Kingsland (2009)• Kingsland is a short film from Film4.• Directed by Tony Grisoni• Nominated in short film category at BAFTA’s.• Made by ‘The Bureau Film Company Ltd’• Made using funds from the UK Film Council’s Development Funds and from the production company itself.• The film was made in hope that it would attract investment to develop the idea’s created from the short film to produce a 2 hour feature.• The story was constructed from peoples experiences and what life is like in Dalston (East London) Director Tony Grisoni says: " The stories we collected are so fascinating and relevant, my ambitions for the long form version of KINGSLAND are quite epic - particularly if we were to expand the interlocking tales into the lives of people outside the Kurdish community. Weve done some documenting of political rallies and social events like the great festival of Newroz and spliced together a kind of trailer - just to give a flavour of the kind of thing were chasing.“• It was set in East Londons Dalston and the film is said to be a ‘lyrical portrait’ of Huso (main character), a Kurdish immigrant who has recently moved to the UK.• In relation to my planning, I feel that this film gives me an idea of the type of atmosphere in which I want to create in my short film as it holds a form of suspense and tension which keeps the audience intrigued and caught up in the narrative even if its not very self-explanatory. For example the use of natural sounds and the contrasts of daylight and darkness is particularly effective in Kingsland.• You can watch the short film here: http://www.film4.com/videos/article/kingsland
• Textual Analysis Kingslando Camera Angles/Movement- Close-ups – Large number used to pick up emotions and expressions as there is a small amount of dialogue in the film. This helps the audience to understand where the film is leading and how the character must be feeling as he tries to build a stable life in the UK.- Establishing shots – these are used mainly at the beginning and the end to set the scene as its set in the east London in quite an urban rough area. This helps make the audience aware of the type of characters in the film and help them reflect on what Dalston is like as a place.o Mise en scene- The scenes are set in typical locations which reflect the type of person in which Huso is helping the audience get a better understanding of his character and the going on, in the backstreet area’s in east London.o Editing- Uses a range of new editing techniques, for example it merges two scenes one over another to show the character and the location in which he is in.- Linear editing is used to make the film flow and give the audience a sense of day to day life for the immigrants and the lifestyle choices in which they grow upon.o Sound- Contrapuntal sound is used along with sound effects to create a sense of realism and set the mood in particular scenes.- The use of sound bridges between scenes also works well with the linear editing as it help the film flow and build and ease tension throughout the scenes.Codes and conventionsThe codes and conventions could be seen to be typical of the thriller genre presented in Kingsland as it focuses on the characters feeling through close ups and locations in particular to as it emphasizes the characters surroundings which can thrill the audience if unnerving which is where Mise en scene is important.
Honeymoon (2007)• Made by Film4 with support and funding from the UK Film Council.• Distributed by Channel 4• Written and Directed by Miranda Bowen• A newly married couple are on route to their honeymoon. They stop at a service station in the middle of the night and Zoran (her husband) disappears to make a phone call and fails to return. Dawn then begins to wonder just how well she knows her new husband.• The Honeymoon has been rated on the Imdb.com as being 6.4 stars.• Many said that it was a fantastic film in terms of keeping you intrigued and engaged with the characters, but had a disappointing ending.• You can watch the short film here:http://www.film4.com/videos/article/f4-shorts-honeymoon
• Textual Analysis Honeymoono Camera Angles/Movement- Medium shot – these were used frequently to not only get her expressions and emotions it but to also allow the audience to see what was going on around her which gave the film tension and intensity.- High Angle shots – used mainly to make her seem vulnerable as it was late at night at a service station on her own making the audience feel like something bad was going to happen to her soon.- Hand-held shots – these were used to give an unsteady ando Mise en scene- Lighting – bright, warm lighting inside the service station and very dark and cold lighting outside making the audience feel safe when shes in the service station but nervous when shes outside. Also makes the audience question what’s going to happen to her when she outside in the dark and cold alone.- Set in a service station with very few people around, this making it seem as if something bad is going to happen to her.o Editing- Slow motion/ Blurring is used in post-production to create what would appear as a dream sequence but is really reality leading the audience to be confused but interested to find out what is happening.o Sound- Contrapuntal sound – is used along with a number of sound effects to crate a sense of realism and mood to each scene allowing the audience to feel the same way as she is perhaps feeling.Codes and conventionsThe codes and conventions could be seen to be typical of the thriller genre presented in the short film as thrillers generally tend to use a range of shots to emphasis vulnerability and emotions as the changes and shock tactics used help to thrill the audience as well as the use of sound as well. Sound is particularly effective as changes in tempo and volume can help change and effect the audience which thrillers are know for. In relation to my film I want to use sound contrapuntal effectively like the honeymoon as I think it will help my narrative flow.
