Critical Thinking


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Critical Thinking

  1. 1. 10/10/2010 LANE-462-CA-2011 Everyone thinks ….. Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, unclear, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Poor Critical Thinking thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, By: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar however, must be systematically cultivated. - Richard Paul 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2 Critical Thinking History Socrates •Socrates – 400 BC 2,500 years ago Socrates established the • Questioning importance of asking deep questions, • Inquiring seeking evidence, analyzing basic concepts • Search for meaning before we accept ideas as worthy of beliefs . • Search for truth 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4 •Plato, Aristotle, Greek skeptics In the middle ages •Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica) Plato, Aristotle, and Greek skeptics emphasized that things are often very Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica) different from what they appear to be and ensures that his thinking met the tests of that only the trained mind is prepared to see critical thinkers by answering criticisms of his though the way thing look to us on the ideas. surface. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6 1
  2. 2. 10/10/2010 15th & 16th C. (Renaissance) •European scholars Francis Bacon in England • wrote The Advancement of Learning, (Colet, Erasmus, More in England) the 1st book in critical thinking. started thinking critically about religion, art, •argued for the importance of studying society, human, law, and freedom. the world empirically. •laid the foundation for modern science with his emphasis on the information- gathered process. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8 Francis Bacon •Descartes in France 50 years later •Sir Thomas More in England • Father of the Scientific Method Descartes in France • “We must become as little children in order to • wrote the 2nd book Rules for the Direction of the Mind enter the kingdom of science” - developed a method of critical thought based on the principle of systematic doubt. •In the same period, Sir Thomas More: - developed a model for a new social order Utopia in which every domain the present world was subject to critique. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10 16th &17th C. Hobbes & Locke 17th & 18th C. - not to accept the traditional cultural beliefs dominant in the thinking of their day as being • Robert Boyle & Isaac Newton in Chemistry & rational and normal. nature - everything in the world should be explained • other French thinkers in sociology & politics by evidence and reasoning. Adam Smith produces Wealth of Nations in economics 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12 2
  3. 3. 10/10/2010 20th C. 19th C. •Number of thinkers have increased in every • Darwin's Descent of Man in the biological domain of human thought and within which domain focused on the history of human reasoning takes place. culture and the basis of biological life •Dewey – 1930’s • Sigmund Freud study in the unconscious •Ennis – 1980’s domain. •Plus other studies in the Anthropological & Linguistics domains. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14 Dewey Ennis Reflective Thinking • Critical thinking is “reasonable, reflective • Dispositions of thinking • Native Resources thinking focused on deciding what to believe or – Open mindedness – Curiosity do.” – Whole heartedness – Suggestion – Intellectual Responsibility – Orderliness 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16 Ennis - Actions a learner usually Ennis - Actions a learner usually must take in must take in order to think critically order to think critically • Judge the credibility of sources • Ask appropriate clarifying questions • Identify conclusions, reasons and assumptions • Plan experiments and judge experimental designs • Judge the quality of an argument including the • Define terms in a way appropriate for the context acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence • Be open-minded • Try to be well-informed • Develop and defend a position on an issue • Draw conclusions when warranted, but with caution 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18 3
  4. 4. 10/10/2010 What Is Critical Thinking? Thus… Students in school should be taught how to think critically. Classes should be designed based on reasoning and “Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and logic to unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations. rational grounds and not as series of Thinking critically involves seeing things in an open- facts. minded way. This important skill allows people to look past their own views of the world and to adopt a more aware way of viewing the world.” What is Critical Thinking? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20 HOW DO YOU DEFINE CRITICAL Definition of Critical Thinking THINKING? •pursuit of relevant andcorrect thinking in the Critical thinking means reliable knowledge about the world. •reflective, way to describe it skillful thinking Another responsible, and is reasonable, that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22 • Critical thinking is not being able to process • True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly information well enough to know to stop for red lights or judge between political candidates, serve on a whether you received the correct change at the murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for supermarket. nuclear power plants, and assess the • Such low-order thinking, critical and useful though it may be, is sufficient only for personal survival; most consequences of global warming. • Critical thinking enables an individual to be a individuals master this. responsible citizen who contributes to society, and not be merely a consumer of society's distractions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24 4
