38 issue of paryawaran

626 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
626
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

38 issue of paryawaran

  1. 1. jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 1
  2. 2. tLtf] –;To laefudf ePsf pks/)fx¿ klg lalu|xfn] . k^^'s'df/L È cfp¤bf] rf}aL; #G^fsf] df};d eljiojf)fL &ofSs ldNg]u/L lgsfn t È elji jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 2
  3. 3. kf7ssf] cf“vfdf pTs[i6 k|ltlqmof k7fpgf];, Ps jif{sf] ;b:otf lgMz'Ns kfpgf]; ;DkfbsHo", u/]sf] 5' . Osf]–g]kfnaf6 k|sflzt o; klqsfk|lt klg ;'?– kof{j/0f dfl;s jftfj/0f lzIffsf nflu pTs[i6 klqsf nfu]sf] ;'?df o:t}vfn] ljrf/ p7]sf] lyof] . Ps jif{eGbf klxn] 5 . ;DejtM of] g} jftfj/0f;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo af]s]/ lj/f6gu/ hfFbf klqsf k;ndf kN6fPsf] lyPF o;nfO{ . t/ k|sflzt x'g] g]kfnsf] PSnf] klqsf xf]nf . Hofld/] ufpF ljsf; kl5 klqsf k;ndf xf]Og, xfd|f] ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf klg kfPF . ;ldltdf lgoldt cfpg] u/]sfn] d klg of] klqsfsf] lgoldt d}n] yfxf kfPF, ufpFdf sf]xL klg u|fxs ag]sf 5}gg / uflj; klg, kf7s ag]sf] 5' . hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfnon] k|sflzt t/ klqsf Ps jif{otf lgoldt¿kdf cfpFb5 . d]/f] e|d o;sf/0f } ug] { …6' s LÚ sf] t' n gfdf kof{ j /0f lgs} pRr:t/sf] 5 . lgjf/0f eof] ls of] klqsfn] s'g} /fhgLlts k"jf{ux af]ssf] 5}g | ] kof{j/0fsf lgoldt cªs xfdLsxfF l9nf] cfP klg 6'sLsf] / x]bf{ cfFvf nf]Eofpg] l;g]dfsf lx/f] lx/f]Ogsf] kmf]6f] klg 5}g . t'ngfdf l56} cfpF5g . d w]/} gk9]sf] dfG5] eP klg uflj; sfof{nodf lgoldt k95' of] kof{j/0fsf] k"0f{ªs #^ n] g]kfndf k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] kL8fnfO{ klqsf . leqL 1fgsf s'/f lgs} /x]5g . phfu/ kf/]sf] 5 . o:tf n]vn] k|fs[lts k|sf]k lgoGq0f ug{ o;df k|sflzt x'g] ;fdu|Lsf ljifodf s'/f ug'{ eg]sf] …OGb|sf u|fdL0f ;dfhdf lgs} ;xof]u ug]{ s'/f lglZrt 5 . To;df cufl8 :ju{sf] aofgÚ ug'{h:t} x'g]5, lsgeg] xfdLn] hfg]sf klg klqsfsf] aLrdf /x]sf] kf]:6/ hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ s'/f yf]/} 5g . t/ jftfj/0f;DagwL ljZjsf /f]rs s'/f eg] k|of;sf nflu lgs} pkof]uL 5 . ljleGg ;dodf x'g] k|fs[lts TolQ k9g kfOFb}g . x'/Latf;af6 aRg] pkfob]lv ;'? ePsf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg] tf}/tl/sf / 36gfkl5sf] sfo{ ug{ o;n] dfu{– aLr efudf /flvPsf] kf]:6/n] ¿k dfq km]/]sf] 5}g, r]tgf lgb]{z u/]sf] 5 eGg] nfu]sf] 5 / o;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg a9fpg] /fd|f] pkfo klg ckgfPsf] 5 . t/ af9Lklx/f]sf] kL8f cg' / f] w ub{ 5 ' . dflg;sf] ;fyL eg] / lrlgg] 8lNkmg / k5fl8 cfPsf] To;af6 aRg] pkfon] s'g} nfe lbg ;s]g . l;d;f/;DaGwL ;fdu|Ln] /fd|f] 1fg lbPsf] 5 . o:tf pkof]uL lrh;dod} cfP ufpFdf To;n] 7"nf] k|z+;f ;du|df eGg'kbf{ of] klqsfn] o;}u/L lg/Gt/tf kfOlbP kfpg] 5 . cfufdL cª s k| s fzg ubf{ ;DkfbsLo kIfn] jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf If]qdf 7"nf] of]ubfg ldNg]5 . ;fdlostftkm{ ljrf/ k'¥ofpg] g} 5 . –hos'df/ s'O“s]n, Hofld/]–$, l;Gw'kfNrf]s . kof{j/0fh:tf] ljifodf /fHon] nufgL ug'{kg]{df tkfO{+x¿n] ;DkfbsHo", ug'{ePsf] nufgLn] kf7snfO{ /fd|f] nfe lbPsf] 5 . cfzf 5, g]kfndf jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ w]/} ;+:yfx¿ of] qmd lg/gt/ rNg]5 . 