Morphemes, LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx


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Morphemes, Morphology- LANE 333

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Morphemes, LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx

  1. 1. LANE 333 - MORPHOLOGY 2012 – Term 1MORPHEMES 1 By: Shadia Y. Banjar 1 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  2. 2. WHAT IS MORPHOLOGY? The study of the internal structure of words is known as MORPHOLOGY.“(The area of grammar concerned with the structure of words and with relationshipsbetween words involving the morphemes that compose them is technically calledmorphology, from the Greek word morphe ‘form, shape’ and morphemes can bethought of as the minimal units of morphology)”. Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy,2002 2 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  3. 3. THE BASIC UNIT• form, shape, internal structure of words and processes of word formation.• Morpheme smallest, undividable meaningful unit. 3 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  4. 4. A. A morpheme is a short segment of language that meet three criteria:1. It is a word or part of a word that has meaning.2. It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless remainders.3. It recurs in differing verbal environments with a relatively stable meaning.4 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  5. 5. Examining the word straight/stret/ In the light of the three criteria , we find out that:1. We recognize it as a word and can find it listed as such in any dictionary.2. It cannot be divided without violation of meaning; straight /stret/ trait /tret/, rate/ret/, or ate/et/. The meaning of these of these parts violate the meaning of straight. Furthermore, if we divide it in these ways , we will get the meaningless remainders of /-s/, /st-/, or /str-/.3. It recurs with relatively stable meaning in such environments as straightedge, straighten, and a straight line. Thus straight meets all the criteria of a morpheme.5 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  6. 6. B.• A FREE MORPHEME is one that can be utteredalone with meaning. Examples: • bird • happy• A BOUND MORPHEME, unlike the free, cannot beuttered alone with meaning. It is always annexedto one or more morpheme to form a word.Examples: • -s , -er 6 • re-, -ness Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  7. 7. Classification of Morphemes7 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  8. 8. TYPES OF MORPHEMES free free rootmorpheme bound root bound inflectional affixes affixes derivational affixes 8 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  9. 9. C.Another classification of morphemes puts them into two classes:Bases and affixes. A base morpheme is the part of a word that has the principal meaning : e.g. denial, lovable. Bases are very numerous and most of them are free morphemes; but some are bound , like - sent in consent. A word may contain one base and several affixes. 9 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  10. 10. A base is a linguistic form that meets one or more of these requirements:1. It can occur as an immediate constituent of a word whose only other immediate constituent is a prefix or suffix. EXAMPLES: react, active, fertilize2. It is an allomorph of a morpheme which has another allomorph that is a free form. EXAMPLES: depth (deep), wolves (wolf)3. It is a borrowing from another language in which it is a free form or a base. EXAMPLES: biometrics, microcosm, phraseology 10 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  11. 11. 1. The first difficulty is that you have your own individual stock of morphemes. For example, Tom may think of automobile as ,one morpheme meaning “car", whereas Dick may know the morphemes auto(self)and mobile (moving), and recognize them in other words like autograph and mobilize.2. The second difficulty is that persons may know a given morpheme but differ in the degree to which they are aware of its presence in various words. For example, the agentive suffix (spelled –er, -or, -ar) meaning “one who, that which”, and recognize it in words like singer and actor but what about in professor and sweater .3. Another problem results from the fact that metaphors die as language changes. For example, the morpheme –prehend– in apprehend used to mean “to arrest or seize”.4. Additive meaning is a problem in itself. For example: The morpheme pose (place) in : ‘pose a question’ and interpose ( place between) suppose, repose compose, depose, impose, propose 11 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  12. 12. Roots and Affixes• Morphemes are made up of two types: roots and affixes.• Every word has at least one root and we can find them atthe center of word- derivational processes.•They carry basic meaning from which the rest of thesense of the word can be derived, e.g. morphemes suchas “green“, and “America“ are roots (these roots alsohappen to be free forms, independent words.• Roots like seg in segment, gen in genetics, card incardiac, cannot stand alone as words and we call thembound root morphemes, as a distinct from free rootmorphemes.• All morphemes which are not roots are affixes. 12 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  13. 13. Cont., Roots and Affixes• There are three rules that differ affixes from roots:1. They do not form words by themselves, they have to be added on to a stem.2. Their meaning, in many instances, is not a clear and specific as is the meaning of roots, and many of them are completely meaningless.3. Compared with the total number of roots the number of affixes is relatively small.• In English, all the productive affixes are either attached at the end of the stem (also known as suffixes) or they are attached at the front of the stem (also known as prefixes).• Examples of Common Prefixes:1. co + occur “occur together”, peri + meter “measure around”2. mid + night “middle of the night”, re + turn “turn back”3. mis + treat “treat badly”, un + filled “not filled”• Examples of Common Suffixes:1. act + ion “state of acting” , child+ ish “ like a child”2. act + or “person who acts” , child + hood “sate of being a child”3. act + ive “pertaining to being in action”, child+ less “without a child” 13 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  14. 14. E. An affix is a bound morpheme that occursbefore or within or after a base. Affixes are of three types:1. prefixes,2. infixes,3. suffixes.14 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  15. 15. 1. Prefixes are those bound morphemes that occur before a base, as in import, prefix, reconsider. Prefixes in English are a small class of morphemes, numbering about 75.2. Infixes are bound morphemes that have been inserted within a word. In English, infixes are rare. Occasionally they are additions within a word.3. Suffixes are bound morphemes that occur after a base, like shrinkage, failure. Suffixes may pile up to the number or three or four e.g. in ‘formalizers’: the base form + the formalizers’: four suffixes -al, -ize, -er, -s, whereas prefixes are ize, er, commonly single, except for the negative un- before another prefix. 