Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Levels of Translating
         By:               http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJAR
 Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar      http://wwwdrshad...
Newmark states that translating a source
text into a target text operates in four
levels :
1. Textual Level,
2. Referentia...
THE FOUR LEVELS OF TRANSLATING
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar             3
THE TEXTUAL LEVEL
  It involves the source text.
  At this level, you decode or render the
syntactic structures of the sou...
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar   5
The referential level operates on the content of the ST. It
deals with the message or the meaning of the text.
On this lev...
The referential level and the textual
        level are closely related because the
        language of the source text co...
The cohesive level
  The cohesive level links the textual and the referential
levels .
   It deals with the form and the m...
TONE is simply the author’s attitude toward
        the subject.
          You can recognize the tone/attitude by the
    ...
MOOD
     MOOD is the overall feelings or emotions that
     are created IN THE READER.
     Authors “move” their readers’...
Cohesive devices are typically single words
       or phrases that basically make the text hang
       together. By analog...
Cohesion is the network of lexical, grammatical,
and other relations which link various parts of a
text. These relations o...
At the structural sublevel, you investigate how various
connectors, such as conjunctions, enumerations,
repetitions or rei...
You establish the tone by finding the so-called value-laden
and value-free passages, such as subjective and objective
bits...
EQUIVALENCE
                            LINGUISTIC
                           EQUIVALENCE




                            ...
The level of naturalness
         This level is target text oriented, focusing
       exclusively on the construction of t...
What makes things more complicated is that
         naturalness often depends on the situation, such
         that somethi...
Reference:
A textbook of translation. Newmark, Peter,1988, Prentice-Hall
International (New York).




Dr. Shadia Yousef B...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Levels of Translating, by Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

23,514 views

Published on

Levels of Translating,
Introduction to translation,
LANE 350

Published in: Education
  • ★★★ How Long Does She Want You to Last? ★★★ A recent study proved that the average man lasts just 2-5 minutes in bed (during intercourse). The study also showed that many women need at least 7-10 minutes of intercourse to reach "The Big O" - and, worse still... 30% of women never get there during intercourse. Clearly, most men are NOT fulfilling there women's needs in bed. Now, as I've said many times - how long you can last is no guarantee of being a GREAT LOVER. But, not being able to last 20, 30 minutes or more, is definitely a sign that you're not going to "set your woman's world on fire" between the sheets. Question is: "What can you do to last longer?" Well, one of the best recommendations I can give you today is to read THIS report. In it, you'll discover a detailed guide to an Ancient Taoist Thrusting Technique that can help any man to last much longer in bed. I can vouch 100% for the technique because my husband has been using it for years :) Here�s the link to the report ▲▲▲ http://ishbv.com/rockhardx/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • thank's :)
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • what is this about ?
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Excellent, I like it so much because have a good resume and the figure are appropiate. Congratulations
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Levels of Translating, by Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

  1. 1. Levels of Translating By: http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJAR Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. Newmark states that translating a source text into a target text operates in four levels : 1. Textual Level, 2. Referential Level, 3. Cohesive Level, and 4. Naturalness Level. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. THE FOUR LEVELS OF TRANSLATING Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. THE TEXTUAL LEVEL It involves the source text. At this level, you decode or render the syntactic structures of the source text into their correspondent structures in the target text. Sometimes you have to change these structures into something quite different in order to achieve the target language naturalness. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. The referential level operates on the content of the ST. It deals with the message or the meaning of the text. On this level you decode the meaning of the source text and build the conceptual representation. This is where you simplify polysemous words and phrases. On it you decode idioms and figurative expressions. This is where you figure out the pragmatic function of the source text. Once you have decoded the ST, you encode it into an appropriate target language expressions. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. The referential level and the textual level are closely related because the language of the source text conveys the message, and you use language to encode the message into the target text. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. The cohesive level The cohesive level links the textual and the referential levels . It deals with the form and the meaning of the text . Newmark identifies it as the mood of the text while others call it the tone of the text. In fact, tone is the author's attitude towards the text and the mood is the reader's attitude toward the text. tone words can be negative, neutral, and positive. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. TONE is simply the author’s attitude toward the subject. You can recognize the tone/attitude by the language/word choices the author uses. His language will reveal his perspective/opinion (that is, whether it is positive/negative) about the subject. Tone must be inferred through the use of descriptive words. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. MOOD MOOD is the overall feelings or emotions that are created IN THE READER. Authors “move” their readers’ moods through their choice of words and level of detail. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. Cohesive devices are typically single words or phrases that basically make the text hang together. By analogy, they are much like the seams in our clothing which keep items like jackets and trousers together. Three elementary examples of cohesive devices are word repetition, synonyms and pronouns. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. Cohesion is the network of lexical, grammatical, and other relations which link various parts of a text. These relations or ties organize and, to some extent, create a text, for instance, by requiring the reader to interpret words and expressions by reference to other words and expressions in the surrounding sentences and paragraphs. Cohesion is a surface relation and it connects together the actual words and expressions that we can see or hear. Halliday and Hasan identify five main cohesive devices in English: reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. At the structural sublevel, you investigate how various connectors, such as conjunctions, enumerations, repetitions or reiterations, definite articles and determiners, general category labels, synonyms, punctuation marks, simple or complex conjuncts, link sentences and structure the text and what Newmark calls its train of thought – which is basically its underlying information structure. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. You establish the tone by finding the so-called value-laden and value-free passages, such as subjective and objective bits, euphemisms, and other framing devices, framing being the strategy of linguistically presenting something in the perspective of one's own values and worldview, in a way promoting these. An author will frequently use emotional language that is value- ladened to affect our opinions. These words reflect the bias of the author and can express positive or negative opinions or biases toward the subject. Sometimes these words are referred to as loaded words. All of this will have to be somehow transferred into the target text so you achieve maximal equivalence at this level to. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. EQUIVALENCE LINGUISTIC EQUIVALENCE MAXIMAL EQUIVALENCE CULTURAL EQUIVALENCE Catford’s Taxonomy Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. The level of naturalness This level is target text oriented, focusing exclusively on the construction of the target text. It is important that: 1. the target text makes sense. 2. the target text reads naturally like any other text composed in the target language. This is apparently more difficult than one might expect, because one tends to reproduce a lot of grammatical structures, phrases and wordings which are natural in the source language but, while possible in the target language, which do not feel natural as such in the target language. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. What makes things more complicated is that naturalness often depends on the situation, such that something might seem natural in one context but unnatural in another. The best, perhaps only way, to ensure naturalness is to read through your translation and spot unnaturally sounding parts and change them into something that sounds more natural. This is something that most people skip when they do translations. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. Reference: A textbook of translation. Newmark, Peter,1988, Prentice-Hall International (New York). Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18

×