5g . k};f sdfpgs} nflu o:tf ;+:yf btf{ x'g] s'/f ;'Gg] –x]dGt l3ld/], s;]gL uflj;–!, s;]gL, df]/ª . ;DkfbsHo", b]vfPsf] 5 / ;/sf/ yk gfnfos ag]sf] 5 eg]/ :ki6 jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt of] u/fpF5 . o:tf] x'g' jf:tjd} b'MvbfoL s'/f xf] . o:tf s'/f klqsf d}n] rf/ jif{b]lv lgoldt k9]sf] 5' . ljut ^ yfxf kfPkl5 eljiodf o:tf] gxf]; eg]/ ;/sf/n] ljz]if dlxgfb]lv klqsfsf] :t/df lgs} ;'wf/ cfPsf] kfP/ v';L Joj:yf u/f]; eg]/ o;} klqsfdfkm{t cfu|x ub{5' . nfu]sf] 5 . klqsfsf] aLrdf /flvPsf] kf]:6/n] k|fs[lts g]kfnsf] ;Dk"0f{ t/fO{ If]q l;d;f/leq} kb{5h:tf] nfu]sf] k| s f] k sf ljifodf lgs} /fd| f ] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . 5 . kof{j/0fn] l;d;f/h:tf] dxŒjk"0f{ k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf kof{j/0fdfkm{t o:tf] ;fdu|L ufpFdf k7fP/ PS;gP8 af/]df lbPsf] hfgsf/L Hofb} pkof]uL 5 . ;/sf/n] xfn;Dd g]kfnn] /fd|f] sfd u/]sf] 5, Tof] ;+:yfnfO{ d]/f]tkm{af6 l;d;f/ gLlt NofPsf] 5}gh:tf] nfU5, o;tkm{ klg cfjfh wGojfb . p7fP/ p;sf] sfgdf t]n xfNg'knf{ xf]Og < ljåfg n]vs xfd|f] t/fO{sf] kL8f k|foM ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5 . k|To]s jif{ cfpg] 8f= t]hs'df/ >]i7sf] cfbz{ hnr/sf] gfnLa]nL pTs[i6 5, af9Ln] xhf/f}F la3f v]t aufP/ w]/} ls;fgnfO{ ;'s'Daf;L o:tf ;fdu|Lsf] lg/Gt/tf kmnbfoL x'g]5 . klg agfO/x]sf] 5 . klx/f]sf] kL8f g] k fndf sfo{ / t w] / } h ;f] kxf8n] lg/Gt/ ef]u]sf] ;dfrf/ ;'Gg o; cªssf] pTs[i6 k|ltlqmof ;ª3;+:yfx¿n] cfˆgf ;xof]uLnfO{ / k9 g kfOG5 . kof{ j /0fn] ljut s] x L cª s x¿df v';L kfg{sf nflu g} xf]nf, cªu|]hL efiff k|of]u u/]sf] af9Lklx/f]sf] sf/0f, /f]syfdsf nflu x'g'kg]{ k|of; / kfOG5 . g]kfndf g]kfnLsf nflu sfd ug]{ xf] eg] ;x/df a:g] k|ljlwsf ljifonfO{ lnP/ /fd|f ;fdu|L lbPsf] 5, xfdL of] g]kfnLsf] dfq enf] ;f]r/ x'bg / To:tf] sfo{n] b]znfO{ s'g} ] F} u'g la;{g ;Sb}gf}F . k"0ff{ªs #^ df uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfnn] kmfObf klg x'bg . g]kfnleq g]kfnLsf nflu sfd ug]n] g]kfnL F} { n]Vg'ePsf] …af9Lklx/f]n] u/]sf] ljWj+; M /fxt tyf lbuf] efiffdf klqsf lgsfn] To;n] ufpFsf dflg;nfO{ 1fg lbg]5 / Joj:yfkgsf] k|ZgÚ ;do;fk]If dfq xf]Og, To;}cGtu{t ljsf;df ;xof]u k'Ug]5 . s]jn /fhgLlts / dgf]/~hgsf 5flkPsf w]/} ;fdu|Ln] o:tf k|fs[lts k|sf]k lgoGq0f klqsf k9]/ s]xL klg ldNb}g . Osf]–g]kfnsf] of] k|of; o;}sf/0f :yfgLo:t/af6} klg ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] pbfx/0fx¿ lbPsf klg ;/fxgLo 5 / of] klqsf lg/Gt/ k9g kfOof]; . 5g . 8fS6/;fÚan] /fxt lxgfldgf u/]sf] ;dfrf/n] eg] –c?0f sfsL{, ;dfhdf s:tf gfnfos dflg; klg x' F b f/x] 5 g eGg] hgtf lgDgdfWolds ljBfno, ao/jg–^, df]/ª jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 3