Reviews and CensorshipReviews CensorshipKingsland Current Rating 4.5/5* KingslandFilm 4 Website Reviews: There is no official certification however, after‘beautifully shot, wonderfully acted, the elevated street scenes watching it I don’t think there is anything which couldare haunting ,bleak doesnt quit sum it up’. This is a snippet from be seen as offensive or of a sexual nature in the filmone of the reviews posted by a viewer on the film4 website. Thefilm is fairly new as was only uploaded onto the film4 website but there was a shooting at the end which could putrecently, therefore it’s gives me a good source of view from a the certificate up to a 12 perhaps but that is only frommodern day audience who is interested in short films. This my unofficial judgement.review has enabled me to ensure that an important factor for ashort film is to get good shots and actors.Honeymoon 6/10 on Imdb HoneymoonFilm 4 Website Reviews: Again there is no official rating for Honeymoon‘Slightly too long – not enough happening/ lack of however my personal certification for the film wouldaction’. probably be a 12A as there are some scene with a‘Great acting, suspense and many creepy moments’ transvestite in which some adults may not be happyMany of the reviews from the Film 4 site are quite letting their children see as they are quite unusualsimilar with many people saying that the disappointing characters in society. On the other hand the languageending would put them off going to see it if it was wasn’t too bad neither was their much violence. Themade into a longer feature. storyline however does give us an idea that she isOn the other hand, many said that it had great going to be raped but nothing eventually happens.suspense and the reason they kept on watching wasdue to increasing amounts of tension in the film.
12:12• Produced by Jeremy Cathey Films• Directed by Jeremy Cathey• 12:12 – a feature putting around 4 and a half minutes of filming into what is suppose to be one minute in the film.• The film is of a similar budget to that of one which I will be producing which makes looking at the film quite valuable as to researching for my film, which I am going to produce and direct as it will be of a similar genre and length.• The film was funded purely through donations given to him via his website. He once day aims to get enough money to produce a novel in the form of a book which he wants to make into a visionary/ motion picture.• He doesn’t just make films he also produces music video’s for niche bands, adverts, parodies, etc.• He has an official site which is http://jeremycatheyfilms.com/default.aspx• You can watch the short film her:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wU4ivnqDfj0
• Textual Analysis 12:12o Camera Angles/Movement- Panning shots – These have been used at a range of speed’s throughout the clip to create tension, which is incredibly important for horror films, especially sort films as they need to be gripping and have high intensity on the audience.- High angle shots – used to make the male in the film appear vulnerable to danger.- Close up’s - Used to capture expression and emotion on the characters face and body parts i.e. hand grabbing door handle.- Hand-held shots – Make the camera jerky and unstable making the audience feel moved and unsettled by the clip.o Mise en scene- Lighting – uses a contrast of darkness combined with bright artificial lighting this creates quite a blurred, unclear atmosphere which gives dimension to the film as it means the audience have to pay close attention making unknown thrills more enjoyable.o Editing- Straight forward editing – a quite basic editing technique has been used in this short film as being an amateur production (same as mine will be) it has focused mainly on camera shots and movement as oppose to editing to create tension and moods.o Sound- Dialogue – Only very small amounts of dialogue used which means the audience’s focus is mainly on the characters and instead sound effects are used to create tension and provide the narrative with flow and direction.
