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Tracing the Link Between Pollution and Food Production in the Asopos Area, Greece Chrysostomos G. Kirkillis [a], Ioannis N...
Miltos Kountouras, from Skopelos, Gera, Lesvos In front of “his school” the female Teachers’ Academy in Thessaloniki [1927]
“ Close the schools” Miltos Kountouras [1923]. Miltos using the nickname “ Evergetoulas” published his assay in the local ...
“ Introduction” <ul><li>Where is “Asopos” or “the Hellenic Hinkley”? </li></ul>
Asopos – Oinofita (40km north of Athens…)
“ Background noise” Welding/metal   –   chemical   –   cosmetics   –   warehouses -  food   -   farms
“ materials” and methods
Waste  2 the  water-bed directly…
Materials and “Methods”
 
Scope <ul><li>The water-bed is polluted with a cocktail of heavy metals (from Cr(VI) to Ba) </li></ul><ul><li>In the area,...
Methods <ul><li>We were not able to sample in the area from the farmers… </li></ul><ul><li>We would have liked to sample: ...
Plan B <ul><li>Samples of food-tubers labelled as Thiva/Oinofita were purchased from all major super market chains in Athe...
Methods <ul><li>Graphite Furnace AAS </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of Cu and As, and Cd and Pb, and Ni and Cr by simulta...
Table  1.  Levels of trace element in  carrots  grown in the industrial area of Thiva,  Central Greece (n=13x3=39) and fro...
Table  2.  Levels of trace element in  onions  grown in the industrial area of Thiva, Central Greece (n=14x3=42) and from ...
Table  3 .  Levels of trace element in  potatoes  grown in the industrial area of Thiva, Central Greece (n=3x3=9) and from...
In summary <ul><li>Relative differences were calculated </li></ul><ul><li>[(mean of samples) – (mean of controls)] / (mean...
Table  4.  Trace element concentrations in vegetables from the industrial area of Asopos and Thiva, Central Greece, compar...
Table  5.  Estimation of heavy metal daily intake through consumption of root vegetables in Thiva. a From Data Food Networ...
So…no risk? <ul><li>According to FNB & IOM (Trumbo et al., 2001), the tolerable upper intake level for children for Nickel...
7 th  AACD, 30.9.2010. Professor Aras on dietary intakes
Suggestions <ul><li>Toxicological studies to define ADI values for Cr and Ni </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific opinion to EFSA ...
A glimpse of the future…
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Apart from the organisers of 7 th  AACD here in Mytilene… </li></ul><ul><li>and the colleagues on...
Athanasios Panteloglou Chemist / Environmental Criminologist The man who discovered the “Tragedy of Asopos” …in 1999
Priest Ioannis Oikonomides [papaYannis] @ EU parliament, April 2009
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Οι επιπτώσεις της ρύπανσης του Ασωπού ποταμού σε τρόφιμα - βολβούς

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Οι επιπτώσεις της ρύπανσης του Ασωπού ποταμού σε τρόφιμα - βολβούς. Έρευνα του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών που διενεργήθηκε το 2010 Tracing the Link Between Pollution and Food Production in the Asopos Area, GreeceChrysostomos G. Kirkillis [a], Ioannis N. Pasias [b], Sofia Miniadis-Meimaroglou [a], Nikolaos S. Thomaidis [b] and Ioannis Zabetakis [a]* 

a University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Food Chemistry Laboratory, Greece.
b University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Greece.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Οι επιπτώσεις της ρύπανσης του Ασωπού ποταμού σε τρόφιμα - βολβούς

