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Verb phrase

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Verb phrase

  1. 1. E_English Grammar Course Unit 5 Lecture 5. Verb & its complements
  2. 2. 1. Different classifications of English verbs 2. Grammatical categories of the verb 3. Intensive complementation 4. Monotransitive complementation 5. Ditransitive complementation 6. Complextransitive complementation Issues Click at the underlined to view the whole explanation
  3. 3. Classifications of English verbs1 Verb 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Functions of items Complementation Structure = words or phrases indicating an action, an event, or a state E.g.: kiss, break out, have
  4. 4. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs
  5. 5. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Regular Irregular E.g.: book, booked, booked E.g.: teach, taught, taught
  6. 6. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary
  7. 7. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary • include: do, have, be • change meaning when becoming a full verb E.g.: I am a student. vs. I am reading.
  8. 8. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary • include: Can – could May – Might Shall-should Will-would Must Ought to
  9. 9. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary • include: used to, dare, need
  10. 10. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Intensive verbs Extensive verbs
  11. 11. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Intensive verbs Current copular Resulting copular E.g.: be, appear, feel, look, remain, seem E.g.: become, get, go, grow, turn, make • connect S & C • have the pattern: SVC or SVA(obli) E.g.: I feel tired. He’s in the cab. Extensive verbs
  12. 12. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs
  13. 13. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs • require no Object • have the pattern: SV • make complete sense themselves E.g.: He’s singing. The baby cried.
  14. 14. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive
  15. 15. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive • require one direct Object (Od) • have the pattern: SVOd E.g.: I kissed her. He caught the ball.
  16. 16. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive• require both direct Object (Od) & indirect Object (Oi) • have the pattern: SVOdOi E.g.: I gave her such a lovely present.
  17. 17. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive • require Object and Object Complement (Co) or Obligatory Averbial (A(obli)) • have the pattern: SVOCo or SVOA(obli) E.g.: He made me really crazy. He sent his son to the kindergarten.
  18. 18. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Dynamic verbs
  19. 19. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Verbs of inert perception & recognition Relational verbs = verbs that show the condition or status and do not accept the progressive aspect E.g.: I am a boy. It feels thin.
  20. 20. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Verbs of inert perception & recognition Relational verbs • adore, astonish, believe, hate, hear, impress, know, like, etc. E.g.: I like you He said he hated cooking.
  21. 21. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Verbs of inert perception & recognition Relational verbs • apply to, equal, deserve, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, resemble, possess, sound, tend, etc. E.g.: She resembles her mother.
  22. 22. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activity verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs = verbs that show the action or the change of status E.g.: She learns English. He hit me. She is English. ( ‘is’ isn’t dynamic verb because it denotes a permanent status)
  23. 23. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs • ache, hurt, itch, fell, etc.
  24. 24. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs • ask, eat, help, learn, say, throw, write etc.
  25. 25. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs • arrive, land, leave, lose, die etc.
  26. 26. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs • hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap etc.
  27. 27. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs • change, deteriorate, grow, mature, slow down etc.
  28. 28. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Structure One-word verbs Multi-word verbs Finite Non-finite+ infinitive ing-participle ed-participle
  29. 29. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Structure One-word verbs • as the name suggests, these are verbs of ONE WORD E.g.: change, kiss, make, love, etc.
  30. 30. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs
  31. 31. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs • make out, call up, put on, take off, give up, etc.
  32. 32. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs• look up, clear up, get at, etc.
  33. 33. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs • come up with, make up for, stand in for, put up with, etc.
  34. 34. Classifications of English verbs1 Verbs 1/1 according to classified Structure One-word verbs Multi-word verbs Finite Non-finite+ Criteria Finite Non-finite Occurrence in independent clause √ Tense contrast √ Person and number concord √ Finite verb inclusion √ Mood distinction √ E.g.: I am/ He is a student. Being a student, she’s hardworking.
  35. 35. Grammatical categories of verbs2 Grammatical categories of verbs 1/1 Tense Aspect Mood Voice Present Past Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Active Passive Progressive Perfective Perfective- progressive Simple
  36. 36. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Tense = the correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time • language specific • while TIME: universal, non-linguistic • includes PAST and PRESENT • no FUTURE TENSE because there’s no verb form corresponding to future time. E.g.: She is studying now. (verb form: ing-participle + present time: now  present time)
  37. 37. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Aspect • the manner in which a verbal action is experienced or regarded with respect to time • progressive aspect: verbal action experienced as in progress • perfective aspect: verbal action experienced as completed E.g.: I am writing with a special pen. (progressive aspect) I have written with a special pen. (perfective aspect) • Tense & aspect are intermingled.
  38. 38. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 AspectTense & Tense Aspect Simple Complex Progressive Perfective Perfect progressive Present Present simple Present progressive Present perfect Present perfect progressive Past Past simple Past progressive Past perfect Past perfect progressive
  39. 39. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Mood = a grammatical category that relates the verb action to such conditions such as certainty, obligation, necessity, possibility Indicative Imperative Subjunctive = statement of the fact = command, request = non-fact, unreal E.g.: She’s nice to me. (fact - indicative) Be nice to me. (command - imperative) I suggest she be nice to me. (non-fact - subjunctive)
  40. 40. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were”
  41. 41. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were” • Found in “-that clause” (verbs: recommend, demand, request, insist, suggest, ask, it is necessary that) • Form: the base • Aim: to be formal E.g.: The chairman demands that the farmer kill all his chicken. It is necessary that every student pay the tuition fee.
  42. 42. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were” • Found in clause in certain set expressions • Form: the base E.g.: May god bless you. Long live the King. God save the Queen. Come what may, we’ll go ahead.