Minority Report (2002)• Minority report was directed by Stephen Spielberg.• The film was produced by 21st Century Fox film corporation and DreamWorks SKG.• It was a very successful film which uses a similar technique to what I wish to use for my short film.• I have analysed the first 10 – 20 minutes of the film in which it show the pre- determination of events, something similar to that in which I want to use in my narrative to give it depth and to create enigma for the audience.• Budget: £61,000,000 (estimated)• Gross Takings in USA: £75,014,112 (estimated)• Plot: “In the future, criminals are caught before the crimes they commit, but one of the officers in the special unit is accused of one such crime and sets out to prove his innocence”. (Sourced from Imdb.com)
Minority Report• Textual Analysiso Camera Angles/Movement― Medium shots – The majority of shots in this clip are medium shot. This may have been done to allow the audience to see the bigger picture in the narrative, however not give too much away otherwise the story line could be put into jeopardy.― Close-ups – Used to capture expression.― Two shots – To allow the audience to see a diverse range of characters but emphasis is put onto Tom Cruise as leading role (Hero of the film)o Mise en scene― Lighting – quite cold blue coloured lighting. This has mainly been used to emphasis the fact that its set in the future.― Prop’s – Range of prop’s used as indictors to the audience to help gain stronger narrative flow, adds depth to narrative (e.g. scissor’s as weapon) This is important for iconography.o Editing― Cut’s – They use quite a balanced combination of long, and short cuts. I think this is to give the film moments of intensity to thrill the audience and times when they can relax and focus on the storyline/ narrative.o Sound― Contrapuntal sound – used thought-out to build and digress atmosphere which sets the mood for the audience.― Dialogue – Used to give the narrative a sense of direction and understanding for the audience.
Reviews and CensorshipReviews Censorship12:12 YouTube viewer rating 5/5 12:12 Unofficial 15YouTube Reviews: As the film is mainly only shown on YouTube it doesn’tHas over 86,500 views and has been commented on by have an official rating or certification. However ifpeople as being incredibly ‘terrifying’ and ‘thrilling’. video’s tend to be of a explicit content then YouTubeOne person has given the film 5/5 and quoted ‘wow, normally ask you to confirm that you are over 18 andthis was really creepy. great work/ atmosphere with as this film doesn’t have this ,I personally would give itsuch simple means’. I want to use this idea of simplicity a 15 certificate. This is because I feel that with manyin my film as only having limited access to equipment people saying they thought the film was quite scarymeans I’m going to have to make the most of what I’ve and that the fact it’s focusing around the time 12:12got. this has given people nightmares which has lead me to believe its not suitable for young teens.Minority Report 5/5* BBC Rating Minority Report Certificate 12BBC Film Reviews – Laura Bushell The BBFC has certified minority report as being a‘The film is consistently thrilling, if a little over- certificate 12 as it contains violence, brief language,explanatory towards the end…’ Minority report has some sexuality and drug content. For this reason itbeen reviewed by Laura and many others who have would not be suitable for children under 12 years ofcommented on its ability to thrill audiences which is age.ideally what I want to try and achieve when I finallyproduce my short film.
Research into myTarget AudienceQuestionnaires and Results
My Target Audience Profile• Target Audience - Teenagers, young adults, (Ages 15-21)• I had decided what I wanted my target audience to be after I had written my narrative as with many of the actors and cast being of a similar age category to myself, I had to write a story which would enable me to use this to my advantage. This is why I chose to focus on a youth/ young adult audience. This also made my primary research easier to collect as I was able to get the people around me most of the time to give up their time to fill out my questionnaire and give me feedback.• This maybe seen as a conventional audience for my film as many of the actors, and narrative have been written taking into account factors in which teenagers and young adults experience during their teenage years. Therefore by aiming at them makes it seem relevant.
Research methods:• Firstly, I got 28 people to watch the opening of Minority report and then I gave them a questionnaire to fill out asking them some open and closed questions.• I chose to use minority report as it uses the idea of pre-determination of events at the beginning which is similar to what I want to use for the opening of my short film. Therefore I am interested to know what people like about the opening to the film which I can replicate and what perhaps theres not so fond of which I can avoid.• Secondly, I got 10 people to read through my narrative (plot summery) and asked them to identify what age group do they think the film would appeal to and whether they could spot any minor or major error’s which could be amended to improve the continuity in the film, yet still leave some enigma to keep the audience engaged and thrilled by the plot.
Analysis of Minority Report Questionnaire Results• Question 1 - What overall effects did the opening of minority report have on you as an audience?• ‘Produced lots of enigma and grabbed my attention from the beginning’• ‘Created lots of depth to the storyline’• ‘Made me want to carry on watching’• ‘Continuity was used which helped the narrative flow’• From the information I received on the qualitative question on my questionnaire, it helped me to identify the fact that by using a narrative sequence similar to minority report (in terms of the predetermination of events), it worked well and people who were in my target audience agreed and quoted some of the examples above.
