Makwanpur case study

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Makwanpur case study

  1. 1. FLOOD AND LANDSLIDE DISASTERS : A CASE STUDY OF MAKWANPUR DISTRICT Meen B. Poudyal Chhetri, Ph. D.
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Floods and landslides are recurrent disasters in Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally, the incidence of casualties and the damage exceeds than the &quot;normal&quot; years by several multiples </li></ul><ul><li>Coping mechanism is reactive and unplanned </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. policies are inadequate to address the need of the disaster victims </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation works are slow and inadequate </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Case of Makwanpur <ul><li>Heavy rainfall occurred on 9 and 10 July 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Water discharge in some major rivers reached up to 620 to 904 cusec </li></ul><ul><li>Flood heights reached up to 5.10 meters </li></ul><ul><li>River channels widened 2 to 4 times </li></ul><ul><li>Rapti River broke 30 meters dam </li></ul><ul><li>24 people killed, 2 seriously injured and 1407 households were affected </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Case of Makwanpur contd.. <ul><li>116 head cattle were killed and 1446 houses and 15 schools were also destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>7 bridges, 15 schools, 1 health post, thousands of meters of drinking water pipes, highway, feeder roads and trails were also swept away </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of hectares of land with agricultural crops were ruined </li></ul><ul><li>A loss equivalent to NRs. 504.00 million has been estimated by this disaster </li></ul>
  5. 5. Causes and Effects of the Landslide and Flood <ul><li>Very high intensity of rainfall accompanied by thunder and lightening </li></ul><ul><li>Thick debris, steep gradient and building up of pore water pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of tectonically highly disturbed rocks like dolomites, phyllites and quartzite </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of destabilized sediments, sandstones and lime stones in the hills </li></ul>
  6. 6. Causes and Effects of the Landslide and Flood contd... <ul><li>Presence of platy minerals like chlorite, mica and other soft materials </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of South facing relatively gentle slopes with several dip slope failure as well as steep mountain slopes being in the range of 40°-45° </li></ul><ul><li>Foliation and unfavorable joint surfaces associated in the weak rock </li></ul><ul><li>Water seeping from upper slope and tension cracks </li></ul>
  7. 7. Causes and Effects of the Landslide and Flood contd... <ul><li>Water volume percolated through the joint surfaces of underlying rock </li></ul><ul><li>Clay materials softened the joint surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden opening and progressive widening of tension cracks on the slope surface </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation on the upper mountain slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Haphazard and unplanned settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing down the river channels </li></ul><ul><li>Extracting sand and gravel from the rivers </li></ul>
  8. 8.   Solution to the Problems <ul><li>Vegetation should be grown to cover the barren slope </li></ul><ul><li>Large trees should not be grown in the unstable part </li></ul><ul><li>Rain gauge should be installed </li></ul><ul><li>Networking of simple extensometers be made </li></ul><ul><li>Moving peg line should be establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Check dams should be constructed </li></ul>
  9. 9. Solution to the Problems contd… <ul><li>Cracks must be sealed </li></ul><ul><li>Debris should be removed from the damaged area </li></ul><ul><li>Surface drainage system should be constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion of rainwater and early warning to the people living in flood and landslide prone areas is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Embankment of rivers should be initiated </li></ul>
  10. 10. Solution to the Problems contd… <ul><li>Haphazard and unplanned settlement should stopped </li></ul><ul><li>River channels should not be disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction of sand and gravel from the rivers should be stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of stable sites for settlement and other constructions should be launched </li></ul><ul><li>Land use guidelines and Building Code should be formulated and strictly implemented </li></ul>
  11. 11. Essentials for Response <ul><li>A rescue and relief team </li></ul><ul><li>Check list </li></ul><ul><li>Command post </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing </li></ul><ul><li>Duty assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of relief materials </li></ul><ul><li>Damage assessment and </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Way Forward <ul><li>Nepalese disaster management system is facing severe natural as well as man - made challenges. Fragile geo-physical structure, steep hill slopes and tectonic movement are the natural causes while river encroachment and degrading environment due to deforestation, road construction on the hills, mining activities, rice cultivation, farming on the hill slopes - particularly rice cultivation, animal grazing etc. are the human induced reasons that cause natural disasters. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Way Forward contd… <ul><li>In addition, the lack of effective and dynamic leadership, efficacious coordination among the disaster management related organizations, technological gaps, absence of proactive policies and resource constraints intensify the problems of natural disasters in Nepal. </li></ul><ul><li>fragile environment of the country should be preserved through the conservation of natural watershed and riverine resources together with the sustainable development of water resources. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Way Forward contd… <ul><li>Great potential exists for harnessing the water resources by creating reservoirs at upstream reaches for optimal and multiple uses of water resources which inter-alia could also achieve flood peak attenuation at flood prone areas of Nepal, India and Bangladesh. Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and China could benefit, if worked together in good faith towards resolving the flood and landslide problems. For this the concept of regional cooperation should be materialized through the establishment of a well equipped Regional Data and Information Center in order to share and exchange disaster data and information. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Way Forward contd… <ul><li>Local government should be empowered by providing adequate resources, education and training so as to enable them to cope with the natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Firm political commitment with due integrity and determination is an indispensable precondition </li></ul><ul><li>Priority should be given for disaster management as a development goal </li></ul><ul><li>A separate Ministry or Council for disaster management is highly desirable for effective disaster prevention, preparedness, response and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>More importantly, dynamic leadership is essential at all levels of disaster management in 21st Century. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Final Note <ul><li>Tell – what is funding health care services to deal with illness, funding more police to deal with crime and buying more fire trucks to combat fire? Is not it a reactive approach? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it right to wait until a hazard becomes disaster? </li></ul><ul><li>Think – is it better to c hase criminals instead of helping communities to prevent crime? </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a gram of prevention - rather than a kilo of cure </li></ul><ul><li>Don't develop tunnel vision. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thank You Very Much for Your Kind Gesture

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