  1. 1. Tracing the Link Between Pollution and Food Production in the Asopos Area, Greece Chrysostomos G. Kirkillis [a], Ioannis N. Pasias [b], Sofia Miniadis-Meimaroglou [a], Nikolaos S. Thomaidis [b] and Ioannis Zabetakis [a]*  a University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Food Chemistry Laboratory, Greece. b University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Greece. izabet@chem.uoa.gr
  2. 2. Miltos Kountouras, from Skopelos, Gera, Lesvos In front of “his school” the female Teachers’ Academy in Thessaloniki [1927]
  3. 3. “ Close the schools” Miltos Kountouras [1923]. Miltos using the nickname “ Evergetoulas” published his assay in the local newspaper “ Cabana” [the bell] edited by Stratis Mirivilis
  4. 4. “ Introduction” <ul><li>Where is “Asopos” or “the Hellenic Hinkley”? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Asopos – Oinofita (40km north of Athens…)
  6. 6. “ Background noise” Welding/metal – chemical – cosmetics – warehouses - food - farms
  7. 7. “ materials” and methods
  8. 8. Waste 2 the water-bed directly…
  9. 9. Materials and “Methods”
  10. 11. Scope <ul><li>The water-bed is polluted with a cocktail of heavy metals (from Cr(VI) to Ba) </li></ul><ul><li>In the area, there is high production of food-tubers (e.g. carrots, onions, potatoes) </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a link between water polution and food production in Asopos? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Methods <ul><li>We were not able to sample in the area from the farmers… </li></ul><ul><li>We would have liked to sample: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In individual farming spots… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we had to change our plan… </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Plan B <ul><li>Samples of food-tubers labelled as Thiva/Oinofita were purchased from all major super market chains in Athens over a period of 10 months. </li></ul><ul><li>These samples were coded as Sx and analysed for heavy metals </li></ul>
  13. 14. Methods <ul><li>Graphite Furnace AAS </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of Cu and As, and Cd and Pb, and Ni and Cr by simultaneous GFAAS. </li></ul><ul><li>Drying, Pyrolysis, Atomization, Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>For method accuracy, the Certified Reference Material, CRM 281 (trace elements in rye grass) was measured. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Table 1. Levels of trace element in carrots grown in the industrial area of Thiva, Central Greece (n=13x3=39) and from other areas, of low industrial activities (n=2x3=6). Detection limits ( μ g/kg wet wt): Cr 10, Pb 12, As 22 (524-882) (1.9-6.0) (29-40) (14-26) (80-106) Control (Range) d 703±253 4.0±2.8 35±8 20±8 93±18 Control (Mean, n=2) 524±51 6.0±0.6 29±2 26±4 80±2 Control 2 882±32 1.9±0.4 40±2 14±2 106±13 Control 1 (137-616) (3.0-25) (<12-43) (<10-77) (274-764) S(Range) d 410±183 11±6 21±14 43±22 474±148 S(Mean, n=13) 526±40 6.2±0.4 22±2 76±3 435±46 S13 350±31 8.0±1.0 14±1 68±6 550 ± 37 S12 576±32 15±1 13±1 25±4 764 ± 50 S11 616±85 10±1 22±1 44±1 53 2± 39 S10 562±83 10±1 43±7 41±3 4 20± 8 S9 553±32 8.2±1.0 43±6 36±1 436 ± 37 S8 395±13 13±1 37±2 28±1 689±249 S7 217±43 3.0±1.0 <12 <10 307 ± 27 S6 137±80 4.0±0.0 <12 47±14 328 ± 29 S5 167±37 25±1 <12 22±18 27 4± 16 S4 - 21±2 <12 33±3 45 9± 86 S3 - 11±3 33±1 61±6 36 8± 13 S2 <22 - 7.5±0.1 17±4 77±15 595 ± 71 S1 As c Cu Cd Pb b Cr a Ni Concentrations of metals (Mean±SD, μ g/kg wet wt) Carrots Samples (524-882) (1.9-6.0) (29-40) (14-26) (80-106) Control (Range) d 703±253 4.0±2.8 35±8 20±8 93±18 Control (Mean, n=2) (137-616) (3.0-25) (<12-43) (<10-77) (274-764) S(Range) d 410±183 11±6 21±14 43±22 474±148 S(Mean, n=13) As c Cu Cd Pb b Cr a Ni Concentrations of metals (Mean±SD, μ g/kg wet wt) Carrots Samples
  15. 16. Table 2. Levels of trace element in onions grown in the industrial area of Thiva, Central Greece (n=14x3=42) and from other areas, of low industrial activities (n=2x3=6). Detection limits ( μ g/kg wet wt): Cr 10, Pb 12, As 22 (605-621) (3.0-9.0) (22-27) (<10) (<45-82) Control (Range) e 613±11 6.0±4.9 24±3 <10 57±35 Control (Mean, n=2) 621±10 9.0±0.0 22±7 <10 82±0 Control 2 605±28 3.0±0.0 27±4 <10 <45 Control 1 (144-452) (1.0-11) (<12-72) (<10-26) (110-688) S(Range) e 317±94 5.3±3.2 35±18 <10 422±147 S(Mean, n=14) 389±38 4.0±0.0 52±2 <10 264±44 S14 252±30 7.7±0.1 24±5 <10 480±42 S13 261±32 2.7±0.6 43±6 <10 315±25 S12 361±44 2.0±0.0 35±3 <10 110±42 S11 452±46 8.0±1.0 28±2 <10 327±6 S10 205±14 4.0±1.0 35±7 <10 505±37 S9 421±29 3.0±0.0 26±11 <10 353±16 S8 144±15 4.0±0.0 45±11 <10 481±53 S7 292±11 5.4±0.3 62±8 <10 326±38 S6 315±32 11±2 13±1 <10 506±1 S5 297±20 11±1 26±3 16±4 539±66 S4 418±46 1.0±0.0 72±1 <10 469±27 S3 - 7.0±0.0 <12 <10 688±62 S2 <22 - 3.5±0.8 24±1 26±1 5 50±4 1 S1 As d Cu Cd Pb c Cr b Ni a Concentrations of metals (Mean±SD, μ g/kg wet wt) Onions Samples (605-621) (3.0-9.0) (22-27) (<10) (<45-82) Control (Range) e 613±11 6.0±4.9 24±3 <10 57±35 Control (Mean, n=2) (144-452) (1.0-11) (<12-72) (<10-26) (110-688) S(Range) e 317±94 5.3±3.2 35±18 <10 422±147 S(Mean, n=14) As d Cu Cd Pb c Cr b Ni a Concentrations of metals (Mean±SD, μ g/kg wet wt) Onions Samples