  43. 43. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were” • Found in conditional & concessive clauses, subordinate clauses after verbs like Wish and Suppose • Form: WERE • Meaning: hypothetical/unreal E.g.: If I were rich, I would buy you anything you wanted. Just suppose everyone were to give up smoking.
  44. 44. Grammatical categories of verbs2 1/1 Voice = a grammatical category that makes it possible to view the action of a sentence in either of two ways, without change in the facts reported • include: passive and active voice E.g.: He ate all the apples. (active) The dog was bitten by our neighbor. (passive)
  45. 45. Intensive complementation3 1/1 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial)
  46. 46. Intensive complementation3 1/1 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal phrase Noun phrase
  47. 47. Intensive complementation3 1/1 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal phrase Noun phrase E.g.: She is so crazy. That is ridiculous!
  48. 48. Intensive complementation3 1/1 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal phrase Noun phrase E.g.: She isn’t a good student. It appears the only solution.
  49. 49. Intensive complementation3 1/1 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal clause Noun phrase finite clause non-finite clause
  50. 50. Intensive complementation3 1/1 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal clause Noun phrase finite clause non-finite clause • “that clause” E.g.: The problem is that it costs a lot. • “wh-interrogative clause” E.g.: The problem is not who will go. • “nominal relative clause” E.g.: Quality is what counts most.
  51. 51. Intensive complementation3 1/1 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal phrase Noun phrase finite clause • “bare-infinitive clause” E.g.: All I did was hit him on the head. • “to-infinitive clause” with(out) “Subject” (S) E.g.: My wish is to be a pilot. (without S) The idea is for us to meet at 8. (with S) • “-ing clause” E.g.: Seeing is believing. non-finite clause
  52. 52. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation (SVO) Noun phrase Non-finite clauseFinite clause
  53. 53. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs
  54. 54. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: Tom caught the ball. The ball was caught by Tom.
  55. 55. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: They passed over the question. The question was passed over.
  56. 56. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: She has a nice house. A house is had by her.
  57. 57. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: The management paid for his air fares.
  58. 58. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: He looked down on them.
  59. 59. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause Wh- clause
  60. 60. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause Wh- clause Extraposed subject that-clause Extraposed object that-clause That- clause as object E.g.: I don’t care what you are saying. Tom doubted whether they would come to the party. I wondered who did make the bed for me. Can you confirm which flight we are taking? I realized what a fool I had been. I know how busy you are.
  61. 61. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs
  62. 62. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis
  63. 63. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis • introduce what one might generally describe as factual or propositional information E.g.: They agree/admit/claim that she was misled.
  64. 64. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis • imply intentions to bring about some change in the future, whether or not these are verbally formulated as commands, suggestions, etc E.g.: The are demanding that she leaves.
  65. 65. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis E.g.: I regret that she worry.
  66. 66. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis E.g.: I wish that he were here.
  67. 67. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs
  68. 68. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs E.g.: I recommend that he be here.
  69. 69. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs E.g.: I insist that he shouldn’t smoke.
  70. 70. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs E.g.: I require that he give up smoking.
  71. 71. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subjectWith subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause
  72. 72. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subjectWith subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clauseE.g.: I don’t like the house to be left empty.
  73. 73. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subjectWith subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: I dislike him driving my car.
  74. 74. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subjectWith subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clauseE.g.: Mary longed to leave home.
  75. 75. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subjectWith subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: Mary loves listening to music.
  76. 76. Mono-transitive complementation4 1/1 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subjectWith subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: He learned how to sail a boat as a small child. You must not forget when to keep your mouth shut. I could not decide (on) which bicycle to buy.
  77. 77. Di-transitive complementation5 1/1 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs
  78. 78. Di-transitive complementation5 1/1 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs E.g.: He gave the girl a doll.
  79. 79. Di-transitive complementation5 1/1 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs E.g.: He persuaded me to give up smoking.
  80. 80. Di-transitive complementation5 1/1 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs E.g.: He convinced me that he was right.
  81. 81. Di-transitive complementation5 1/1 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs • verbs combined with certain NPs followed by prepositions  two passive forms of the sentence • these expressions include: catch sight of, make fun of, take account of, give way to, etc. E.g.: They make best use of the garage. The garage is made best use of. Best use is made of the garage.
  82. 82. Di-transitive complementation5 1/1 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs • Od introduced by a preposition • one passive form with Oi only • these verbs include: remind of, charge with, compare to, rob of, refer to, etc. E.g.: He reminds me of the agreement. I am reminded of the agreement. • Exceptions for: explain, provide, supply, blame, etc. E.g.: He explained it to me. It was explained to me. I was explained about it.
  83. 83. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOA - SVOC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause
  84. 84. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: He drives me crazy.
  85. 85. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: The Queen appointed William her personal secretary.
  86. 86. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause • Adverbials are obligatory. E.g.: Take your hands out of your pocket.
  87. 87. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: John believed the stranger to be a policeman.
  88. 88. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: You shouldn't let your family interfere with our plans.
  89. 89. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: Tim watched Bill mending the lamp.
  90. 90. Complex-transitive complementation6 1/1 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: They found him worn out by travel and exertion. ed-clause
  91. 91. That’s the end of unit 5.

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