Causes and effects of it in the development of
different countries : -
• In India Sex Ratio was okay till the time of Independence,
thereafter it has declined regularly. According to Census of India
2011, Indian sex ratio has shown some improvement in the last 10
years. It has gone up from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011 census of
India. There has been some improvement in the Sex Ratio of India
but it has gone down badly in some states like Haryana.
The state of Kerala with 1084 females for every 1000 males has the
best sex ratio in India. It has shown a tremendous improvement in
the last 10 years. Haryana has the lowest sex ratio of 877 females per
1000 males. So Sex Ratio of India varies from region to region.
Kerala and Pondicherry are only two places in India where total
female population is more than the male population.
Kerala with 1084 females per 1000 males has the highest sex
ratio according to 2011 Census of India.
The state of Haryana has the lowest female literacy rate in India.
In Union Territories of India, Daman and Diu has the lowest
female sex ratio while Pondicherry has the highest female sex ratio
There is some extent of gender bias in India which is responsible
for this decline in female ratio however it has started to show some
improvement in the last 20 years.
Lack of education and poverty in rural areas leads to gender
THE STATES OF SOUTH INDIA HAVE THE BEST SEX
RATIO OF FEMALES PER 1000 MALES. SOME
IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT SEX RATIO OF INDIAARE
The country has 100.3 males against 100 females, though over 119
males live in the capital at present against 100 females.
There are 7.12 crore males against 7.11 crore females in the country,
of which 64.6 lakh males live in Dhaka along with 54.2 lakh females,
revealed the primary data of the national population census yesterday.
According to the report, the number of males is higher mainly in the
urban areas than the rural parts, except the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
During the last decade, the number of women has increased by around
four million, which the primary results marked as “a spectacular change
in the sex composition of Bangladesh's population.”
The sex ratio gap narrowed down by 5.73 percent in this period as the
number of men was 106.4 against 100 women in 2001 making the sex
ratio 106.4, compared to almost a similar figure of 106.1 in 1991,
demonstrates the report
It attributed such change in sex composition to several factors including a
significant increase in migration, mainly concerning males.
Improved census coverage of the female population and a decrease in
maternal and female child mortality also might have affected the change,
the report pointed out.
In Bandarban, the number of males is 2 lakh while 1.8 lakh are female, in
Rangamati 3.1 lakh males against 2.8 lakh females and in Khagrachhari 3.1
lakh males against 2.9 lakh females, making the sex ratio 110.3, 110.8 and
But in the Chittagong division, the number of males are 1.37 crore while
the females are 1.43 crore, making the sex ratio 96.1.
A total of 11.35 lakh males live in Chandpur, while the number of women
is 12.54 lakh.
The average sex ratio gap in Khulna and Rajshahi divisions stands at
almost 100 women for 100 men.
During 2015 Japan population is estimated to be decreased by -351 672
people and reach 126 148 909 in the beginning of 2016. The number of
deaths will exceed the number of live births by 351 672, so the natural
increase is expected to be negative. Because of the lack of official
information related to external migration we do not include it to our
estimation. Most probably the difference between immigrants and
emigrants is not significant and is close to zero. That means the population
of Japan is changing mainly due the natural reasons only (births and
INFANT MORTALITY IS THE DEATH OF A CHILD LESS THAN ONE YEAR
OF AGE. IT IS MEASURED AS INFANT MORTALITY RATE (IMR), WHICH
IS THE NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN UNDER ONE YEAR OF AGE
PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS.
THE LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT MORTALITY ARE BIRTH ASPHYXIA,
PNEUMONIA, PRE-TERM BIRTH COMPLICATIONS, DIARRHOEA,
MALARIA, MEASLES AND MALNUTRITION. MANY FACTORS
CONTRIBUTE TO INFANT MORTALITY SUCH AS THE MOTHER'S LEVEL
OF EDUCATION, ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, AND POLITICAL
AND MEDICAL INFRASTRUCTURE. IMPROVING SANITATION, ACCESS
TO CLEAN DRINKING WATER, IMMUNIZATION AGAINST INFECTIOUS
DISEASES, AND OTHER PUBLIC HEALTH MEASURES COULD HELP
REDUCE HIGH RATES OF INFANT MORTALITY.
Causes and effects of it in the development of different
It is the average number of the children born in a country compared to
the rest of the population. In other words, it is the number of births for
every 1000 people in the country
Existing age-sex structure
Availability of family planning services
Social and religious beliefs - especially in relation to contraception and
Economic prosperity (although in theory when the economy is doing
well families can afford to have more children in practice the higher the
economic prosperity the lower the birth rate).
Poverty levels – children can be seen as an economic resource in
developing countries as they can earn money
Infant Mortality Rate – a family may have more children if a country's
IMR is high as it is likely some of those children will die.
The number of people who die each year compared to
every 1000 people in the population is known as death
Factors affecting Death rate in a country
Medical facilities and health care
Access to clean drinking water
Levels of infectious diseases
Social factors such as conflicts and levels of violent crime
BANGLADESHAs The neonatal mortality rate in Bangladesh is 37 deaths per 1000 live
births on average; in some areas this is much higher. Over the past few
decades under-5 mortality has been coming down gradually whereas
levels of newborn mortality are still beyond the acceptable limit. It will
be very difficult for Bangladesh to achieve its MDG-4 targets by 2015 if
it cannot curb the neonatal mortality rate down to 22 deaths per 1000
A combination of pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis, known as Very
Severe Disease (VSD) causes 50% of newborn deaths in Bangladesh.
The common signs are fever, hypothermia, difficult breathing, lethargy,
convulsion, inability to feed etc. Failure to provide immediate
appropriate medical care once these signs are obvious may lead the
newborn to death in a very short period of time.
The researchers think that the health of newborns in
poor rural households of Bangladesh is being
influenced by environmental factors and they indicate
several pathways that may potentially lead to VSD.
In Japan the birth rate fell in 1966 the Year of the Horse – an unlucky year for
babies to be born. Births fell by 466,000 (half a million).
In the 1980s Japan legalised abortion leading to a dramatic decrease in birth
Mortality rates are increased in war times – and birth rates fell in Japan during
WWII from 30/000 to 23/000. (A baby boom followed the war).
Improvements in the economy, when coupled with
good distribution of health care, education and food
have resulted in reductions in mortality.
An ageing population or greying population raises
the mortality levels in a country.
Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. It is measured as
infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the number of deaths of children under one year
of age per 1000 live births.
The leading causes of infant mortality are birth asphyxia, pneumonia, pre-term birth
complications, diarrhoea, malaria, measles and malnutrition. Many factors contribute
to infant mortality such as the mother's level of education, environmental conditions,
and political and medical infrastructure. Improving sanitation, access to clean drinking
water, immunization against infectious diseases, and other public health measures
could help reduce high rates of infant mortality.
Child mortality is the death of a child before the child's fifth birthday, measures as
the Under-5 Child Mortality Rate (U5MR). National statistics sometimes group these
two mortality rates together. Globally, ten million infants and children die each year
before their fifth birthday; 99% of these deaths occur in developing nations. Infant
mortality takes away society's potential physical, social, and human capital.
Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age.
It is measured as infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the
number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000
The leading causes of infant mortality are birth asphyxia,
pneumonia, pre-term birth complications, diarrhea, malaria,
measles and malnutrition. Many factors contribute to infant
mortality such as the mother's level of education,
environmental conditions, and political and medical
infrastructure. Improving sanitation, access to clean drinking
water, immunization against infectious diseases, and
other public health measures could help reduce high rates of
IX - B
Presented By :- Yashi Agrawal
IX - B