  4. 4. sxf“ s] < sf=lh=sf= b=g+= @).)$(.)%) dfl;s r'l/ofsf] r'/Lk'm/L Paryawaran Monthly Vol. 11, No.10, Jan/ Feb 2004 jif{ !!, cªs !), df3 @)^) k"0ff{ªs #* ;Nnfxsf/ 8f= ljgfos eb|f 8f= sdn l/hfn k[i7 M % 8f= hgsnfn sdf{rfo{ k|f= 8f= /fdk|;fb rf}w/L >L x]d/fh kf}8n ] k|wfg ;Dkfbs ■ k|fs[lts k|sf]k /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] g]kfndf P]ltxfl;s tyf k"j–P]ltxfl;s e"sDksf] cWoog ( { ;Dkfbs uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn e'Orfnf]af6 s:tf 3/ ;'/lIft x'G5g < “ ( ahf/ Joj:yfks k|sf]k Go"g ug{ cfd;~rf/ dxŒjk"0f{ !$ /fh]Gb| cfrfo{ e'O“rfnf] M lgoGq0f ug{ ;ls“b}g aRg] pkfo u/f}“ !% sg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ e'Orfnf]cl3sf] k"jtof/L -leQ]kf]:6/_ “ { rGb| a:g]t ■ gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ ljz]if ;xof]uL ofbj yklnof ;f}o{ 3/]n' lah'nL k|0ffnL @! ljz]if k|ltlglw ■ k|fs[lts ;Dkbf 6k]Gb| sfsL{ g]kfnsf] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt– @)%( @& sf6'{g÷kf]:6/ lrq /d]z bfxfn ■ cfo'jb {] :d/0fzlQm a9fpg] jg:klt a|fxdL ## k|sfzs jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn ■ vf]tnvftn sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf– #!, wf]lawf/f dxfgu/, gu/lktf / lju|x #% kf]= a= g+= !(&@), sf7df8f}+ kmf]g M $$$%#@) ■ ;Gbe{–;dfrf/ kmofS; M (&&–!–$@^%$%% ● kfx' g f r/fn] tfn 5kSs} E-mail: eco_nepal@hotmail.com ● cfZro{sf] kf]v/L]– ltDa's econepal@publicgroup.net ● ah'{ tfnsf] ;+/If0f / df5f dfg]{ k|ltof]lutf http://www.econepal.org ● o;/L g} gfl;g] xf] eg] s] af“sL /xnf < d'b|s ● k]6fnkDkdf clhªu/ «] ;"of]bo 5fkfvfgf { ● 6«nLa; geOx'Gg kf]= a= g+= @)&$%, kmf]gM $#$(&! ● lu2 lsg x/fP < wf]lawf/f, sf7df8f}+ ● xft] ljZn]if0faf6 df};d k"jf{gdfg ' jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 4
  5. 5. cfkmgf] snd 321 k|fs[lts k|sf]k Joj:yfkg P]gsf] k'gk{l/efiff h?/L 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 hf8f]ofddf vf;u/L t/fO{sf] ;dy/ If]qdf rNg] l;tnx/sf] k|sf]k slxn]b]lv rNg yfn]sf] xf] eGg] olsg 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 x'g g;s] klg o;af6 x'g] Iflt eg] x/]s jif{ j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . ljut jif{x¿df ;"rgf k|jfxsf] cefjsf 321 321 321 321 sf/0f xf]; jf d[To'sf] jf:tljs sf/0fsf] klxrfg x'g g;s]/ xf];, l;tnx/af6 dg]{x¿sf] vf; ;ªVof 321 321 321 321 321 k|sfzdf cfpg g;s]sf] klg x'g;Sb5 . x'g t xfn;Dd klg k|To]s jif{ l;tnx/sf] k|sf]kaf6 slthgfsf] 321 321 321 321 321 d[To' eO/x]5 / cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs If]qdf o;n] slt xflg k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 eg]/ cWoog–cg';Gwfg x'g 321 321 321 321 321 ;s]sf] b]lvFb}g, g o;af6 x'g] Ifltsf] tYofªs s;}n] /fv]sf] kfOG5 . tyflk, k|To]s jif{ lxpFbofddf g]kfnsf] t/fO{ If]qdf rNg] l;tnx/sf sf/0f dg]{ dflg;sf] ;ªVofdf cªs ylkFbf] 5 / cfly{s tyf 321 321 321 321 321 ;fdflhs Iflt klg To;/L g} j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 hf8f]ofddf