Constituency,presentation 3 by dr. shadia yousef banjar.pptx


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Constituency,presentation 3 by dr. shadia yousef banjar.pptx

  1. 1. LANE 334 -EA: Syntax 2011 – Term 2Constituency 3 By: Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. • According to Syntax the component parts of a sentence are called CONSTITUENTS Which are the natural grouping of a sentence.Each of them has:• a formal CATEGORY (Whether it is a noun phrase, a verb phrase, etc)and …• a grammatical FUNCTION (whether it is the subject, or object, or predicate, etc) Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. Intuitively, we feel that certain words in a sentence aregrouped together:•The young student met his friend in the local library after lunch. A unit A unit Both met and friend are next to his, but our intuition is that they are different in whether they form a unit with it. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. Grammatical Units sentence Grammatical Word Clause Units phraseDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. Sentences Sentences are: 1.Simple, 2.Compound 3.Complex 4. Compound-ComplexDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. Clauses Clauses are: 1.Main clauses (independent clauses) 2.Subordinate clausesDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. Phrases There are these kinds of phrase: 1.verb phrase, 2.noun phrase, 3.adjective phrase, 4.adverb phrase, and 5.prepositional phrase.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. Word classes The main word classes are: 1. verb, 2. noun, 3. adjective, 4. adverb, 5. preposition, 6. determiner, 7. complementizer, and 8. conjunction.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. • Simple Sentence Types – One INDEPENDENT CLAUSE in a subject-verb pattern: • We cancelled the order last week.• Compound – Two or more independent clauses – no dependent clauses – Coordination takes place: [s1[s2] coord [s3]] – Note: A comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) must be used to connect the sentences. •Bill cooked dinner, and I did the dishes, but Susan helped not at all!• Complex – One independent clause with one or more dependent clauses. – Subordination takes place: [s1[s2 subord ]] • Although Bill and I cooked dinner and did the dishes, Susan helped not at all. – Note: The use of a comma is required with the dependent clause comes first in the sentence. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. • Compound-Complex- A mixed type of sentences- consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause.- Have (Coordinators and subordinators)- Coordination of subordinated clauses take place: If your order has not been shipped within 30 days, we will notify you of this delay by e-mail, and you will have the option to cancel your order. When you receive a promotional code, enter it on your order, but only one promotional code may be used for each order.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. A constituent is formed if…1) Constituents can stand alone • e.g. “What did you find?” “A puppy” (not “found a”) √2) Constituents can be replaced by one word. • e.g. “Where did you find a puppy?” “I found it in the park.”3) Constituents move together. • e.g. It was [a puppy] that the child found. • e.g. [A puppy] was found by the child.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12