  16. 17. Table 3 . Levels of trace element in potatoes grown in the industrial area of Thiva, Central Greece (n=3x3=9) and from other areas, of low industrial activities (n=2x3=6). Detection limits ( μ g/kg wet wt): Cr 10, Pb 12, As 22 (925-1280) (5.1-34) (<12-30) (<10-14) (68-88) Control (Range) d 1102±251 20±21 18±17 <10 78±14 Control (Mean, n=2) 1280±52 5.1±0.5 <12 14±1 68±4 Control 2 925±48 34±4.1 30±5 <10 88±7 Control 1 (241-1459) (5.8-10) (<12-36) (<10-170) (90-1894) S(Range) d 881±611 7.3±2.2 16±17 63±93 800±961 S (Mean, n=3) 1459±65 10±1 <12 <10 416±12 S3 943±4 6.0±0.2 36±7 11±1 90±8 S2 <22 241±33 5.8±0.7 <12 170±9 1894±45 S1 As c Cu Cd Pb b Cr a Ni Concentrations of metals (Mean± SD, μ g/kg wet wt) Potatoes Samples (925-1280) (5.1-34) (<12-30) (<10-14) (68-88) Control (Range) d 1102±251 20±21 18±17 <10 78±14 Control (Mean, n=2) (241-1459) (5.8-10) (<12-36) (<10-170) (90-1894) S(Range) d 881±611 7.3±2.2 16±17 63±93 800±961 S (Mean, n=3) As c Cu Cd Pb b Cr a Ni Concentrations of metals (Mean± SD, μ g/kg wet wt) Potatoes Samples
  17. 18. In summary <ul><li>Relative differences were calculated </li></ul><ul><li>[(mean of samples) – (mean of controls)] / (mean of controls) </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ni 926% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr 350% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Onions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ni 640% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carrots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ni 410% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr 115% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cd 175% </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Table 4. Trace element concentrations in vegetables from the industrial area of Asopos and Thiva, Central Greece, compared with previously results from other studies.
  19. 20. Table 5. Estimation of heavy metal daily intake through consumption of root vegetables in Thiva. a From Data Food Network (DAFNE, 2004). b Calculated by multiplying the mean levels of an element (left column for each metal) by the mean daily consumption of root vegetables (second column of the table).
  20. 21. So…no risk? <ul><li>According to FNB & IOM (Trumbo et al., 2001), the tolerable upper intake level for children for Nickel is 300 μ g/day. Therefore, if a 10 year old child consumes about 200g of carrots from Asopos region (e.g. as a soup or a juice), this child exceeds his/her tolerable upper intake level. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it may be suggested that the consumption of average amounts of the studied food tubers, may pose a health risk to the consumer depending on the age and the consumer group (i.e. pregnant women, young children or elderly people may face a higher risk). </li></ul>http://www.iom.edu/About-IOM/Leadership-Staff/Boards/Food-and-Nutrition-Board.aspx Trumbo, P., Yates, A.A., Schlicker, S., & Poos, M. (2001). J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc. 101 , 294-301.
  21. 22. 7 th AACD, 30.9.2010. Professor Aras on dietary intakes
  22. 23. Suggestions <ul><li>Toxicological studies to define ADI values for Cr and Ni </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific opinion to EFSA to introduce limits of Cr and Ni in food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to update EC 1881/2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring the levels of heavy metals in food industry, especially in food products for children </li></ul>
  23. 24. A glimpse of the future…
  24. 25. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Apart from the organisers of 7 th AACD here in Mytilene… </li></ul><ul><li>and the colleagues on this paper… </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to thank two people… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who have inspired this research… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who have dedicated their lives to fight Pollution in Asopos… </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Athanasios Panteloglou Chemist / Environmental Criminologist The man who discovered the “Tragedy of Asopos” …in 1999
  26. 27. Priest Ioannis Oikonomides [papaYannis] @ EU parliament, April 2009

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