  5. 5. 10/10/2010 • A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently • Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably to and creatively sort through this information, reason students by peers or by most parents. logically from this information, and come to reliable • Trained and knowledgeable instructors are necessary to impart the proper information and and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. skills. • Children are not born with the power to think • Critical thinking can be described as the scientific method applied by ordinary critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a people to the ordinary world. learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals never learn it. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26 •methodtruescientific investigation: a question theidentified, an This is of because critical thinking mimics is well-known • Critical thinking is the ability to think for one's self and hypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered, reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect the hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable one's life. • conclusions are drawn from the result. All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by • Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in answers that challenge the status quo, discover new specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. information that can be used for good or ill, question • • Critical thinking is scientific thinking. A scientifically-literate person, such as a math or science authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power instructor, has learned to think critically to achieve that level in society greater than their numbers. of scientific awareness. But any individual with an advanced degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned the techniques of critical thinking. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 28 •small number ofa critical thinkers, that learning,can tolerate only a It may be that workable society or culture internalizing, and •describedthinkinga has many components. Life caneach Critical be as sequence of problems that practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Most individual must solve for one's self. Critical thinking skills people are followers of authority: most do not question, are not are nothing more than problem solving skills that result curious, and do not challenge authority figures who claim in reliable knowledge. Humans constantly process special knowledge or insight. Most people, therefore, do not information. Critical thinking is the practice of processing think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them. Most this information in the most skillful, accurate, and people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking, rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, hope it, or feel it to be true. Most people, therefore, do not think upon which one can make responsible decisions about critically. one's life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 29 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 30 5
  6. 6. 10/10/2010 A GOOD CRITICAL THINKER understands the idea of degrees of belief sees similarities and analogies that are not superficially apparent can learn independently and has a long-lasting interest in doing Raymond S. Nickerson (1987) characterizes a good critical thinker in so terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of applies problem-solving techniques in domains other than those behaving. in which learned Here are some of the CHARACTERISTICS of such a thinker: can structure informally represented problems in such a way that uses evidence skillfully and impartially organizes thoughts and articulates them concisely and coherently formal techniques, such as mathematics, can be used to solve distinguishers between logically valid and invalid inferences them suspends judgment in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a can strip a verbal argument of irrelevancies and phrase it in its decision essential terms understands the difference between reasoning and rationalizing attempts to anticipate the probable consequences of alternative actions 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 31 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 32 habitually questions one's own views and attempts to understand both the assumptions that are critical to those views A Definition: and the implications of the views Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and is sensitive to the difference between the validity of a belief evaluating thinking with a view to improving it. and the intensity with which it is held is aware of the fact that one's understanding is always limited, often much more so than would be apparent to one with a noninquiring attitude recognizes the fallibility of one's own opinions, the probability of bias in those opinions, and the danger of weighting evidence according to personal preferences This list serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to life that critical thinking is supposed to be 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 33 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 34 Why Critical Thinking? • Critical thinking –A set of conceptual tools used to make “It is human irrationality, not a lack of knowledge that threatens human potential” (Nickerson cited in Kurfiss, 1986). decisions • Intellectual skills and strategies It . . . • Reasonable process • underlies listening and speaking, reading and writing, the basic language skills. –A mental ability • plays angovernments, schools, businesses,Allare the products ofsociety: courts, important part in social change. institutions in any critical • Disciplined intelligence thinking. • Problem solving • plays a key role in technological advances. • frees the human mind from false beliefs and deceptions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 35 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 36 6