afSnf] s'lx/f]n] e"–;txnfO{ 9fSg] sf/0fn] 3fd gnfUg], tfkqmd c;fdfGo ¿kn] tn emg]{ / 321 321 321 321 321 klZrdL lr;f] xfjf l;/{–l;/{ rn]/ pTkGg x'g] lr;f] cj:yfnfO{ l;tnx/ elgG5 . o; k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 321 321 321 321 321 dg]{x¿ k|foM kf}li6s vfgf, Gofgf] n'uf / pko'Qm af;:yfgsf] hf]xf] ug{ g;Sg] ljkGg hgtf g} x'g] u/]sf 321 321 321 321 321 5g . To;df klg j[4, /f]uL, czQm, a"9fa"9L / s]6fs]6L lr;f] vKg g;s]/ a9L dg]{ u/]sf 5g . o; jif{sf] k'; dlxgf;Dd o; k|sf]kaf6 dg]{x¿sf] ;ªVof ;f7LeGbf dfly k'lu;s]sf] 5 . df3 dlxgfel/ 321 321 321 321 321 l;tnx/ rln/xg] ;Defjgf ePsf]n] o;df cem} cªs ylkg] cj:yf 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 k|To]s lxpFbofddf lgoldt¿kdf g} rNg] o; k|fs[lts k|sf]kn] olt 7"nf] ;ªVofdf dflg; dg]{ / 321 321 321 321 321 lxpFb]afnL g/fd|/L k|efljt eO{ 7"nf] cfly{s Iflt k'Ug] u/]sf] eP klg o;df g t ;/sf/n] s'g} rf;f] 321 321 321 321 321 /fv]sf] b]lvG5, g k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf If]qdf sfd ug]{ /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿sf 321 321 321 321 321 of]hgf–kl/of]hgfdf Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf nflu s'g} sfo{qmd /x]sf] kfOG5 . gful/s ;dfh klg o; ljifodf cgle1 g} /x]sf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . o;/L lgoldt¿kdf rNg] k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0f / 321 321 321 321 321 Joj:yfkgsf ljifodf ;a} kIfn] df}gj|t lnPsf] b]lvG5 . ;/sf/n] juL{s/0f u/]sf] k|sf]kdf l;tnx/ 321 321 321 321 321 gkg]{ sf/0f hgfO{ k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f / /f]syfds} nflu eg]/ v8f ul/Psf] ;/sf/sf] …b}jLk|sf]k Joj:yfkg 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ljefuÚ n] klg d"sbz{s aGg'afx]s sxL ug{ g;Sg' emg b'vb kIf /x]sf] 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 g]kfndf ut jif{ l;tnx/af6 dg]{sf] ;ªVof c;L k'u]sf] ;dfrf/ aLaL;Ln] lbPsf] lyof] . clxn];Ddsf] cj:yf x]g]{ xf] eg] o; jif{n] ut jif{sf] ;ªVofnfO{ pl5Gg] ;ªs]t ldln;s]sf] 5 . 7"n} ljWj+; geP;Dd 321 321 321 321 321 sfgdf t]n xfn]/ a:g] afgL k/]sf xfdLx¿n] l;tnx/af6 dfgjLo Ifltsf cnfjf s[lif, pBf]u, Joj;fo, 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 xjfO{ tyf :yn oftfoft / jftfj/0fh:tf w]/} kIfdf k'lu/x]sf] Ifltsf] dfqf a]n}df af]w ug{;s] w/}sf] 321 321 321 321 321 321 Hofg hf]lug ;SYof] . dfgjLo / cGo If]qdf x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0f tyf /f]syfdsf nflu s'g} kIfaf6 klg kxn geO/x]sf] jt{dfg cj:yfdf cfˆgf gful/ssf] k|f0f/Iff ug]{ bfloTj ;/sf/s} ePsf] x'bf u[xdGqfnosf] F 321 321 321 321 321 b}jLk|sf]k P]gnfO{ tTsfn k'gk{l/eflift ug'{ cfjZos t 5Fb}5, o; k|sf]ksf] df/df kg{;Sg] hgtfsf] klg 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 klxrfg u/L a]n}df ;'/Ifsf k|efjsf/L pkfox¿ cjnDag ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . gful/s ;dfhsf 321 321 321 321 321 x'g]x¿n] gx'g]nfO{ ;fgf] ;xof]u u/]/ ltgsf] k|f0f/Iff ubf{ k|fKt