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Embedded clauses, presentation 6


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Embedded clauses, presentation 6

  1. 1. LANE 334 -EA: Syntax 2011 – Term 2 6EMBEDDED CLAUSES By: Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  3. 3. •Subordinate (embedded) clauses may be or :1.I prefer [S´ that he takes a taxi]2.I prefer [S´ to take a taxi]3.I prefer [S´ for him to take a taxi] 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. The verb in the embedded clause isfinite (carries tense) and has asubject.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  6. 6. RELATIVE CLAUSERELATIVE CLAUSES are adjectival in nature. Theclause fulfills the same role as an ADJECTIVE.1. The man [whose car we crashed into] called the police.2. We’ll rent the apartment to the person [that we like best].Relative clauses are generally introduced by a relativepronoun, such as who, or which. However, the relativepronoun may be ellipted:•The video [which you recommended] was terrific.•The video [you recommended] was terrific . 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. ADVERBIAL CLAUSESAdverbial clauses•They fulfill the same function as an adverb or prepositional phrase.•They are often adjuncts to the verb (therefore optional), and expressmeanings such as place, time, manner, concession, condition, result,etc.•They are typically introduced by a subordinate conjunction (while,because, since, in order to, so that, whereas, unless, as though, as if,whenever, etc.).1. I’d like to go out [while it’s still sunny].2. [Although it rained all week], the sun came out during the weekend.3. The department called an urgent meeting [because the dean was dissatisfied with their proposals]. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. COMPLEMENT CLAUSESComplement clausesThey are introduced by a complementiser (that, whether). They arealso referred to as noun clauses, nominal clauses, or completiveclauses.They are often the direct object of a verb such as think, believe, ask,and also some adjectives and nouns.1. I think [that it’s too windy to go out for a walk].2. Do you really believe [that the government will increase funding to universities]?3. He asked [whether there was parking in the building].4. I’m sure [that Kate will be here soon].5. The fact [that the candidate is still running] is evidence of her commitment. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. The complementiser ‘that’ can often be deleted. The complementclause that can be distinguished from the relative clause that,because the relative complementiser can be replaced by relativewh-pronouns (e.g., who or which), whereas the complementclause that cannot be replaced by anything.1. The theory [that black holes exist] is taught in physics class. – Complement clause2. The theory [that Prof. Jones believes in] is not very convincing. – Relative clause1. *The theory [which black holes exist] is taught in physics class.2. The theory [which Prof. Jones believes in] is not very convincing. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. Some complement clauses areintroduced by a wh- word (what, why,who, etc.).1. He asked [why there were so many homeless people in the city].2. I really didn’t know [what I could tell him].3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. SUBJECT CLAUSESubject clausesThey are the subject of a main clause. They canbe introduced by the complementiser that(which is not optional then), or by a wh- word.1. [What he’s been telling us] has all been true.2. [That smoking causes lung cancer] seems evident.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. Infinitive clauses NON- NON- FINITE CLAUSE Present Past participia participial l clauses clauses3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. Non-finite Clauses•The verb is non-finite.•There is usually no explicit subject, although thesubject is understood to be the same as in the mainclause.•When looking for a non-finite clause, keep in mind thatthe first verb in the verb phrase has to be non-finite.• For example, the verb phrase[ was studying ]containsa non-finite form (studying), but it is finite, since the firstverb (actually, the auxiliary was) is finite.•Non-finite clauses can contain auxiliary verbs (to havelived, to be completed, having studied), but it is alwaysthe case that the first form is non-finite.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. Infinitive Clauses•The verb is a to infinitive.•They can fulfill a number of functions, similar to those offinite clauses: subject, complement, or adverbial.1. [To live in a cosmopolitan city] has been his life-long goal.2. That’s difficult [to believe].3. They went away for the weekend [to relax from the stress of the week].•They can be introduced by the complementisers whether orfor, or by a wh- word.1. I prefer [for the students to do most of the talking].2. I don’t know [what to do]. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. Past Participial Clauses•The verb is a past participle (not to be confusedwith a simple past, which would be finite).•Again, a number of functions, typically adjuncts toa noun or adverbials.1. [Exhausted after a day’s work], the bus driver decided to take a cab home.2. The proposal [provided by the city] did not satisfy city council.3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. Present Participial Clauses•The verb is a present participle (the –ing form). Theycan be complements to a verb or adjuncts to a noun, oradverbials.1. They kept [hammering away while we were working].2. [Having finished work early], the team celebrated by [going out for pizza].3. John ran out the door, [waving cheerfully as he left].4. The plumber found the leak [causing the flooding] quite fast. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. 3/16/2011 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17