  7. 7. 10/10/2010 Who Uses Critical Thinking? W ho SH O U LD think critically? • STUDENTS !!! • Parents • Nurses • Doctors • Athletic coaches • Teachers/Professors • Air Traffic Controllers • Military Commanders • Lawyers, Judges • Supervisors • Day Care Workers 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 37 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 38 Types of thinkers Novice Versus Expert Thinker Novice thinkers • Expert thinkers – Quickly identify relevant information. – Can formulate a solution with “sketchy” information . • Novice thinkers – Consider all information equally important. – Develop hypothesis, test hypothesis. Expert thinkers – Cannot focus on central issues. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 39 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 40 Cultivated Critical Thinkers Benefits of critical thinking Well cultivated critical thinkers: Critical thinking empowers and improves • are able to raise vital questions and problems, as well as formulate and present them clearly. chances of success • can gather and assess information and interpret it • in a career effectively. • as a consumer • can reach well-reasoned conclusions and solutions to problems while testing them against relevant criteria • in social roles in our community and standards. – personally, essential to personal autonomy • can be open-minded. – socially, essential to democratic system • can communicate effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 41 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 42 7
  8. 8. 10/10/2010 How Can One Become a Critical Thinker? Pitfalls…… • By asking pertinent questions • By listening carefully towhat (of self as well as others); others, thinking about they say, and giving feedback; • Teaching for critical thinking takes more time • By assessing statements and arguments; • By observing with an open to prepare. mind; • Teaching for critical thinking will reduce the • By developing a sense of observation and curiosity; • By makinglogic and solid assertions based amount of “material” covered. on sound • Teaching for critical thinking is not popular • By becomingsolutions; in finding new interested evidence; with students in the beginning. • By sharing ideas with others; • By examining and opinions assumptions, beliefs, • By becomingreader; an open-minded • BUT… and weighing them against listener and truth. • By developing a “thinker’s • By engaging in active reading vocabulary”. and active listening! 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 43 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 44 Critical thinking begins when you If you’re a critical thinker, question beyond what is given. you think. You want to know more: ….No surprise…. • how something happens, • why it happens, and further •You are willing to examine your beliefs, assumptions, • what will happen if something changes. and opinions and weigh them against facts. Critical thinking therefore requires a conscious level of • You are willing to evaluate the generalizations and processing, analysis, creation and evaluation of possible stereotypes you have created and are open to change, outcomes, and reflection. if necessary. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 45 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 46 Critical thinkers look for Critical thinkers listen carefully. evidence…. •If you’re a critical thinker, you look for •If you’re a critical thinker, you listen carefully to what evidence to support your assumptions and others are saying and are able to give feedback. beliefs. •You are able to suspend judgment until all the facts • You examine problems closely and are have been gathered and considered. able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 47 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 48 8
  9. 9. 10/10/2010 Therefore…through experience, as a critical Critical thinkers are curious. thinker, you will: They are interested in knowing all there is • identify information that is being put forth as an about a topic. They look for new and better argument and break it down to its basic components for ways to do everything. They are not the evaluation. • construct alternative interpretations person who will settle for “…because that is • be willing to explore diverse perspectives the way we have always done it.” • be willing to change personal assumptions when presented with valid information • be willing to ask difficult questions and the ability to receptive to opposing viewpoints. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 49 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 50 A CRITICAL THINKER CONSIDERS THE ELEMENTS OF • Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self- REASONING: disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. • It requires accurate standards of excellence and 1. Purpose, Goal, Objective, or End in View 2. Question at Issue (or Problem to Be Solved) mindful command of their use. 3. Point of View, Frame of Reference, Perspective, • It entails effective communication and problem solving Orientation abilities and a commitment to overcome our native 4. Assumptions (presuppositions, what is taken for granted) egocentrism and sociocentrism. 5. Information (data, facts, observations, experiences) 6. Concepts (theories, definitions, axioms, laws, principles, models) 7. Interpretation & Inferences (conclusions, solutions) 8. Implications & Consequences (Where does this thinking lead? What will result if this thinking is turned into action?) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 51 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 52 UNIVERSAL STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT Whenever we think, we think for a purpose, within a point of view, based on assumptions, leading to implications and consequences. We use data, facts, and experiences, to make inferences and judgments, based on concepts and theories, in attempting to answer a question or solve a problem. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 53 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 54 9
