Practical human factors & sign design

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Presentation on human factors and sign design given to the UK Sign Design Society in May 2012 by John Wood from CCD Design & Ergonomics

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Practical human factors & sign design

  1. 1. Practical Human Factors & Sign Design John Wood. Executive Chairman CCD Design & Ergonomics Ltd Jon Burden, Industry Liaison Manager, Network Rail Kings Cross Station Redevelopment Programme
  2. 2. Introduction• Kings Cross – Signage and Wayfinding• ‘Cable-cars’ project signage programme• Modelling ‘wayfinding’• International standards on colour coding
  3. 3. The Kings Cross Project
  4. 4. The Organizational Chart
  5. 5. Original Grip Stage 3 Design
  6. 6. Retail Redesign Grip Stage 5
  7. 7. Work Diagram For Consultation
  8. 8. Checking Human Factors
  9. 9. Checking Human Factors
  10. 10. Comparing Human Factors
  11. 11. Departure Board
  12. 12. Impact Of Revised Retail Layout
  13. 13. ‘Monolith’ Location & Signing
  14. 14. Where The ‘Monolith’ Should Have Been
  15. 15. Location Of Information Desk
  16. 16. The ‘Link Bridge’ Challenge
  17. 17. ‘Vinyls’
  18. 18. ‘Departures’ Is Now ‘Arrivals’
  19. 19. Temporary Station Signage
  20. 20. Fire Escape + Impromptu Signing
  21. 21. Temporary Signing By Train Operators
  22. 22. Redundant Signing By Train Operating Company
  23. 23. Lessons Learnt• Make easily, replaceable signs• Don’t change the design half way through!• Decide on the signing standards to use early on• Create some form of mock-up• Visit another site ‘intelligently’
  24. 24. Emirates Air Line (Cable Car for London)
  25. 25. Typical Plan Layout of Signs For ‘Cable Cars’
  26. 26. ‘Cable Cars’ - Lessons Learnt• Paper based ergonomic evaluation difficult to do.• Attempting a 3D assessment in a 2D representation• Need for simple quick and low cost modelling.
  27. 27. Development of Wayfinding Tools:Objectives & Concepts
  28. 28. Study Objectives• Improve measurement of wayfinding performance• Robust and reliable• Easy to use• Applicable to new works and modifications• Difficulty of ‘putting oneself in visitors shoes’• Develop metrics
  29. 29. Survey Results On Wayfinding Negative Features Frustration Confusion due to information overload Confusion due to retail and directional infor Lack of awareness of time and distance information Poor terminology Lack of recovery clues Inadequate lighting/auditory environments
  30. 30. Example Of Wayfinding Metrics
  31. 31. Example Of Wayfinding Metrics
  32. 32. Analysis Of Photographic ImageClass of sign Number in visual Area in photo % of total field (mm squared)Primary 2 470 2%Secondary 2 1270 6%Other 4 630 3%
  33. 33. Measure Of Visibility At Decision Points
  34. 34. Scoring Visibility & Relevance of Signs
  35. 35. Scoring Visibility & Relevance of SignsConnection: Entrance to - Visibility Weighting Score 1 toilets 1 0.8 0.8 2 shops 1 0.5 0.5 3 check-in 0 1 0 4 security 1 1 1 5 café 1 0.3 0.3 AVERAGE 0.52
  36. 36. Standard for Colour Coded Alerts• Express the degree of safety or danger• Be suitable for an international audience• Cover all hazards, all locations, all sectors• Transmission by variety of media
  37. 37. Generic Meaning of Colours in Colour Codes Colour Meaning Suggestion Red Danger Take appropriate safety action immediately Yellow Caution Prepare for taking appropriate safety action Green Safety No need to take safety actions
  38. 38. Results ofInternationalSurvey
  39. 39. Results ofInternationalSurvey
  40. 40. Results ofInternationalSurveyFire Danger
  41. 41. Results ofInternationalSurvey
  42. 42. Results ofInternationalSurveyTriage Tags
  43. 43. Results ofInternationalSurveyMetrological Map
  44. 44. Results ofInternationalSurveyThe International Nuclear andRadiological Event Scale
  45. 45. Initial Proposals
  46. 46. Current ProposalsNOTE: avoid using red and green without supplementaryelements
  47. 47. Some Useful GuidanceISO Guide 71 to products and services to address the needs ofolder persons and persons with disabilities
  48. 48. In Summary• Illustrated how human factors contributed to the signage and wayfinding elements of two UK programmes• Shown how metrics might be developed for measuring wayfinding performance• Presented the work of an international standards team developing a set of universally acceptable colour codes for public warnings about disasters

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