Analysis of Minority Report Questionnaire Results When I asked the 28 people whether they would use the idea of predetermined events if they were to create their film 21 people out of the 28 said that they would. This is good as for my narrative I want to use the idea of a dream sequence which explores the idea of predetermined events so with many people thinking it’s a good idea means that young audience must enjoy films with opening like this.When I asked 28 people how effective they foundthe beginning of minority report, 16 out of 28 saidthat they found it thrilling. With most of the peopleI got to fill out the questionnaire being between 15– 21 as this is my perspective target audience, Ithink that my idea to use a twist on thepredetermined events idea would be quitesuccessful as the majority of people have said thatthey enjoyed the way it was used in minority report.
Analysis of Minority Report Questionnaire Results I asked people the type of audience they think it would attract as I wanted to know whether using predetermined event’s was something which they thought appealed to their age range. The majority believed the age range to be between 16 and 45. This means that by perhaps using younger actors in my film, it could help bring down the age for my target audience.The most important question, would my agecategory consider watching a film which uses theidea of predetermined events? My results cameout quite positive I felt as they showed that wayover half of the people I asked in my targetaudience age range said they would choose towatch a film which used this convention.
Feedback from first ideas• My feedback from my first ideas of my films were accepted very well and constructive criticism was given as to how I could improve the narrative and looking into other small idea’s which would give the film depth and enigma which would satisfy the audiences needs.• After making some changes to my initial research and plans for my film ideas I decided in order to get a clear idea of who my target audience are I would do some questionnaires and analyse the feedback which I get from them to get a rough idea of exactly who would watch my film and whether they think personally there is anything I could improve on to make the planning for the film as thorough as possible.
My NarrativeNarrative• 01.24am – Clare and James, a couple, arrive home from a party, they park up just down the road from the girlfriends house. They cross the road, and enter the house walk up the stairs and into the bedroom and then a few seconds later the light goes out.• Next the alarm clock goes off and she opens her eyes and turns her alarm clock off, she then rolls over and her boyfriend has gone along with all his clothes, bag, etc. She then picks up her phone and no one answers so she asks her mum whether shes seen him or not and she say’s no but he mite have just gone to work early.• Not too concerned she continues her morning routine. Next she leaves the house and begins her journey to college. As she gets half way down her road she finds his t-shirt on the pavement but not wanting to be late for college she puts it over her arm and carries on walking. Further down the road she then finds his overnight bag and then begins to try phoning him again while she continues walking. As she gets further towards school she comes to a bridge. Next to the bridge is his car.• She moves shouts his name and runs towards his car looking everywhere for him. She searches the car and see’s his keys still in the ignition with blood on them, she starts to panic even more and continues looking around for him. She runs up to the bridge and looks over and there he is covered in blood, face down on the ground.• She then does a massive scream and then her alarm clock goes off and she wakes up looking relieved that it was a dream. Finally she rolls over in bed and James is gone.• She then jump’s out of bed ignoring her mothers concern and run’s down the road, with the camera focusing on iconographic elements from her dream i.e. his over night bag on the street, etc.• When she gets to the corner she shouts his name and a gang of thugs run away. She run’s across the path and then at his side but we are left to decide whether he’s dead or alive.
Narrative Theories (Applied)• Propp’s Character theory• Short films generally tend to have quite small numbers of main characters in as they have to construct a story which audiences will understand and not feel overwhelmed by having too many character types to try and identify. For example the film ‘The Honeymoon’ which I looked at only really contain a maximum of 5 key characters of which two of them were quite insignificant to the overall plot. In my narrative I have identified below the obvious character types which audiences should pick up on:• The Hero – Clare could be seen as the hero in the film as she finds him wakes up and goes out to find where he has disappeared too.• The Helper/ Mother – Clare’s mum can be seen as the parent in the narrative but also as the helper as she gives Clare information as to where James could have gone.• Vulnerable person (princess) – Although my film is far from a fairy tale which Vladimir Propp edges towards with his character types, James in my film could be seen as being the princess as Clare has to set out to save him before he gets hurt.