x'g] k'0o c¿ s]xLaf6 sdfpg ;lsGg 321 eg]/ klg a'‰g}kg]{ x'G5 . ;fdflhs ;]jfsf] nIo lnP/ v'n]sf /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u/}/;/sf/L ;+:yfn] 321 321 321 321 klg o; k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug]{tkm{ Wofg s]lGb|t ul/lbP …cfTdf ;fIfL /fvL dg jrg / sd{n] ;]jfÚ 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ug]{ jrga4tf;d]t ;fy{s x'g] 5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 5
  6. 6. h}ljs ljljwtf lsg jiff+;Dd r'l/of cfdrf;f]sf] ljifo aGg ;s]g < lsg of] {} g]] kfnsf cflbaf;L r] k fª hflt hlQs} ltgsf] af;:yfg r'l/of If]q -r'/] >[ªvnf_ klg w]/} jif{;Dd ljsf; sfo{qmd / ;+/If0f of]hgfx¿af6 cf]em]ndf k¥of] < ef}uf]lns :j¿k cfdhg;d'bfob]lv n's]/ a:of] . ltgsf ljifodf yf]/}n] dfq rfv lnP . t/, xfn}sf jif{df eg] tL b'j}n] t/fO{sf] ;dtn d}bfgb]lv ;n{Ss p7]sf r'l/ofsf k'mRr] bft[;+:yf / cGo /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfsf ljsf; kxf8x¿ lxdfno kj{tdfnfsf ;aeGbf sfG5f ;Gtfg sfo{qmd / ;ef–uf]i7Lx¿df rrf{ kfpg yfn]sf 5g . x'g . To;f] t lxdfno cfkm}F ljZjsf] sfG5f] kj{tdfnfdf rf/ jif{cl3 ;g !((( df l/;f];]{; lxdfnodfkm{t ulgG5 . o;sf] hGd To:t} kfFr s/f]8 jif{cufl8 ef/tLo r'l/of;DaGwL kfF r r/0f;Dd lj:t[t cg';Gwfg k|oTg pkdxfåLk ltAatsf] e"–eful;t h'Wg uP/ ePsf] yflnFbf;Dd klg olt l56} r'l/ofsf jghªunx¿ ;+/If0f e"ue{ljbx¿ atfpFb5g . lxdfnosf] clxn]sf] d"n :j¿k cfof]hgfsf zAbfjnLx¿df ufFl;Pnfh:tf] nfu]sf] lyPg . sl/a b'O{ s/f]8 jif{cl3 lgdf{0f ePsf] / o;} ;dob]lv cfhef]ln r'l/ofsf ljifodf slDtdf klg dlxgfdf blIf0f Pl;ofsf] xfjfkfgLsf] d"n sf/s dg;'gL jiff{ k|f/De Psrf]l6h:tf] cfd;~rf/ dfWodx¿df ;dfrf/ 5flkG5g . ePsf] dflgG5 . lxdfno kj{tdfnfsf] blIf0fL sfvdf /x]sf] r'l/ofsf] r'/Lk'm/L 8f= lbg]z/fh e'h" ✍ If]qLo l;dfgf lxdfnL If]q pRr kxf8 dWo kxf8 r'l/of÷lzjflns t/fO{ ★ g]kfnsf] r'l/of cWoogsf k|d'v cg';Gwfgstf{ 8f= e'h"n] hfkfgsf] rLaf ljZjljBfnoaf6 Osf]nf]hLdf kLPr8L ug'{ePsf] 5 . pxfF xfn /f]gf:6df sfo{/t x'g'x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 6
  7. 7. h}ljs ljljwtf r'l/of eg] To:t} Ps s/f]8 jif{cl3 p7]sf] cg'dfg ul/G5 . cfsif{s jGohGt' g} kfOG5, g t lxdfndf h:tf] r'l/of klZrddf OGb; gbLb]lv k"j{df a|Xdk'q;Dd lxdfR5flbt r'r'/fx¿ g} . Ps lsl;dn] r'l/of dfgj cyf{t em08} lxdfnohlQs} nfdf] 5 . o;sf] rf}8fO a:tLsf lglDt pko'Qm :yfg aGg ;s]g . r'l/ofsf] of] st}st} km}lnP/ %) lsld;Dd k'u]sf] 5 eg] st}st} a}u'g t/ p;}sf nflu eg] j/bfg ;fljt eof]– dfgjLo ;fF 3 ' l /P/ %)) ld6/d} ;Lldt b] l vG5 . r' l /ofsf cltqmd0f gePsf] sf/0f ToxfFsf hªunx¿ dfl;Pgg . 8fF8fx¿sf] ;fnfvfnf prfO !%)) ld6/ elgP tfklg h]–h:tf] k|fs[lts cj:yfdf lyof], ToxLcg';f/ ToxfF jg klZrddf hDd"If]qlt/ $))) ld6/;Dd cUnf] / k"j{lt/ / jg:klt df}nfO/x] / k|s[lt ;Fu;Fu} ltgdf kl/jt{g !))) ld6/eGbf sd /x]sf] e]l6G5 . g]kfnL e"efuleq klg cfO/x] . r'l/of s}nfnLlt/ r'lnP/ !