Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Morphology, Word Formation


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Login to see the comments

Morphology, Word Formation

  1. 1. Word Formation
  2. 2. Word Formation • How are new words created? • A very common and productive process: derivation happy + ness -> happiness print + able -> printable em + balm -> embalm etc. What other processes are there?
  3. 3. Compounding • The creation of a new word out of several existing ones, e.g. bathroom, armchair, university degree • What are the properties of compounds? Compounds consist of • a head (the right element, carrying the principal meaning) • and a modifier (the left element) They are • endocentric (syntactic and semantic head) • exocentric (syntactic but not semantic head) • copulative (no head-modifier relationship, both parts are equal) • verbal (modifier is object of corresponding verb) Compounds are recursive: bath towel room sale rack
  4. 4. Blends • are created by blending two existing words to form a new one • Typically, you take the beginning of one word and the end of another • e.g. sm oke + f og -> smog rockumentary edutainment celesbian guesstimate etc.
  5. 5. Clippings • are created by shortening an exisiting word • usually the first or stressed syllables are taken • e.g. lab oratory -> lab mike fax mod con sci-fi etc.
  6. 6. Acronyms • are created by using the initial letters of a longer name or term which consists of several words • the new form is pronounced as a word (not just letters, then it‘s a simple abbreviation ) • e.g. ra dio d etection a nd r anging -> radar NATO NAFTA FYROM WYSIWYG etc.
  7. 7. Morphological Reanalysis • often a case of folk etymology • occurs when a complex word is reanalyzed morphologically, and the components are used as morphemes themselves • e.g. hamburger : hamburg + er -> ham + burger • burger = patty eaten in a bun • the new morpheme burger is now used to create new words, e.g. cheeseburger , tofuburger , chickenburger
  8. 8. A Critical Case • How about new words in –thon and –rama or –holic ? • There are many neologisms, especially in the world of advertizing or in journalism, ending in –thon and –rama or –holic. • Are they blends, are they a case of reanalysis, or have these endings become suffixes in English? • Watch out for some examples:
  9. 9. -rama Anything that offers a (metaphorical) panorama , i.e. a wide range, of some thing or activity Images removed for filesize reasons -holic HORSEAHOLIC.COM is dedicated to the promotion of Canada's national horse the "Cheval Canadien". Craft-a-holic Knitting, Rubber Stamping, Scrapbooking, Book Binding, Soap Making, and on and on and on . . . The Salt-O-Holic Message Board Becoming a Font-a-holic... and Loving It Any „addiction“ to a hobby or favorite thing makes you an X-a-holic
  10. 10. Borrowing • new words are not created from native stock but borrowed from other languages • so-called loanwords • e.g. anorak , parka , igloo (from Inuit), wurst , stein , ersatz (from German), aficionado , burrito , cockroach (from Spanish), khaki , bungalow , juggernaut (from Indian), etc.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Back Formation </li></ul><ul><li>A complex word exists first, the non-affixed form is derived later, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>– to baby-sit from baby - sitter </li></ul><ul><li>– to edit from editor </li></ul><ul><li>– to laze from lazy </li></ul><ul><li>– to enthuse from enthusiasm </li></ul>