Narrative Theories (Applied)• Todorov’s theory of equilibriums and disequilibrium’s.My film can be seen to follow some of the rules which are identified in Todorov’snarrative theory.For example it begins with an equilibrium or the happy state of affairs as they havejust got back from a party, we get the idea they are in love as the camera does a closeup of the ring on her finger implying it was given to her by him. As she wakes up (inthe dream) we see that he has disappeared which shows that we have adisequilibrium. As she roll’s over in bed, the audience get a hint that he’s missing (thisbeing the recognition of the disequilibrium). After she has woken up from the dreamand she roll’s over again we then begin to see her attempt to repair the situation asshe throw’s some clothes on and run’s out of the house to stop him being killed beforeit’s too late. When she arrives too late we then are left with a cliff hanger whichmeans that if my short film was to be used as a way of attracting finance to developthe film into longer viewings then we have the opportunity to do so.
Narrative Theories (Applied)• Levi- Strauss• Audio Oppositions- Dialogue and No conversation- Loud and Quiet- Up-tempo and down-tempo• These Audio oppositions can all be used to emphasise to the audience periods of tension and relaxation. This can then move the plot forward and give the audience more understanding of what is happening in the films and what the next steps might be.• Conceptual Oppositions- Pleasure and Pain- Control and Panic• These Conceptual oppositions help show change is taking place and that the story is moving somewhere. For example, the couple are happy at the beginning and have just been to a party showing that they have been experiencing pleasure, however by the end of the film we see that they are both experiencing both physical and emotional pain.• Visual Oppositions- Light and dark- Day and night- Movement and Stillness• These Visual Oppositions are used to help show the change in time thought out the film for example if it was dark all the time we would assume it all happened at the same time where as if we show both day time and night time we are showing progression and telling the audience that we are into the next day.
My Short Film• Genre – Thriller, Drama• Target Audience - Teenagers, young adults, (Ages 15-21)• Certificate 15 – may contain some strong language and scenes which some may find distressing.• Channel 4/ Film 4– I want to use film4 as my distribution company as they are a sector of Channel 4 which have high teenage audiences in the UK.
Titles• Below are my suggestions for the title of my film:• Too Late• Gone• In the morning• I asked the people in my class to decided either which of the names above would best suit my narrative for my short film or whether they had any of their own to suggest. Some of the other suggestions are shown below:• Daybreak• Fall of the night• I have decided based on the feedback which I received, that the title Gone would be the best name for my film as it can be seen as a connotation as you can get various meaning’s from the word as it could suggests someone has disappeared which does actually happen to James in the film OR it could suggest someone has left and could return which could help make the film less predictable from the audiences perspective.
Oraganisation• Actors/ Actresses:- Clare Gosling – Playing the girlfriend- James Tyson – Playing her boyfriend• Extra’s may be needed• Costumes:- Evening wear (Dress and heels for girl, shirt and jeans for boy)- Bed clothes for morning (for girl)- Day wear (for girl and boy)• Propp’s:- Ring, alarm clock, car keys, fake blood, plus a range of other morning related bits and pieces.
LocationsThis is going to be the road in which at thebeginning of the film Clare and James walkacross to get to Clare’s house. This street willalso be used to film Clare walking to school onto keep the continuity going in the film. This house here is the house in which is going to be used for filming in.
My LogosBelow are 5 different logo’s. I have decided to use the one with a tick next to it asafter asking the people who have read my narrative, the majority went for this one asthey saw it as modern, different and quite obscure which fits the genre of my film as itis a thriller.
Brief• What are my two choices for my ancillary task?• The three choice I have to choose from are:a.) A poster for the filmb.) A radio advert for the filmc.) A film magazine review page featuring the film• I have decided to do the two which are highlighted in red as I feel that I will be able to incorporate a form of branding for my film. I think this would be effective as people will begin to notice the two form of promotion more imminently. This is because they will be able to link the two forms of print media together making useful pieces of marketing material for my short film. The reason I didn’t choose a radio advert is because I would have separate conventions to the print based pieces.