*)) ld6/;Dd k'u]sf] 5 . r'l/ofsf] lrGtf r'l/ofsf sltko 7fpFdf gbLsf 7"nf– t/ kl/l:ylt ;w}F p:t} /x]g . ;'?df 7" n f pkTosfx¿ klg 5g , h:t} M x'g klg r'l/ofdf dflg;x¿ kxf8sf] sl7g psfnL– lrtjg, /fKtL, aaO{ / e]/L gbLsf t/fO{sf] hªundfh:tf] cf]/fnL hLjgaf6 qf0f kfpg t/fO{sf pkTosfx¿ . g cfsif{s jGohGt' g} d}bfglt/ em/] . t/fO{df hg;ªVof j[l4 x'Fb} uPkl5 s]xL kl/jf/ kxf8 r' l /ofsf] e" : j¿k d" n tM gbLn] kfOG5 g t cyf{t r'l/oflt/ kmls{P, s]xL dfly aufP/ NofPsf u]u|fg, anf}6] 9'ªuf / lxdfndfh:tf] kxf8af6 cfpF b fcfpF b } r' l /ofd} b'd6 df6f]n] ag]sf] 5 . o;k|sf/sf] lxdfR5flbt r'r'/fx¿ cl8P . klZrd g]kfnlt/ Pp6f s:tf] ;+ o f] h gnfO{ l;jflns ;d" x klg g} . Ps lsl;dn] r'l/of rng dflkms /x]5 eg] ;aeGbf elgG5 . r' l /ofsf sltko dfjg a:tLsf lglDt klxn] cUnf b'u{d kxf8af6 ;'ud 7fpF x ¿af6 cflbsfnsf :tgwf/L pko'Qm :yfg aGg kxf8 cyf{ t t/fO{ glhssf] r' / ] -afF b /, cflbd dfgj, df+ ; fxf/L, ;s]g . r'l/ofsf] of] kxf8lt/ cfpFbf /x]5g . kl5, cfˆgf] rf} k fof, xfQL cflb_ hLjx¿sf a}u'g t/ p;}sf nflu cfly{s Ifdtfg';f/ qmdzM t/fO{lt/ dxŒjk"0f{ hLjfjz]if km]nf k/]sf 5g . eg] j/bfg ;fljt eof] – embf{/x]5g . dflg;x¿ cf]Ol/Pkl5 s] x L jif{ c l3 g] k fndf e] l 6Psf a:tL / v] t af/Lsf nflu s] x L cflbdfgj /fdflky]s;sf] vKk/ klg dfgjLo cltqmd0f gePsf] sf/0f ToxfFsf hªunx¿ dfl;g' :jfefljs g} x'g] r'l/of If]qaf6} pTvgg ul/Psf] lyof] . hªunx¿ dfl;Pgg . eof] . dflg;sf sf/0f gfªuf ePsf g]kfnsf kfFr k|d'v ef}uf]lns If]qx¿ r'/]kxf8x¿ cfhef]ln k"j{–klZrd -t/fO{, r'l/of, dWokxf8, pRrkxf8 h]–h:tf] k|fs[lts /fhdfu{sf] pQ/tkm{ klZrd g]kfnsf] / lxdfn_ dWo] ;aeGbf a9L hªun cj:yfdf lyof] ToxL b] p v' / Llt/ 5 o fª u } b] l vG5g , ePsf] If]q r'l/of g} xf] . If]qkmnsf cg';f/ ToxfF jg / To:t} v fn] gfª u f] r' / ] k xf8 k" j { d f lx;fan] r'l/ofn] -If]qkmn M !$,$%) jg:klt df}nfO/x] / pbok'/lt/ klg b]lvG5 . ju{ ls=ld=_ ;aeGbf sd cyf{ t k|s[lt ;Fu;Fu} ltgdf b]zsf] s'n e"efusf] !# k|ltzt dfq xfn} s f jif{ d f g] k fnL 5fkfx¿n] kl/jt{g klg cfO/x] . r'l/ofsf jgx¿ kftlnFb} uPsf] s'/f] cf]u6]sf] 5 . tyflk plNnlvt kfFr If]qdf r'l/ofsf] ;aeGbf a9L cyf{t &^ k|ltzt e"– p7fPsf 5g . lg;Gb]xM o;n] :yfgLo hg;d'bfosf] efudf jghªunn] 9fs]sf] 5 . t/ w]/}sf nflu r'l/of lrGtfnfO{ ;d]6]sf] 5 . r'l/of If]qsf] ;+/If0faf/] ;+o'Qm vx/] pn{g], klx/f] uO/xg] / v]tLsf nflu sfd gnfUg] /fi6«;ª3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmdnufot s]xL cGt/f{li6«o kxf8sf ¿kdf kl/lrt /lx/Xof] . s' g } k~rjifL{ o ;+:yfx¿n] klg rf;f] lnPsf] kfOG5 . hd{g k|fljlws of]hgfdf klg Tof] kg{ ;s]g / ckjfbsf ¿kdf s]xL ;xof]u ;+:yf -lhl6h]8_ n] t Ps bzscl3b]lv g} ljsf; sfo{qmdafx]s j}1flgs cg';Gwfg klg ToxfF pbok'/lt/sf] r'/] If]qsf] ;+/If0f sfo{df ;+nUg 5, xfn} ePg . x'g klg r'l/ofdf t/fO{sf] hªundf h:tf] g cfP/ ljZj;+/If0f ;ª3 -cfOo";LPg_ k"jL{ g]kfnsf] r'/] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 7