  10. 10. 10/10/2010 QUESTIONS IMPLIED BY THE UNIVERSAL STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT: [Use these questions Universal Intellectual Standards when beginning work] •What is my fundamental purpose? • Clarity : If a statement is unclear we cannot •What is the key question I am trying to answer? •What information do I need in order to answer my evaluate its fit with the other standards. question? • Accuracy : Accuracy = TRUTH. Is it true? •What is the most basic concept in the question? • Precision : Is there enough detail to completely •What assumptions am I using in my reasoning? understand the statement. •What is my point of view with respect to the issue? •What are my most fundamental inferences or • Relevance : Is the information connected to the conclusions? question at hand? •What are the implications and possible consequences of my reasoning (if my reasoning is valid? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 55 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 56 • Depth: Does the statement, fact, etc. address the complexity of the issue? • Breadth: Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this question? Are you considering the key factors? • Logic: Does it make sense? Can you make that conclusion based on the information and evidence? • Significance: Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important? • Fairness: Do I have any vested interest in this issue? Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 57 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 58 Robert Platt Crawford 1931 provides a list that can serve as a bridge to creative thinking 1. The intent of Crawford’s Attribute Listing was to enable students to operate at the creativity or synthesis level of Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy. Additional cognitive operations, however, are needed to implement the four-step process. The steps are: 2. Select a problem, product, or system (problem designation) 3. Break it into key attributes or stages or parts (analysis/synthesis/creative thinking) 4. Identify various ways to achieve each attribute or part (brainstorming or any idea-generating technique) 5. Design or create a solution by manipulating and recombining the variables (structured synthesis) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 59 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 60 10
  11. 11. 10/10/2010 Critical Thinking Dispositions • Engagement – Looking for opportunities to use reasoning – expecting situations that require reasoning – Confident in reasoning ability Application Evaluation Decision Making • Innovativeness Comprehension Synthesis Problem Solving – Intellectually curious Knowledge Analysis Concept attainment – Wants to know the truth • Cognitive maturity – Aware that real problems are complex – Open to other points of view – Aware of biases and predispositions 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 61 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 62 To understand reasoning properly, however, we need to The difference between mere thinking and reasoning or inference is easy to understand how it differs from mere thinking. understand through examples. Consider the following pairs of sentences: •When we are merely thinking our thoughts simply come to us, 1. Alan is broke, and he is unhappy. Alan is broke, therefore he is unhappy. one after another: when we reason we actively link thoughts 2. Anne was in a car accident last week, and she deserves an extension together in such a way that we believe one thought provides on her essay. support for another thought. Anne was in a car accident last week, so she deserves an extension on •This active process of reasoning is termed inference. her essay. • Inference involves a special relationship between different 3. This triangle has equal sides and equal angles. thoughts: when we infer B from A, we move from A to B because This triangle has equal sides; hence it has equal angles. Notice that the first sentence in each pair simply asserts two thoughts but we believe that A supports or justifies or makes it reasonable to says nothing about any relationship between them, while the second believe in the truth of B. sentence asserts a relationship between two thoughts. This relationship is signaled by the words therefore, so, and hence. These are called inference indicators: words that indicate that one thought is intended to support (i.e., to justify, provide a reason for, provide evidence for, or entail) another thought. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 63 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 64 Critical Thinking • Inference –Querying claims, conjecturing alternatives, drawing skills and sub-skills conclusions • Interpretation – Problem solving, decision making, differential, diagnosis – categorization, decoding, clarifying meaning • Explanation – Stating results, justifying procedures, presenting arguments – Notes, matrices, charts, patient history – Elements of reasoning, stating the case, clarity • Analysis • Self-regulation – examining ideas, identifying arguments, analyzing – Self examination, self correction arguments – Self critique, questioning, changing, recognizing personal – Elements of reasoning, listening, data errors in thinking • Evaluation – assessing claims, assessing arguments – Questioning, credibility, reasonableness, trust. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 65 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 66 11
  12. 12. 10/10/2010 Resolving Obstacles To Critical Aspects of critical thinking Thinking • Issues Obstacle—relativism or subjectivism – factual • Remedy—patience and tenacity in pursuit of the truth Obstacle—egocentrism and ethnocentricity – interpretive • Remedy— intellectual humility – evaluative Obstacle—intimidation by authority – mere verbal dispute • Remedy—intellectual independence • Claims Obstacle—conformism – truth-statement with adequate support • Remedy—intellectual courage – assumption: claim without support Obstacle—unexamined and inferential assumptions, and • hidden assumptions undermine reliability of reasoning presuppositions • Remedy—examination of assumptions 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 67 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 68 Characteristics of Critical Thinkers: • Strive for understanding • Keep an open mind • Are honest with themselves • They are very observant • Base judgment on evidence • Identify key issues and raise questions • Are interested in other people’s ideas • Obtain relevant facts • Control their feelings/emotions • Evaluate the findings and form judgments • Recognize that extreme views are seldom correct. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 69 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 70 What does the absence of critical thinking look like? Young girl? Or old • We blindly accept at face value all justifications women? given by organizations and political leaders. • We blindly believe TV commercials. • We blindly continue to hold on to old beliefs. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 71 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 72 12
