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Sex ratio and mortality rate3

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Sex ratio and mortality rate

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Sex ratio and mortality rate3

  1. 1. The simultaneous effects of maternal age and birth order on the secondary sex ratio have been examined using data on about 59 million births which occurred in Japan during the period from 1947 to 1978 except 1950. Non-linear negative association between the sex ratio and birth order was observed
  2. 2. The secondary sex ratio in Japan has been increasing during the period of 1900 through 1978. The change in birth order distribution can explain only a part of the increase in the sex ratio. The decrease in stillbirth rate was not only negatively correlated with the increase in the sex ratio at birth but also with that in fatal deaths. Therefore, it seems that there are some unexplainable factors associated with the increase in the secondary sex ratio other than the decrease in the stillbirth rate. The present results strongly suggest that the true cause of the secular trend in the secondary sex ratio in Japan will be found in the very early stage of pregnancy or at the time of conception.
  3. 3. The value for Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) in Japan was 2.90 as of 2013. As the graph below shows, over the past 53 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 39.70 in 1960 and a minimum value of 2.90 in 2013.
  4. 4. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age- specific mortality rates of the specified year. Source: Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division) at wwww.childmortality.org. Data for 2015 onwards are projections and from United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects. Therefore there may be some cases that the data are not consistent with the data before 2015.
  5. 5. Sex ratio is used to describe the number of females per 1000 of males. Sex ratio is a valuable source for finding the population of women in India and what is the ratio of women to that of men in India. In the Population Census of 2011 it was revealed that the population ratio in India 2011 is 940 females per 1000 of males.
  6. 6. The Sex Ratio 2011 shows an upward trend from the census 2001 data. Census 2001 revealed that there were 933 females to that of 1000 males. Since decades India has seen a decrease in the sex ratio 2011, but since the last two of the decades there has been in slight increase in the sex ratio. Since the last five decades the sex ratio has been moving around 930 of females to that of 1000 of males.Since decades India has seen a decrease in the sex ratio 2011, but since the last two of the decades there has been in slight increase in the sex ratio. Since the last five decades the sex ratio has been moving around 930 of females to that of 1000 of males. .
  7. 7. India has realized impressive gains in child survival over the last two decades. However, at the current pace, the country is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 -which aims to reduce Under-Five Mortality (U5MR) by two thirds between 1990 and 2015- unless the related socio- economic; maternal and demographic .
  8. 8. There has been a consistent decline in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) in India. The rate of decline in current decade is higher than in the previous. However, based on robust projections, at the current rate of decline, India is unlikely to meet the targets for Millennium Development Goal (MDG)-4, which aims to reduce by two thirds between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. - See more at: http://unicef.in/PressReleases/374/The-Infant- and-Child-Mortality-India-Report#sthash.paueSXhm.dpuf
  9. 9. In a study around 2002, the natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be close to 1.06 males/female.In most populations, adult males tend to have higher death rates than adult females of the same to 0.72 in the USA, from 1.06 to 0.91 in mainland and from 1.07 to 1.02 in India.
  10. 10. Even after allowing for causes specific to females such as death in childbirth) both due to natural causes such as heart attacks and strokes, which account for by far the majority of deaths and also to violent causes, such as homicide and warfare (for example, in the USA as of 2006, an adult non-elderly male is 3 to 6 times more likely to become a victim of a homicide and 2.5 to 3.5 times more likely to die in an accident than a female of the same age), resulting in higher life expectancy of females. Consequently, the sex ratio tends to reduce as age increases, and among the elderly there is usually an excess of females. For example, the male to female ratio falls from 1.05 for the group aged 15 to 65 to 0.70 for the group over 65 in Germany , from 1.00
  11. 11. 8.15 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 94 The united state is third in mortality rate. The birth rate is more than the mortality rate in USA. This is why the USA has more population
  12. 12. Death rate: 8.15 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.) Definition: This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population. Source: CIA World Fact book
  13. 13. Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 0.88 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
  14. 14. This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.
  15. 15. The value for Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) in Bangladesh was 41.10 as of 2013. As the graph below shows, over the past 53 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 263.80 in 1960 and a minimum value of 41.10 in 2013.
  16. 16. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year. Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division) at www.childmortality.org. Data for 2015 onwards are projections and from United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects. Therefore there may be some cases that the data are not consistent with the data before 2015. Under-five mortality rate, male is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn male baby will die before reaching age five.

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