  8. 8. h}ljs ljljwtf >[ ª v nfdf, l:j; ljsf; ;xof] u ;+ : yf -P;8L;L_ plNnlvt ;a} @@@ :yfgdf sDtLdf Pp6f 7"nf] -gfk M x} 6 f+ } F 8 flt/sf] r' / ] k xf8, / ljZj jGohGt' sf] i f @% ld × ×@% ld_, b'O{j6f demf}nf -gfk M % ld × -8An"8An"Pkm_ klZrd / dWog]kfnsf] t/fO{ hf]8g] t/fO{ % dL_ / rf/j6f ;fgf -gfk M ! ld × ! ld_ rf}sf];fx¿ cfs{ NofG8:s]k -tfn_ sfo{qmddf ;+nUg ePsf 5g . nufO{ To;leqsf ;Dk"0f{ af]6la?jf, a'6ofg / kf]y|fx¿sf] l/;f]{;]; lxdfnon] ;g !((( df klxnf]kN6 g]kfnsf] gfk, ;ªVof, ltgn] cf]u6]sf] If]q -se/]h_ cflbsf] k"j{ d]rLb]lv klZrd dxfsfnL;Ddsf] r'l/of If]qsf] tYofªs lnOPsf] lyof] . o;sf cltl/Qm ofqfsf a]nf kl/j[QLo tYofªs cfwf/ -Osf]nf]lhsn 8f6fa];_ tof/ vf;u/L psfnL–cf]/fnLx¿df k|To]s !)) ld6/sf] kfg]{ k|:tfjgf cl3;f¥of] . o;/L k|fKt j}1flgs ;"rgf / prfOdf ¿vx¿sf] ;+of]uaf/] tYofªs ;ªsng ul/Psf] 1fg cGttf]uŒjf To; If]qsf] ;+j4{g / ToxfF cfl>t lyof] . ;fy}, tL :yfgx¿sf] glhs kg]{ ufpF – a:tLdf hgtfsf] hLjg ;'wf/lglDt nfebfos x'g] ck]lIft 5 . uO{ ToxfFsf afl;Gbfx¿l;t 5nkmn u/L cf}iflwd"nf] tyf kfFr r/0fdf k"/f ug]{ nIo /flvPsf] pQm k|:tfjgfsf] cGo k|of]hgsf nflu pkof]u ul/g] la?jfx¿af/]sf] ;"rgf clek|]/0ff d'Votof lgDg tLg sf/0fdf c8]sf] 5 – klg ;ª s ng ul/Psf] lyof] . kz' k G5Lsf xsdf != k" j { b ] l v klZrd;Dd Psgf; km} l nPsf] t/fO{ s f] jGohGt'sf kfOnfx¿, b]lvPhlt / cfjfh ;'lgPhltsf hªun ca vl08t eO;s]sf] 5 . r/fx¿sf] tYofªs /flvPsf] lyof] . s'n %#* dfgj–lbg vlr{Psf] o; cjlwdf jg:klt;DaGwL dfq sDtLdf $$ @= vl08t hªun / cnlUuP/ /x]sf ;+/lIft If]qx¿ xhf/ tYofªs a'bfx¿ l6lkPsf lyP . e"–pkof]lutfsf] F e"–b[Zo:t/ -NofG8:s]k n]en_ df ;+/If0flglDt kl/jt{g / jGohGt' tyf kG5Lsf ;"rgfx¿ a]Un} 5g . ckof{Kt ePsf 5g . /, #= g]kfnsf] t/fO{ If]qdf /x]sf ;+/lIft Pjd t/fO{ / k|f/lDes glthf kxf8sf k|fs[lts af;:yfgx¿nfO{ hf]8g] Psdfq oBlk ;ªsng ul/Psf ;Dk"0f{ tYofªs s]nfpg afFsL ;]t' r'/] >[ªvnf ePsf] 5 . g} 5, k|f/lDes glthfcg';f/ r'l/ofdf jgIf]q 36]/ uPsf] 5 eg] s[lifIf]q lgs} a9]sf] 5 . h:t}M k"jL{ l/;f]{;]; lxdfnoåf/f cl3;fl/Psf] k|:tfjgfsf g]kfnlt/ ;g !(%) sf] bzsdf r'l/ofdf *! k|ltzt d"n b'O{j6f p2]Zo 5gM jgn] 9fs]sf] lyof] h'g ;g !(&) sf] bzsdf 36]/ &! k|ltzt / ;g !(() sf] bzsdf cem 36]/ %^ k|ltzt != ;g !(%), !(&) / !(() bzssf] ;docGt/fndf k'u]sf] b]lvG5 . oxL #% jif{sf] cjlwdf ToxL If]qdf r'l/of If]qdf ePsf] e"–pkof]lutfsf] kl/jt{g / dfgj ;ª3ftsf] d"Nofªsg ug]{ . /, @= r'l/of If]qsf] jgsf] cjl:ylt / ToxfF kfOg] hLj ljljwtfsf] ;"rgf ;ªu|x / To;;DaGwL :yfgLo hgtfdf /x]sf] 1fgsf] clen]v /fVg] . cWoog ljlw o; tLg jif{sf] cjlwdf l/;f]{;]; lxdfnon] k"jL{ If]qdfdf #%, dWoIf]qdf *%, dWoklZrd If]qdf #( / ;'b"/klZrd If]qdf ^# u/L s'n @@@ :yfgx¿af6 jgsf] cjl:ylt / hLj ljljwtf;DaGwL ljljw :ynut tYofªs ;ªsng u/]sf] 5 . tL :yfgx¿sf] lgSof]{n gS;fdf ef}uf]lns cIff+ z / tYofª s tflnsfsf] /] G 8d ;ª V ofx¿sf a9bf] cltqmd0fdf r'l/of cfwf/df ul/Psf] lyof] eg] :ynut klxrfgsf nflu e"– k"jL{ g]kfnsf] r'l/of If]qdf ljut #% jif{df s[lif If]q pku|xsf] dfWodåf/f ;~rfng x'g] hLkLP; elgg] !@) k|ltztn] j[l4 eof] eg] jg If]q *! k|ltztaf6 oGqnfO{ k|of]udf NofOPsf] lyof] . 36]/ %^ k|ltztdf em¥of] .-kmf]6f] M n]vs_"_ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 8
