Anthropometry pps


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Anthropometry pps

  1. 1. Anthropometry By : Aamir Rauf Memon 2nd Year DPT Student 1
  2. 2. What is Anthropometry?Greek Anthro- : man -pometry: measurements Literal meaning: “measurement of humans”The study of measurements or proportionsof the human body according to sex, age,etc. for identification purposes Dimensions of bones, muscles, and adipose (fat) tissues 2
  3. 3. Definition of AnthropometryAnthrop(s) = humanMetricos = of or pertaining to measurementBasic DefinitionThe science of measurement of body size [NASA, 1978].Detailed Definition “The application of scientific methods to human subjects for the development of design standards & specific requirements and for the evaluation of engineering drawings, mock-ups & manufactured products for the purposes of assuring the suitability of these products for the intended user population.”[Roebuck, Kroemer & Thompson, 1975]. 3
  4. 4. Definition of Anthropometry“Anthropometry is a science that dealswith the measurement of size, weight, andproportions of the human body. It isempirical (experimentally derived) innature and has developed quantitativemethods to measure various physicaldimensions.” (Chaffin, 1984) 4
  5. 5. Historical Perspective13th century Marco Polo noticed differentbody sizes and shapes of new races Physical Anthropology traced to himLeonardo da Vinci (The Vitruvian Man,1485)Standards start to show in 1906 (Monaco)and 1912 (Geneva)Anthropology branch of US Air Force haddramatic impact 5
  6. 6. History of Anthropometry1883- Alphonse Bertillon: system ofidentification depending on the unchangingcharacter of certain measurements of parts ofthe human body1884: 241 multiple offenders were identified“Bertillonage”- first adapted by the Frenchpolice1887: introduced in the United States by MajorMcClaughry, the translator of Bertillons book,when he was the warden of the Illinois StatePenitentiary at Joliet. 6
  7. 7. History of Anthropometry1888: Francis Galton starts research on“Finger Prints” to further anthropometry1892: Francis Galton publishes FingerPrints1894: England adopted the system.1903: Will West & William West 7
  8. 8. Galton’s Discovery because of Anthropometry? “My attention was first drawn to the ridges in 1888 whenpreparing a lecture on Personal Identification for the RoyalInstitution, which had for its principal object an account of theanthropometric method of Bertillon, then newly introduced intothe prison administration of France. Wishing to treat the subjectgenerally, and having a vague knowledge of the valuesometimes assigned to finger marks, I made inquiries, and wassurprised to find, both how much had been done, and how muchthere remained to do, before establishing their theoretical valueand practical utility. Enough was then seen to show that the subject was of realimportance, and I resolved to investigate it; all the more so, asthe modern processes of photographic printing would enable theevidence of such results as might be arrived at, to be presentedto the reader on an enlarged and easily legible form, and in atrustworthy shape. Those that are put forward in the followingpages, admit of considerable extension and improvement, and itis only the fact that an account of them seems useful, whichcauses me to delay no further before submitting what has thusfar been attained, to the criticism of others.” 8
  9. 9. Applications of AnthropometryIdentification of repeated criminals Cesare Lombrosos Criminal Anthropology (1895): “murderers have prominent jaws and pickpockets have long hands and scanty beards”. Eugene Vidocq: identification of criminals by facial characteristicsPrevention of impersonationDifferentiation between the races Eugenics in Europe Aryans from Jews: The Bureau for Enlightenment on Population Policy and Racial Welfare recommended the classification of Aryans and non- Aryans on the basis of measurements of the skull and other physical features, “craniometric” certification, required by law. The consequences for not meeting requirements included denial of permission to marry or work, and for many it meant the death camps Intelligence tests became associated with Anthropometry 9
  10. 10. AnthropometryTechnique of measuring people Measure Index Reference Indicator Information 10
  11. 11. Body Identification using AnthropometryBertillon used 5 basic measurements: head length head breadth length of middle finger Length of left foot length from the elbow to the extremity of the middle fingerToday that list is more extensive: Gender Height Weight Age Bicep circumference, buttock depth, chest breadth, elbow circumference, eye height, forearm to hand, ear breadth, head circumference, head length, hip breadth sitting, hip breadth standing, sitting height, waist depth, wrist breadth, wrist circumference to name a few…there are currently 107 measurements 11
  12. 12. Measurements Weight Height Length and stature or height Mid Upper Arm Circumference MUACCharacteristics we need: easy cheap acceptable reproducible 12
  13. 13. MeasurementsReference planesTaken between solid identifiable bonylandmarks in standard anatomicalpositions Anthropometric measuring kits 3-D body scanning (esp. for functional anthropometry) Motion capture systemsDevelop regression models with statisticalrelationships 13