  13. 13. 10/10/2010 Man playing A face of a native horn? Or a American? Or an woman’s Eskimo’s back? silhouette? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 73 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 74 Thinking Barriers Personal Barriers to thinking (Ego Defenses) – Emotions • Anger • Denial – Refuse to accept reality. • Passion • Projection • Depression – We see in others what is really happening to us. – Stress • Rationalization – Bias (values and beliefs) – Lying to ourselves about the real reasons for our behaviors and feelings. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 75 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 76 Thinking Errors • Personalization • Selective abstraction – Thinking in which the world revolves around an – Focusing on one detail of a situation individual and ignoring the larger picture • Polarized Thinking • Overgeneralization – There is only black or white – no gray – Drawing broad conclusions on the • Catastrophizing basis of a single incident. – Always consider the worst possible outcome (all the time) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 77 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 78 13
  14. 14. 10/10/2010 Five Phases of Critical Thinking • Phase 4: Finding Alternatives • Phase 1: Trigger Event –Also called the transition stage when old – Usually an unexpected event that causes ideas are either left behind and a new way some kind of inner discomfort or confusion. • Phase 2: Appraisal of thinking begins. – A period of reflection and the need to find • Phase 5: Integration another approach to deal with the issue. • Phase 3: Exploration –Involves fitting new ideas and information – People start asking questions and gathering more information. into everyday usage. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 79 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 80 Key Questions to Critical • Are there any fallacies in the reasoning? Thinking • How good is the evidence? • What are the issues and the expected conclusions? • Are there rival causes? • What are the reasons? • Are the statistics deceptive? • What words or phrases are ambiguous? • What significant information is omitted? • What are the value conflicts and assumptions? • What reasonable conclusions are possible? • What are the assumptions? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 81 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 82 Critical thinking involves evaluating information or Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth • Decision Making • Verbal Reasoning – identifying and judging several alternatives and selecting – Understanding and evaluating the persuasive techniques the best alternative found in oral and written language • Critical Analysis of Prior Research • Argument Analysis – evaluating the value of data and research results in terms – Discriminating between reasons that do and do not of the methods used to obtain them and their potential support a particular conclusion relevance to particular conclusions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 83 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 84 14
  15. 15. 10/10/2010 Problem Solving Procedure Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision Making • Define the problem (not the symptom) • Remove thinking barriers (bias and logical) • University of Phoenix Model • Gather all relevant facts – Framing the question • Generate solutions (brainstorming, creative thinking) – Making the decision • Select a solution and have a back up plan – Evaluating the decision • Implement and evaluate 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 85 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 86 University of Phoenix Model How to Apply Bloom’s Six Levels • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 87 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 88 Level 1 – Recall Level 2 – Understand Remembering previously learned material, recalling facts, Demonstrating understanding of the stated meaning of terms, basic concepts from stated text facts and ideas • Name Relate • Compare Explain • List Tell • Describe Rephrase • Recognize Recall • Outline Show • Choose Match • Organize Relate • Label Define • Classify Identify 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 89 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 90 15
  16. 16. 10/10/2010 Level 2 1/2 – Infer Level 3 – Put to Use Demonstrating understanding of the unstated meaning Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, of facts and ideas facts, and techniques in a different situation • Speculate • Apply Dramatize • Interpret • Construct Restructure • Infer • Model Simulate • Generalize • Use Translate • Conclude • Practice Experiment 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 91 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 92 Level 4 – Break down Level 5 – Put together Examining and breaking down information into parts Compiling information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern • Analyze Simplify • Diagram • Compose Elaborate Summarize • Classify • Design Formulate Relate to • Contrast • Develop Originate Categorize • Sequence • Propose Solve Differentiate • Adapt Invent 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 93 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 94 Level 6 – Judge Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments Active learning about information based on criteria Active learning …. • Judge Defend • Appeal to a variety of learning styles • Rank Justify • Emphasis on development of skills over • Rate Prioritize transmission of information • Evaluate Support • Emphasis on ‘higher order’ thinking skills • Recommend Prove • Learning experiences are ‘active’ (reading, discussing, writing) • Explore students’ attitudes, values 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 95 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 96 16
