, fatigue,bleding tendency, lymphadenopathy, spleen enlargement Treatment::danorubicin,etoperiside, bone marrow transplantation, imatinib mesylate GRANULOCYTOSIS EOSINOPHILA BASOPHILA Bone marrow, lymphoid tissue Few days .To kill microbes .Release enzyme lysozyme .Antibodies production WBC: Have nuclei
  4. 4. LAB TEST <ul><li>RETICULOCYTE COUNT/HEMATOCRIT </li></ul><ul><li>To know about the rbc count </li></ul><ul><li>Differential count for WBC:leucocytosis, leukopenia </li></ul><ul><li>CBC(complete blood count) </li></ul><ul><li>Hb, TLC,DLC, P.S for opinion </li></ul><ul><li>ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Immunohistochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Blood plasma substitute </li></ul><ul><li>Direct transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Fractionated blood/whole blood </li></ul><ul><li>Heparinized whole blood </li></ul><ul><li>Septecemia </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombocytopenia </li></ul><ul><li>Venesection/venus puncture </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>ABO:blood groups </li></ul><ul><li>Baso;basophils </li></ul><ul><li>BMT:bone marrow transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>CBC:complete blood count </li></ul><ul><li>ESR:erythrocyte sedimentation rate </li></ul><ul><li>MCH:mean corpuscular haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>MCHC:-----------//------------------//---------concentration </li></ul><ul><li>MCV:mean corpuscular volume </li></ul><ul><li>PMN:polymorho nuclear leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>PT:prothrobin time </li></ul><ul><li>PTT:partial thromboplastin time </li></ul><ul><li>DLC; differentiated leukocyte count </li></ul><ul><li>Eos:eosinophil </li></ul><ul><li>Mono:monocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Hct:hematocrit </li></ul><ul><li>Hb:haemoglobin </li></ul>Abbreviations
  6. 6. <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Ref - </li></ul><ul><li>HAEMOGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>ERYTROCYTES- </li></ul><ul><li>Erytrocytes- 3.90 to 5.60 mill/ cu.mm </li></ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin 11.5 – 16.5 gm/dl </li></ul><ul><li>PCV 35 – 47 % </li></ul><ul><li>MCV 75 -95 fl </li></ul><ul><li>MCH 27- 32 pg </li></ul><ul><li>MCHC 30-35 % </li></ul><ul><li>RDW 12.8-16.8 % </li></ul><ul><li>RBC Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Hypochromia </li></ul><ul><li>Microcytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Anisocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Poikylocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Macrocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Target cells </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleated RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>LEUCOCYTES- </li></ul><ul><li>Total leucocytes(WBC) count- 4000 – 11000 /cu.mm </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrophils 40-75 % </li></ul><ul><li>Eosinophils 1-6 % </li></ul><ul><li>Basophils 0-1 % </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes 20-45 % </li></ul><ul><li>Monocytes 2-10 % </li></ul><ul><li>Premature leucocytes - </li></ul><ul><li>Atypical lymphocytes 0-2 % </li></ul><ul><li>Large immature cells 0-2 % </li></ul><ul><li>PLATELETS- </li></ul><ul><li>Platelet count 150-450 x1000 /cu.mm </li></ul><ul><li>MPV 7.4-10.4 fl </li></ul><ul><li>PCT 0.164-0.260 % </li></ul><ul><li>PDW 12.8- 16.8 % </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Name - </li></ul><ul><li>Ref - </li></ul><ul><li>URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Volume ml </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Pale yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits absent </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction(pH) 4.5-8.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gravity 1.01- 1.03 </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Protein Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Sugar Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Ketones Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Occult blood Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Bile pigment Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Bile salts Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Urobilinogen Normal </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrite Negative </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Pus cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Crystals Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Cast Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous deposits Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Trichomonas Vaginalis Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast cells Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Test Result Normal </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sugar ( F ) 70 - 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sugar ( PP ) 100 - 160 </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Urea 10 - 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Serum Creatinine 0.5 - 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>S Sodium 137 - 145 </li></ul><ul><li>S Potassium 3.7 - 4.5 </li></ul><ul><li>S GOT 10 - 35 </li></ul><ul><li>S GPT 10 - 40 </li></ul><ul><li>S. Bilirubin ( T ) 0.2 - 1.2 </li></ul><ul><li>S Calcium(T) 9 - 11 </li></ul><ul><li>S Calcium Ionic 1.12 - 1.32 </li></ul><ul><li>S Uric Acid ( M ) 2.6 - 7.2 </li></ul><ul><li>S Uric Acid ( F ) 2.4 - 6.3 </li></ul><ul><li>S Alkaline Phosphotase(Adult ) 100 - 305 </li></ul><ul><li>S Alkaline Phosphotase ( Child ) Upto 515 </li></ul><ul><li>Serum Phophorus 2.5 - 5.0 mg/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Serum Cholesterol 125 - 225 </li></ul><ul><li>Serum Triglyceride Up to 160 </li></ul>

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