  14. 14. Measurement Techniques1-Classicalor Linear MeasurementDeals with simple dimensionsof the stationary human being(weight, stature & lengths,breadths, depths &circumferences of particularbody structures).• Measurements of height,breadth, depth, distancecurvature, circumference andreach• Grid, anthropometer,calipers, measuring tape, scale• Simple but time consuming 14
  15. 15. Measurement Techniques2. NewPhotographs (2D)Computer Modeling-stick person Co-ordinate LocationsMRI (3D) 15
  16. 16. What is the concept of percentile? 16
  17. 17. Design PrinciplesExtremeAdjustableAverage 17
  18. 18. WEIGHTSensitive to changesChanges in two directions up and downFast changeUsually easy to collectStandardisation of scales needed, calibrationSmall changes are difficult to measure: foodintake of the child, urine, dehydration, temp,etc: not very specificcommunity aversion: connotationscan be difficult: co-operation of childrento nearest 100 gr. 18
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  23. 23. HeightDifficult to measure, accuracy, largevariationsDifferences are small: 24 cm increment in thefirst year of life, 11 cm second year, 8 thirdLow sensitivityLarge measurement errorsStunted versus stunting stunted is a heterogeneous group stunting is the active process: determinants are actingMeasure to the nearest mmBelow 2 recumbent, above standing 23
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  27. 27. Anthropometric Measuring Tools Anthropometer Tape Medical scaleSliding Calipers: large and small Spreading Caliper 27
  28. 28. Anthropometric Measuring TechniquesWeightStaturePosture: Standing Frankfort SittingArm SpanHead LengthHead BreadthEar-to-Head HeightNasal LengthNasal BreadthSkeletal Index = Sitting Height x 100/StatureCephalic Index = Head Breadth x 100/Head LengthNasal Index = Nasal Breadth x 100/Nasal LengthSpan/Stature Index = Arm Span x 100/ StatureCranial Capacity 28
  29. 29. Anthropometric Measuring Techniques 29
  30. 30. Basic Chart of What is Measured30
  31. 31. Basic Areas of Where to Measure31
  32. 32. Reference Planes 32
  33. 33. Anatomical Landmarks 33
  34. 34. Measurement Postures 34
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  36. 36. Anthropometry TodayBiometricsNutrition and wellness Weight TrainingErgonomics dynamic anthropometry: Measurements taken on and around the figure when it is in any position other than the fixed ones. Everyday lifeEvolutionary Significance Changes in humans overtimeMonitor growth in children Cranial Anthropometry 36
  37. 37. Functional(Dynamic) Anthropometry“Deals with compoundmeasurements of themoving human being.”Work space Envelope: Isthe three dimensionalapace within which anindividual works,especially with his hands. Squat Height Crawling length 37
  38. 38. Functional(Dynamic) Anthropometry 38
  39. 39. Biometrics in Use Heathrow Airport- IrisBenGurion Airport: FacePass: Face Hand Geometry Verification Grocery Store Payment: Fingerprint US- Visit Program INSPASS: Hand 39 Geometry
  40. 40. Cranial AnthropometryAlso known as Craniometrymeasurement of the skull and face3 ways to categorize the skull dolichocephalic: long and thin brachycephalic: short and broad mesocephalic: intermediate length and breadth 40
  41. 41. 3- D Anthropometry3D anthropometry, the measure of humans, can be greatly aided by theuse of accurate digital humans. Well take a look at how to create thesetypes of accurate digital humans and how they can be used for themeasurement of entire populationsPrograms:  Cyberware DigiSize CySlice Ear Impression 3-D Scanner  SizeUSA: 3D measurement system, a body scanner feeding data into measurement extraction software.  CAESAR: generate a database of human physical dimensions for men and women of various weights, between the ages of 18 and 65  Virtual Models: virtually try on clothes, makeup etc. 41
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  45. 45. Use of AnthropometryIndividual Level SCREENING: ONE TIME ASSESSMENT to immediately decrease case fatality (emergency situations) in non-emergency situations GROWTH MONITORING: TREND ASSESSMENTPopulation Level ONE TIME ASSESSMENT under circumstances of food crisis for long-term planning NUTRITIONAL SURVEILLANCE: TREND ASSESSMENT for long-term planning for timely warning for programme management 45
  46. 46. Sources of Anthropometric Variability1. Interindividual Variation Resulting for DNA (Genotype/Phenotype) Environment  Altitude, temperature, sunlight, soil type Nutrition Ethnicity/Race2. Intraindividual Variation Aging  Growing years – increase in stature, weight, and other dimensions  Early adulthood – dimensions remain somewhat stable  Later years – decrease in height, increase in circumference and external diameters of bones Daily stature variation Age, health, strength 46
  47. 47. The Story of Lacy and Andrew Does one size fit all? Lacy is 4’ 10” (147 cm) Andrew is 6’ 10” (208 cm) 47
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  54. 54. Love conquers all – even anthropometry! 54
  55. 55. Questions?This concludes the study ofAnthropometry. Thank you for your time! 55