Translation, Function Of The Text

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Translation, Function Of The Text

  1. 1. <ul><li>Baker (1992) Chapter 7 - Pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>equivalence </li></ul><ul><li>• Reiss (1970s) – Functional approach </li></ul><ul><li>• Holz-Mä ntarri (1984) – Translational action </li></ul><ul><li>• Vermeer (1970s) and Reiss & Vermeer </li></ul><ul><li>(1984) – ‘Skopos’ theory </li></ul><ul><li>• Nord (1988/91) – Text Analysis in </li></ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul>Focus on the function of the text
  2. 2. <ul><li>Newmark takes Buhler's functional theory of language as his theoretical basis. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Buhler, language has three main functions : </li></ul><ul><li>the expressive, </li></ul><ul><li>the informative and </li></ul><ul><li>the vocative. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Every original text exercises at the same time these three main functions, with a difference in the significance of each function in the text. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Texts are classified into three broad categories according to their dominant function. 'The core of the expressive function is the mind of the speaker, the writer, the originator of the utterance. He uses the utterance to express his feelings irrespective of any response'. Serious imaginative literature, authoritative statements, autobiography, essays and personal correspondence are typical expressive text-types </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>'The core of the informative function of language is external situation , the facts of a topic, reality outside language, including reported ideas or theories'. Informative texts are concerned with any topic of knowledge and often have standard formats: a textbook, a technical report, a scientific paper or agenda of a meeting. They principally convey information </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>'The core of the vocative function of language is the readership , the addressee'. The readership is called upon to act, think or feel, or in a word, to react in the way intended by the text. Notices, publicity, propaganda, persuasive writing and advertisements are typical vocative texts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>To which text-type does it belong? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the focus of translation be on the author or on the readership? </li></ul><ul><li>What purpose does the translation serve? </li></ul>When faced with a text the translator has to ask himself several questions:
  8. 8. <ul><li>The answers to these questions help him to decide which method to adopt: semantic translation or communicative translation, with the former mainly for expressive texts and the latter mainly for informative and vocative. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Usually, each text features a primary but not a single function. Therefore it is not thoughtful to say that a text requires a completely semantic or communicative translation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ADVERTISEMENTS <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>PHATIC, INFORMATIVE, POETIC & DIRECTIVE </li></ul>
  11. 11. FUNCTIONS <ul><li>PHATIC FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRACT ATTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>OPEN COMMUNICATION CHANNEL </li></ul>
  12. 12. FUNCTIONS <ul><li>INFORMATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERESTING INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER TEXT TYPES E.G. RECIPIES OR </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETITIONS </li></ul>
  13. 13. FUNCTIONS <ul><li>POETIC FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>CATCHY SLOGANS, METAPHORS, ALLITERATION, ASSONANCE </li></ul>
  14. 14. NEWSPAPER REPORTS <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>MAINLY INFORMATIVE, BUT OFTEN DIRECTIVE, EXPRESSIVE AND PHATIC AS WELL. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Since the number of informative and vocative texts far exceeds that of expressive texts. Most non-literary writings comprise material suitable for communicative translation. On the other hand, original expression, where the manner is as important as the matter, whether it is philosophical, political, technical or literary, needs to be translated semantically. Autobiography, private correspondence and any other personal effusion also require a semantic translation, since the intimate flavor of the original is more important than its effect on the reader.
  16. 16. <ul><li>In a literary text there may be a sentence, a paragraph or a section that requires communicative translation. For instance, when a figurative usage can't be transferred or if transferred the form will be quite misleading or incomprehensible to the reader, then it must be translated communicatively. On the other hand, there may be part of non-literary writing that requires a semantic translation. It is impossible to apply only one method to a text. The two methods are usually taken into use alternatively with varying focuses. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>There are times when the two methods can't be distinguished from each other. They actually become one. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>For instance, if the translation of serious philosophical, artistic or technical works is not constrained by temporal or geographical elements and a rather close translation can render the reader in the target language with the same message and acquaint him with the stylistic features of the original language, there is no way and no necessity to identify which method is applied. </li></ul>
  19. 19. • Classification of texts as: – 'informative‘ – 'expressive‘ – 'operative‘ – 'audiomedial' Reiss (1970s) Functional approach
  20. 20. Figure 4 -1 Text typologies (after Reiss 1976) operative  vocative, imperative  willing  vocative (Appell)  expressive  expressive, affective, emotive  feeling  expressive (Ausdruck)  informative  descriptive, declarative, informative  thinking, perceiving  informative (Darstellung)  Reiss text types   Coseriu language forms   Stiehler types of human cognition  Bühler functions of linguistic signs  
  21. 21. Figure 4-2 Typology of translation (Reiss 1976) a) integral communicative performance b) all kinds of changes of function  communicative translation a) normal case   b) special subtype  Text = verbal component of a communication process (text-with-a-function)  study of culture-bound language differences  learned translation (deliberately marked + commentary)  Text = basic linguistic sign   foreign language learning  literal translation (grammar translation)  Text = sum of sentences  comparative linguistic research  word-for-word translation (interlinear)  Text = sum of words  Translation aim Translation type Text concept

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