15 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  16. 16. Cont.,• Free vs. bound (affixes) derivational• Bound morphemes inflectional• Morphemes, morphs and allomorphs morpheme ‘past tense’ allomorph allomorph allomorph morph morph morph /id/ /d/ /t/ 16 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  17. 17. Cont.,• Roots: the irreducible core of a word• Affixes: a morpheme that only occurswhen attached to some other morpheme• Stems: part of a word that exists beforeany inflectional affixes• Bases: any unit to which affixes of any kindcan be added (derivational, inflectional) 17 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  18. 18. Cont., Free morphemes = free root, i.e. morphemes thatconstitute words by themselves, e.g., girl, boy, … A ROOT is the heart of a word, i.e. the morphemethat gives the word its central meaning: Forexample, un-happi-ness("happy" is the root). Roots are usually free: they can appear asindependent words (like "happy") . But not always: e.g. ceive in conceive. 18 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  19. 19. Root: lexical content morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts, e.g., paint inpaint-er, read in re-read, ceive in con-ceive. In English, a root may be a free root (e.g.,paint, read) or a bound root (e,g., -ceive, huckle-). Thus it may or may not stand alone as aword.Stem: a root morpheme is combined with an affix, which may or may not be a word, e.g.,painter, -ceive + er.Base: to mean any root or stem to which an affix is attached. V Base for -ed V Root & Base for -en Adj Af Af bright en ed 19 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  20. 20. • Note: affixes are always bound morphemes.• In English, roots tend to be free morphemes.• However, this is not always the case--• For instance: blueberry, blackberry…• but: cranberry, raspberry.• What do [cran-], and [rasp-] mean?• Bound roots in English are called cranberrymorphemes (technical term).20 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  21. 21. • Cranberry morphemes are bound rootmorphemes.• They have no independent meaning.• They also have no parts of speech• Some more examples:• perceive, receive, deceive• -ceive?• infer, refer, defer• -fer?• commit, permit, submit• -mit?21 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  22. 22. The inflectional affixes can be schematized as follows: 1. Noun plural 2. Noun singular possessive 3. Noun plural possessive 4. Present third-person singular 5. Present participle 6. Past tense 7. Past participle 8. Comparative 9. Superlative 22 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  23. 23. Cont., •The words to which these affixes are attached are called stems . •The stem includes the base or bases and all the derivational affixes. •Thus the stem of cowboys is cowboy and that of beautified is beautify. •The inflectional suffixes differ from the derivational suffixes in the following ways: 1-They do not change the part of speech. Example: cold , colder (both adjectives) 2-They come last in a word. Example: shortened. 3-They go with all stems of a given part of speech. Examples: He eats , drinks. 4-They do not pile up; only one ends a word. Example: working. An exception is {-s pl ps}, the plural possessive of the noun, as in “the students’ worries”. 23 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  24. 24. The common characteristics of derivational suffixes are :1.The words with which derivational suffixes combine is an arbitrary matter. For example, when the noun is derived from the verb adorn we must add ment-, no other will do.2.In many cases, but not all, a derivational suffix changes the part of speech of the word to which it is added. For example, the noun act becomes an adjective by the addition of –ive.3.Derivational suffixes usually do not close off a word; that is, after a derivational suffix one can sometimes add another derivational suffix.24 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  25. 25. Derivation & InflectionIn grammatical study, it is often necessary toexamine families of related words. Suchfamilies are linguistically known as paradigms.A paradigm is a set of related forms having thesame base but different affixes.• There are two kinds of paradigms:1.2. 25 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  26. 26. Derivation & Inflection• The derivational paradigm is a set of related words composed of the same basemorpheme and all the derivational affixes that can go with this base.Example: Some examples of noun-marking derivational suffixes are –hood, -ship, -ness,and –ment. Words having these endings are recognized, even in isolation, as nouns.(1999, Herndon)•A class of words with similar inflection rules is called an inflectional paradigm. Typicallythe similar rules amount to a unique set of affixes. The inflectional paradigm is formedby words to which the inflectional suffixes are attached.1. Inflectional suffixes do not change the part of speech.2. Inflectional suffixes come last in a word when they are present.3. They go with all stems of a given part of speech.4. They do not pile up as one inflectional morpheme closes a word.Example: the inflectional paradigm for the class form (NOUNS) is made up as follows: Base (singular) Base Form + plural Base Form + possessive Base Form +Possessive plural student students Student’s Students’ 26 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  27. 27. Derivation vs. Inflection (1) Derivation changes the Inflection does not the word category and/or change either the word the type of meaning of the grammatical category or word, so it is said to the type of meaning found create a new word. in the word. e.g. suffix –ment in e.g. suffix –s in books government27 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  28. 28. Derivation vs. Inflection (2) A derivational affix must combine with the base before an inflectional affix. e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA) = neighbourhoods The following combination is unacceptable: neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA) = *neighbourshood *neighbourshood28 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  29. 29. Derivation vs. Inflection (3) An inflectional affix is more productive than a derivational affix. e.g. the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun. On the other hand, the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.29 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  30. 30. Describe the italic affixes:1) impossible 1) Derivational prefix2) terrorized 2) Inflectional suffix3) terrorize 3) Derivational suffix4) desks 4) Inflectional suffix5) dislike 5) Derivational prefix6) humanity 6) Derivational suffix7) fastest 7) Inflectional suffix30 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  31. 31. Describe the italic affixes: 8) premature 8) Derivational prefix 9) untie 9) Derivational prefix 10) darken 10) Derivational suffix 11) fallen 11) Inflectional suffix 12) oxen 12) Inflectional suffix 13) faster 13) Inflectional suffix 14) lecturer 14) Derivational suffix31 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  32. 32. 32 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar