Speech Acts and Speech Events

                             http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJAR
              By:
              ...
Speech Situation: at the bus stop
• Speech event (asking the time)
Speaker A: What is the time? (speech act 1)
Speaker B: ...
Speech Situation
contexts of language use such as
ceremonies, fights, hunts, classrooms,
conferences, parties.




 Dr. Sh...
Speech Events
       A Speech Event can be defined by a
        unified set of components through out:
           same pur...
Communicative rule governed sequences.
  Knock knock jokes
  “Knock Knock”
  “Who’s There?”
  “Abby”
  “Abby who?”
  “Abby...
Speech Acts
                Speech Acts are group of utterances
                with a single interactional function.
    ...
Speech Acts & Speech Events
  Speech Acts
  • Functional unit at utterance level
  (e.g., thanking, requesting, etc.)
  (C...
People perform actions via utterances.

[1]
“You’re fired.”

The boss’s utterance in [1]can perform
the act of ending your...
[2]
          You’re so delicious.
         (                       )
          You’re welcome.
         (                ...
Actions performed via
utterances are generally
called speech acts.


Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar   10
In How to Do Things with Words,
  Austin identifies three distinct
  levels of action beyond the act of
  utterance itself...
On any occasion, the action performed by
  producing an utterance will consist of three
  related acts.
    these are the ...
A locutionary act, is the basic act of utterance,
or producing a meaningful linguistic expressions.
   The illocutionary a...
Theory of Speech Acts
                                                                      Effect
            Desire
    ...
ILLOCUTIONARY FORCE INDICATING DEVICES (IFIDS)
'illocutionary force indicating devices' (IFIDs), are supposed to
be elemen...
Felicity Conditions
 Felicity conditions cover expected or appropriate
 circumstances for the performance of a speech
 act...
Yule proposes further classification of
 felicity conditions into five classes:
    general conditions,
    content condit...
General conditions presuppose the participants’
knowledge of the language being used and his non-
playacting,
    content ...
It is Austin who comes up with a new category of utterances – the
performatives.
Austin defines a performative as an utter...
THE PERFORMATIVE HYPOTHESIS
He also claims that from the grammatical point of
view, a performative is a first person
indic...
U ( utterance)
            I (hereby) Vp you (that) U
1. a. I hereby resign from the post of the Manager of the Sport Club...
EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT PERFORMATIVES
 Having defined performatives, Austin then draws a
basic distinction between them. He ...
Summary
An Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID) is a piece of
language that signals what kind of speech act is bei...
Felicity conditions
Felicity conditions determine whether or not
a speech act is successful.
A speech act is infelicitous ...
Direct and indirect speech acts

   An indirect speech act masks one type of act (the
   primary one) as something else (t...
Speech Acts Classification

There are five types of general functions performed
by speech acts: declarations, representati...
EXAMPLES:
DECLARATIVES: We find the defendant
guilty.
REPRESENTATIVES: It was a warm
sunny day.
EXPRESSIVES: I’m really so...
Searle (1969) identified the various different types of speech act:
  REPRESENTATIVES:
  such as informing, e.g., ‘It is r...
Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar   29
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Speech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.Pptx