  17. 17. 10/10/2010 Active learning Active learning • Participants like it • Match important objectives to active learning exercises • More fun and interesting for the instructor • If using groups, provide clear instructions on: • Research literature supports it – forming groups • Provides time to process information – objectives • Effective transfers to long-term memory – time limits • Greater retention of skills & information – reporting back • Leads to higher cognitive learning • Leads to affective learning • Very effective for adult learning 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 97 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 98 Active learning Active learning • Be prepared—everything will take longer than expected You need to ….. • Hand out exercises as students enter • Ask groups to take discussion notes • Limit number of choices • Provide time for reporting back • Plan efficient strategies for forming groups • Ensure all can hear (repeat remarks if necessary) • Circulate among groups during group work (to keep • Summarize after group reports on task, assist) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 99 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 100 Working Assumptions Working Definitions • Active Learning - “students involved in doing • Active learning is necessary for the teaching of critical things & thinking about the things they are doing” thinking. • Critical Thinking - “reasonable reflective thinking • Critical thinking should be integrated into every aspect of that is focused on deciding what to do and what to the educational process. believe” OR “interpreting, analyzing or evaluating • Students should be made aware of the thinking process. information, arguments or experiences with a set of • Critical thinking must be taught explicitly. reflective attitudes, skills, and abilities to guide our • Process is as important as content. thoughts, beliefs and actions” OR “examining the thinking of others to improve our own” 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 101 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 102 17
  18. 18. 10/10/2010 Thinking Tools 1 Questioning • A Thinking Tool is an instrument that can help us in Questioning is one approach to motivate using our minds systematically and effectively. others to: • With the use of thinking tools, the intended ideas will be • Get information arranged more systematically, clearly, and easy to be understood. • Test understanding There are 4 types of THINKING TOOLS: • Develop interest • Questioning • Evaluate the ability of individuals • Concepts towards understanding certain things. • Mindmaps “A person who asks • Cognitive Research Trust questions is a person who thinks.”’ - William Wilen 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 103 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 104 Questioning - Bloom’s Taxonomy 2 Concepts Evaluation Concepts are general ideas that we use to identify and organize our experience. Words are the vocabulary of language; Concepts are the vocabulary of thought. Synthesis Higher-Level Thinking Structure of Concepts: PROPERTIES Analysis • Sign - word/symbol that names the concept Application • Referents - examples of the CONCEPT concept SIGN REFERENTS Interpretation • Properties - qualities that all Lower-level examples of the concept share in Thinking Knowledge common. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 105 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 106 3 Mindmaps 4 Cognitive Research Trust A mindmap can be defined as a visual presentation of the ways Thinking Method in which concepts can be related to one another. • The essence of the (Cognitive Research Trust) Thinking Method is to focus attention directly on different aspects of thinking and to crystallize these aspects into definite concepts and tools that can be used deliberately. • It is designed to encourage students to broaden their thinking. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 107 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 108 18
  19. 19. 10/10/2010 References Final Words Crawford, R. P. (1964). The techniques of creative thinking: How to use CRITICAL THINKING is the active and systematic process of your ideas to achieve success. Burlington, VT: Fraser Publishing Co. • Communication Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. New York: D. C. Heath. Ennis, R. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory Into Practice, 32(3). • Problem-solving Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. • Evaluation Johnson, S. (1998). Skills, Socrates, and the Sophists: Learning from history. British Journal of Educational Studies 46(2). Retrieved March 23, • Analysis 2009, from JSTOR database. • Synthesis Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006b). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical • Reflection Thinking. both individually and in community to Pedersen, O. (1997). The first universities: Stadium Generale and the origins of university education in Europe. New York: Cambridge University • develop understanding Press. • Support positive decision-making and Foundation for Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking: Basic Theory and • Guide action Instructional Structures. Sonoma, California: 1998.) 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 109 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 110 Internet Resources: 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 111 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 112 19