Endocrine system

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Endocrine system

  1. 1. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM <ul><li>Composed of gland in diff. part of body </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete chemical substance called HORMONE </li></ul><ul><li>Acts thru receptor present on the target tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Thus function to maintain homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback control </li></ul>
  2. 2. Endocrine gland Body growth Milk production Thyroid Ovaries & testes Adrenal glands Skin pigmentation Growth hormone Prolactin Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) Adrenocorticotrophic(ACTH) Melanocyte stimulating hormone(MSH) Pitutary (hypophysis) T-lymphocytes Thymosin Thymus Absorption of Ca+ Vitamin D Skin Skin pigmentation Melatonin Pineal gland ↑ RBC erythropoietin Kidney Contracts GB ↑ gastric secretion & pancreatic juice Cholecystokinin GIT Function Contract uterus & intestine ↓ BP Platelet agglutination ↓ acid secretion Respiration Nerve impulse Hormone Prostaglandins(PGs) (tissue hormone) Tissue/gland Body cells
  3. 3. Sperm Secondary sexual characteristics Androgens Testis Feminization Pregnancy maintenance Estrogen Progesterone Ovaries ↓ glucose ↑ glucose Insulin glucagon Pancreas Water & electrolyte balance Metabolism & stress buster Estrogens & progesterone Stimulates ANS aldosterone Cortisol,corticosterone,cortisone Gonadocorticoids Epinephrine & norepinephrine Adrenal gland Blood ca+ level Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid gland Blood ca+ level Calcitonin Parafollicular cells ↓ urine output ADH(antidiuretic hormone) Uterine contraction,Milk injection Oxytocin(OXT)
  4. 4. Pathological conditions & signs <ul><li>Pitutary dwarfism </li></ul><ul><li>Acromegaly </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetus inspidus </li></ul><ul><li>Cretinism:dwarf & mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Myxedema:puffy face, ↑weight </li></ul><ul><li>Goiter enlarged thyroid: swelling over the neck area,treatment is thyroidectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism/graves disease: ↑T3 & T4, wt loss, </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid carcinoma:papillary/medullary/follicular </li></ul><ul><li>Exopthlamos :protruding eye ball due to thyrotoxicosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoparathyroidism: tetany, trousseau sign & chvostek sign </li></ul><ul><li>Addison’s disease:hypofunction of adrenal cortex, leads fatigue, hypnatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Cushing’s syndrome:hypersecretion leading to moon face, buffalo hump, pendulous abdomen, HT </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenogenital sundrome:female virilization,gynecomastia </li></ul><ul><li>Pheochromocytomas:severe HT, sweating, flushing of face </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus(DM):polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia </li></ul><ul><li>Types:Type II /NIDD,non insulin dependent diabetes,type I/IDDM(insulin dependent diabetes, gestational diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperinsulinism : ↑insulin, hypoglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>SIADH: excessive secretion of ADH </li></ul><ul><li>Incedentolomas:tumour in gland seen on imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Insulinoma </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lab test & procedures <ul><li>Blood sugar: fasting & post meal, random </li></ul><ul><li>Urine analysis: sugar, ketone bodies,hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Glucose tolerance test(OGTT):30min, 1hr,2&3 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Radioimmunoassay(RIA) </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid function test: t3,t4, TSH </li></ul><ul><li>HbA1c:control of sugar in blood by insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>HRCT:high resolution computed tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Exopthalmometry </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid scan </li></ul><ul><li>Radioiodine uptake scan </li></ul><ul><li>Skull xray </li></ul>
  6. 6. Drugs <ul><li>Thyroid supplements:thyroxine </li></ul><ul><li>Antithyroid :propylthiouracil, I 131 </li></ul><ul><li>Growth hormone replacement:somatropin </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetus inspidus: vasopressin, desmopressin </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetus mellitus:insulins-rapid,intermediate, long </li></ul><ul><li>DNA technique:huminsulin/insucare/insuman </li></ul><ul><li>Oral antidiabetic drugs:glipizide,chlorpropamide,gliperimide, Rosiglitazone , glibenclamide, Acarbose </li></ul><ul><li>Corticosteroid s:hydrocortisone,prednisolone,methylprednisolone,dexamethasone,triamcinolone,deflazacort </li></ul>
  7. 7. Abbreviations <ul><li>ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic hormone) stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete its hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>HGh (Human growth hormone) also known as somatotrophic hormone is responsible for the growth of long bones, muscles and viscera. </li></ul><ul><li>TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) influences the structure of the thyroid and causes it to secrete thyroid hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates female egg production or male sperm production. </li></ul><ul><li>PRL (Prolactin) in females causes the corpus luteum the area around the mature follicle to produce two important hormones: Oestrogen and Progesterone. During pregnancy PRL is also responsible for the development of the glandular tissues of the breast which produce milk. </li></ul><ul><li>LH (Luteinzing hormone) works in conjunction with FSH in females to cause ovulation and prepares the uterus for pregnancy, in males the testes to secrete testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) stimulates the smooth muscles, blood vessels and the intestine. ADH increases the kidney's permeability to water allowing the body to re-absorb water that would otherwise escape in urine. </li></ul><ul><li>OT (Oxytocin) stimulates the smooth muscles of the uterus during pregnancy, causing it to contract during labour. It also stimulates the lacteals (milk ducts) in the breast. </li></ul><ul><li>DI Diabetes Insipidus </li></ul><ul><li>FMTC Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>I-131 Radioactive Iodine </li></ul><ul><li>MEN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia - (familial) a.k.a. FMEN </li></ul>

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