2. Word Formation • How are new words created? • A very common and productive process: derivation happy + ness -> happiness print + able -> printable em + balm -> embalm etc. What other processes are there?
3. Compounding • The creation of a new word out of several existing ones, e.g. bathroom, armchair, university degree • What are the properties of compounds? Compounds consist of • a head (the right element, carrying the principal meaning) • and a modifier (the left element) They are • endocentric (syntactic and semantic head) • exocentric (syntactic but not semantic head) • copulative (no head-modifier relationship, both parts are equal) • verbal (modifier is object of corresponding verb) Compounds are recursive: bath towel room sale rack
4. Blends • are created by blending two existing words to form a new one • Typically, you take the beginning of one word and the end of another • e.g. sm oke + f og -> smog rockumentary edutainment celesbian guesstimate etc.
5. Clippings • are created by shortening an exisiting word • usually the first or stressed syllables are taken • e.g. lab oratory -> lab mike fax mod con sci-fi etc.
6. Acronyms • are created by using the initial letters of a longer name or term which consists of several words • the new form is pronounced as a word (not just letters, then it‘s a simple abbreviation ) • e.g. ra dio d etection a nd r anging -> radar NATO NAFTA FYROM WYSIWYG etc.
7. Morphological Reanalysis • often a case of folk etymology • occurs when a complex word is reanalyzed morphologically, and the components are used as morphemes themselves • e.g. hamburger : hamburg + er -> ham + burger • burger = patty eaten in a bun • the new morpheme burger is now used to create new words, e.g. cheeseburger , tofuburger , chickenburger
8. A Critical Case • How about new words in –thon and –rama or –holic ? • There are many neologisms, especially in the world of advertizing or in journalism, ending in –thon and –rama or –holic. • Are they blends, are they a case of reanalysis, or have these endings become suffixes in English? • Watch out for some examples:
9. -rama Anything that offers a (metaphorical) panorama , i.e. a wide range, of some thing or activity Images removed for filesize reasons -holic HORSEAHOLIC.COM is dedicated to the promotion of Canada's national horse the "Cheval Canadien". Craft-a-holic Knitting, Rubber Stamping, Scrapbooking, Book Binding, Soap Making, and on and on and on . . . The Salt-O-Holic Message Board Becoming a Font-a-holic... and Loving It Any „addiction“ to a hobby or favorite thing makes you an X-a-holic
10. Borrowing • new words are not created from native stock but borrowed from other languages • so-called loanwords • e.g. anorak , parka , igloo (from Inuit), wurst , stein , ersatz (from German), aficionado , burrito , cockroach (from Spanish), khaki , bungalow , juggernaut (from Indian), etc.