Poster Research - Cloverfield • This poster is from the innovative film Cloverfield. It was used at the beginning as a promotional poster to attract attention by showing an iconic picture of the statue of liberty with no head. This was used to draw attention to the film in a similar way to which I want my film poster to. • The film poster contains a number of connotations which indicate to the audience what the film might be like. For example the dark clouds with light shining through can give us an idea of perhaps a happy ending. • The font used for the title ‘Cloverfield’ indicated to us a form of technological development, which could perhaps tell the audience its going to have a new innovative way of filming perhaps or challenging the conventions of other typical thrillers made in Hollywood. • I want my poster to be similar to this idea in terms of I want to give the audience hints about the film but at the same time try something different and make them interested in what the film could be about. • The target audience for this film could be seen as similar to my films audience as there is technological aspect which is evident in this poster which could be seen to appeal to a teenage/ young adult audience. It also links to my film as my film is a thriller and so is Cloverfield and the use of the statue of liberty and its head being missing shows that their going to be a lot of thrilling events in the film.
Poster Research – Saw 3D• This poster has been created for the latest Saw horror movie which is to be shown in 3D as the tag line suggests ‘In eye-popping 3D’.• I have chosen to look at this poster as it shows the sort of film posters around to this present time of year and I think its important as when my film is completed it will be around February/ March time next year and it needs to be a step forward into 2011 as oppose to having a poster which suits audience needs today.• This poster uses the eye and has used technology software to play with its format. This makes the poster up to date and different as I have never seen a poster to do this yet, making it unique which will make the film different and attractive to audiences as they may not have seen anything like this before.• The eye could be seen as a connotation in a way as its staring at the audience, almost watching them. This shows its genre which is horror, if they don’t already recognise the SAW branding (Title) below. The red text used for the title also connotes an idea of the genre as well as red is typically the colour used to show horror.• From this we can also get an idea if the narrative as the fact that the poster focuses on the eye which is a sensitive/ exposed part of the body and from what people already know about SAW films is can indicate to us the possibility of the eye being a area targeted when torturing people in the film.
Magazine Review Research • Here I have chosen a modern form from a gossip magazine which contains a section on the latest films and film reviews. • As shown in the picture of this film review page from New magazine, it used bright colours and focuses on two main films reviewing them from a persons perspective with their star rating out of five. They also have a small recommended film list advising people on some of the best films out at the moment based on a film critics perspective. • For my film’s review I want to include a photo like the two main feature films have in the picture and a short/ brief review next to it, to give the audience an idea of what the film is about however not seem off putting by a lengthily review. • I think that the use of fonts, images and colours is important on a film review page as it needs to grab people attention and most importantly make your film stand out.
Magazine Review Research• This double page spread (film review page) is from Total film magazine, a specialist film review magazine.• I would like to replicate something similar to this layout as I think that for a film review audiences can be put off by reading about something which is long winded and not visually satisfying.• For example in this review page it has over one page of just an image. This adds lots of colour to the page and the size of the image makes the page stand out and eye catching which is ideally what I want to achieve in order have a lengthy review as people who buy the to get magazine consumers to read magazine clearly are interested in reading about about my film hopefully making them films therefore want detail in order for it to satisfy more interested in viewing it. their needs.• The size of the text is quite small and • This review also has a brief verdict at the bottom after reading it very detailed. I think in the form of a star rating which it think is that if I was to have my film review in important in order for the audience to get a good Total film magazine it would need to idea of the quality of the film.
First Draft Poster Tag line – used to notConnotation – Links only denotingto the ideas focused on when the filmtime within my film. is going to be released but also the Picture used as second part way not only of connoting the showing the two idea of the main actors in film taking the film but also place around the fact they are a dream. behind the numbers shows something bad is perhaps going to happen.
My Poster• I want my poster to reflect my target audience in a way which makes them question what the film could be about.• To do this I want to ensure that it is kept reasonably simple, however encode many connotations which will give the poster greater depth and a sense of narrative which will entice the audience into wanting to research more into the film to seek more awareness as to what it could be about.• To do this I feel that it is important that on the poster there minimal information which means that the audience wont just type in a web address to find it but look across a range of media platforms before they discover where they can find out more information about the film.• For example this poster will link to the film review in terms of the fact that the film review will have the information about the film in it however the poster will be a artefact which will lead the audience to discover reviews and other details about the film itself i.e. the web address, release date, etc.• I am going to research some posters now which do a similar thing to what I want my poster to say and look like.
First Draft Magazine Review Page Sketch Article (writing) Title of my – The review film Quote from articleSpaces forPictures