  1. 1. Speech Acts and Speech Events http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJAR By: http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 1
  2. 2. Speech Situation: at the bus stop • Speech event (asking the time) Speaker A: What is the time? (speech act 1) Speaker B: It’s 1 o’clock (speech act 2) Speaker A: Thanks (speech act 3) Thanks What is the time? It’s 1 o’clock Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 2
  3. 3. Speech Situation contexts of language use such as ceremonies, fights, hunts, classrooms, conferences, parties. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 3
  4. 4. Speech Events A Speech Event can be defined by a unified set of components through out: same purpose of communication same topic same participants same language variety (generally). For example: exchanging greetings, telling jokes, giving speeches. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 4
  5. 5. Communicative rule governed sequences. Knock knock jokes “Knock Knock” “Who’s There?” “Abby” “Abby who?” “Abby Birthday to you.” Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 5
  6. 6. Speech Acts Speech Acts are group of utterances with a single interactional function. For example: a request, a command, a greeting, a promise, an apology. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 6
  7. 7. Speech Acts & Speech Events Speech Acts • Functional unit at utterance level (e.g., thanking, requesting, etc.) (Cohen, 2002) Speech Events • Larger unit with multiple turns (e.g., job interview, etc.) (Hatch, 1992) Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 7
  8. 8. People perform actions via utterances. [1] “You’re fired.” The boss’s utterance in [1]can perform the act of ending your employment. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 8
  9. 9. [2] You’re so delicious. ( ) You’re welcome. ( ) You’re crazy. ( ) Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 9
  10. 10. Actions performed via utterances are generally called speech acts. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 10
  11. 11. In How to Do Things with Words, Austin identifies three distinct levels of action beyond the act of utterance itself. He distinguishes the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, and what one does by saying it. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 11
  12. 12. On any occasion, the action performed by producing an utterance will consist of three related acts. these are the locutionary, the illocutionary, and the perlocutionary acts. The locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary acts are, in fact, three basic components with the help of which a speech act is formed. (Leech, 1983: 199) Leech briefly defines them: locutionary act: performing an act of saying something illocutionary act: performing an act in saying something perlocutionary act: performing an act by saying something. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 12
  13. 13. A locutionary act, is the basic act of utterance, or producing a meaningful linguistic expressions. The illocutionary act is formed via communicative force of an utterance. We form an utterance with some kind of function in mind. This force is known as illocutionary force. The perlocutionary act reveals the effect the speaker wants to exercise over the hearer. This is also known as the perlocutionary effect. Would you close the door, please? Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 13
  14. 14. Theory of Speech Acts Effect Desire perlocution Illocution specific words -locution A speech act has 3 aspects: locution = physical utterance by the speaker illocution = the intended meaning of the utterance by the speaker (performative) prelocution = the action that results from the locution Alice told Tom: quot;Would you please close the door“ J. Austin - How to do things with words, 1962. J. Searle - Speech acts, 1969. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 14
  15. 15. ILLOCUTIONARY FORCE INDICATING DEVICES (IFIDS) 'illocutionary force indicating devices' (IFIDs), are supposed to be elements, or aspects of linguistic devices which indicate either (dependent on which conceptions of quot;illocutionary forcequot; and quot;illocutionary actquot; are adopted) that the utterance is made with a certain illocutionary force, or else that it constitutes the performance of a certain illocutionary act. In English, for example, the interrogative mood is supposed to indicate that the utterance is (intended as) a question; the directive mood indicates that the utterance is (intended as) a directive illocutionary act (an order, a request, etc.); the words quot;I promisequot; are supposed to indicate that the utterance is (intended as) a promise. Possible IFIDs in English include: word order, stress, intonation contour, punctuation, the mood of the verb, and performative verbs. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 15
  16. 16. Felicity Conditions Felicity conditions cover expected or appropriate circumstances for the performance of a speech act to be recognized as intended. I sentence you to six months in prison. The performance will be infelicitous (inappropriate) if the speaker is not a specific person in a special context (in this case, a judge in a courtroom). Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 16
  17. 17. Yule proposes further classification of felicity conditions into five classes: general conditions, content conditions, preparatory conditions, sincerity conditions and essential conditions. (Yule, 1996: 50) Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 17
  18. 18. General conditions presuppose the participants’ knowledge of the language being used and his non- playacting, content conditions concern the appropriate content of an utterance, preparatory conditions deal with differences of various illocutionary acts (e.g. those of promising or warning), sincerity conditions count with speaker’s intention to carry out a certain act, and essential conditions combine with a specification of what must be in the utterance content, the context, and the speaker’s intentions, in order for a specific act to be appropriately (felicitously) performed. (Yule,1996:50) Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 18
  19. 19. It is Austin who comes up with a new category of utterances – the performatives. Austin defines a performative as an utterance which contains a special type of verb (a performative verb) by force of which it performs an action. In other words, in using a performative, a person is not just saying something but is actually doing something (Wardhaugh: 1992: 283). Austin further states that a performative, unlike a constative, cannot be true or false constative (it can only be felicitous or infelicitous) and that it does not describe, report or constate anything. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 19
  20. 20. THE PERFORMATIVE HYPOTHESIS He also claims that from the grammatical point of view, a performative is a first person indicative active sentence in the simple present tense. In order to distinguish the performative use from other possible uses of first person indicative active pattern, Austin introduces a hereby test since he finds out that performative verbs only can collocate with this adverb. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 20
  21. 21. U ( utterance) I (hereby) Vp you (that) U 1. a. I hereby resign from the post of the Manager of the Sport Club. b. I hereby get up at seven o’clock in the morning every day. While the first sentence would make sense under specific conditions, uttering of the second would be rather strange. From this it follows that (1a) is a performative, (1b) is not. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 21
  22. 22. EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT PERFORMATIVES Having defined performatives, Austin then draws a basic distinction between them. He distinguishes two general groups - explicit and implicit performatives. 1. a. The work was done by Dalia and myself. b. I hereby tell you that the work was done by Dalia and myself. 2. a. Clean up this mess! b. I hereby order you that you clean up this mess. An implicit performative An explicit performative Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 22
  23. 23. Summary An Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID) is a piece of language that signals what kind of speech act is being performed. Example: Would you pass me the salt, please? Perfomatives are sentences or expressions that make the kind of illocutionary force of an utterance explicit. Examples: I hereby name this ship H.M.S. Titanic. The United Nations condemns this terrible act. We declare the winner to be Mr. John Smith of Springfield Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 23
  24. 24. Felicity conditions Felicity conditions determine whether or not a speech act is successful. A speech act is infelicitous when... ...it is illogical: I promise to call you last year. ...requirements aren't met: I will buy you a Porsche, honey. ...it is a lie: I really like your new jacket. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 24
  25. 25. Direct and indirect speech acts An indirect speech act masks one type of act (the primary one) as something else (the secondary one). Example: It's pretty cold in here secondary speech act: assertion about temperature primary speech act: request to close the window Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 25
  26. 26. Speech Acts Classification There are five types of general functions performed by speech acts: declarations, representatives, expressives, directives, and commissives. SPEECH ACTS commissives directives representatives expressives declarations Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 26
  27. 27. EXAMPLES: DECLARATIVES: We find the defendant guilty. REPRESENTATIVES: It was a warm sunny day. EXPRESSIVES: I’m really sorry! DIRECTIVES: Don’t touch that! COMMISIVES: I'll be back. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 27
  28. 28. Searle (1969) identified the various different types of speech act: REPRESENTATIVES: such as informing, e.g., ‘It is raining’ DIRECTIVES: attempts to get the hearer to do something e.g., ‘please make the tea’ COMMISIVES: which commit the speaker to doing something, e.g., ‘I promise to… ’ EXPRESSIVES: whereby a speaker expresses a mental state, e.g., ‘thank you!’ DECLARATIONS: such as declaring war. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 28
  29. 29. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 29

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