  9. 9. h}ljs ljljwtf j}1flgs rfvsf] ljifo xf] . r'l/ofsf] v's'nf] df6f]df /d0fLo tfn klg b]Vg kfOof] . df]/ªsf] 6fF8L uflj;df cjl:yt r'nLkf]v/L -gfk M @ x]S6/, prfO{ ^%) ld_ g]kfnsf] l;d;f/ ;"rLdf gofF gfd ylkPsf] 5 . r'l/of If]qsf clwsfªz afl;Gbf tL If]qdf kfOg] af]6la?jfsf] pkof]lutf / k|sl[ taf/] ulx/f] 1fg /fVb5g . k"jdf /fO{, lnDa", dWodf tdf8=, du/, klZrddf afx'g, { If]qL / du/sf] afx'No b]lvP klg 7fpF7fpFsf r]kfª, s5f8]h:tf cNk;ªVos hfltsf] a;f]af; b]lvG5 . k'?if– dlxnf, :s'n] s]6fs]6L / 3/ ?ªg] a'9fa'9L ;a} cfˆgf] 3/ jl/kl/ kfOg] cf}iflwhGo la?jfl;t kl/lrt 5g . 3fp– rf]6 nfUbf v'a} hftL x'g] l;sf/L nx/f]sf] la?jf gd"gf xfdLnfO{ klxnf]rf]l6 !! jif]{ :s'n] 5fqn] NofOlbPsf] lyof] . s'g} 7fpFdf xfd|f] :yfgLo ufO8 g} lgDgdfWolds ljBfnosf ljBfyL{ x'Gy] . To;f] t ghfg]/} xf]nf, 88]Nw'/fsf :s'n] s]6fs]6Lx¿n] kTy/L /f]udf pkrf/ x'g] kfif0fe]bsf km"nx¿ af6f]df kmofNb} lxF8sf klg b]lvP . o;/L l;6fdf]nsf ] rSsLx¿n] ?lbnf]sf] /;nfO{ qmdzM lj:yflkt ug{ yfn]sf] gld7f] cg'ej klg r'l/ofn] u/fPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf nflu b'ne jg:klt /fgL yfsn -;fOs; { k]lS6gf6f_ k"jL{ g]kfnsf] r'/] jgsf] uxgf . -kmf]6f]M n]vs_ s[lif If]qdf eg] !@) k|ltzt cyf{t bf]Aa/eGbf a9L cg'kftdf j[l4 ePsf] b]lvG5 . To; If]qdf ¿vx¿sf] ;ªVof k|ltx]S6/ sl/a ^(! ePsf] kfOof] h;dWo] (=* k|ltzt sfl6Psf 7'6f lyP . k"j{sf] oxL kl/l:ylt afFsL r'l/of If]qdf klg x'g] cfzªsf ul/Psf] 5 . t/ cWoogn] ;Dk" 0 f{ lg/fzfdfq xf] O g, cfzfk| b glthfx¿ klg cufl8 NofPsf] 5 . t/fO{ s f hª u nx¿af6 x/fpF b } uPsf wg] i f k" j L{ r' l /ofsf] nfnemf]8f jgdf pl8/x]sf b]lvP eg] k"jL{ r'l/ofs} g]kfnsf] l;d;f/ ;"rLdf gof“ gfd ;f]lQmdsf] dfOvf]nf / zflGt8fF8fsf vf]nf5]plt/ ¿v– 6f“8L uflj; df]/ªdf /x]sf] r'nLkf]v/L . -kmf]6f]M n]vs_ pmGo" -6«L kmg{_ clg l;ªkm]/] / d}gfr'nLlt/ /fgL yfsn -;fOs; k]lS6gf6f_ sf 3f/Lx¿ g} e]l§P . ¿v–pGo" / r' l /ofsf] cWoogsf oL k| f /lDes glthfn] Pslt/ /fgL yfsn g]kfnsf nflu b'n{evfn] la?jf x'g / tL r'l/ofsf] h}ljs ljljwtfnfO{ phfu/ u/]sf] 5 eg] b' j } ;fOl6;sf] kl/lzi6df ;" l rt 5g . To:t} , csf{lt/ a9bf] jgljgf;sf] tYonfO{ klg cl3 t]:of{Psf] dWog]kfnsf] r'l/ofdfO{ If]qlt/ %)) ld6/sf] sd 5 . r'l/ofsf] …;+/If0fÚ df bft[;+:yfx¿ cfslif{t ePsf] prfOd} ;Nnfsf jg e]l6P eg] rGb|lgufxk'/b]lv dfly b]lvG5 t/ cg';Gwfgsf] If]qdf tL cem klg pbfl;g u8fg;L/lt/ ^)) dL6/sf] 6'Kkf]df kxf8sf b'j} le/fnf 5g . tL ;+:yfx¿ cfˆg} k|fyldstfsf] 3]/f / ljsf;] kfvfdf vo/sf hªunx¿ kfOof] . ;fdfGotof g]kfndf gf/fdf ?dlNnPsf 5g . ;g @))@ sf] kj{t jif{n] ;Nnf ()) ld6/eGbf dfly / vo/ t/fO{lt/ gbL5]p ljZjsf] Wofg kxf8sf] pkof]lutf / ltgsf] ;+/If0ftkm{{ kfOg] ¿v eg] / lrlgG5g . ;' b " / klZrdsf] r' l /of cfslif{t u¥of] . xfn} dfq klg xfdLn] kxf8 lbj; kxf8sf] a:tL ;'u/vfn -!#)) ld6/_ sf] jgdf afFem dgfof} + . s] r' l /of kxf8sf] cWoog xfd| f ] ;+ / If0f / ;fn ;Fu;Fu} pld|Psf e]l§P h'g cfkm}Fdf Pp6f sfo{;"rL x'g ;Sb}g < jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 9
  10. 10. k|fs[lt k|sf]k e'Orfnf]af6 s:tf 3/ ;'/lIft x'G5g < “ ljho pkfWofo gf/fo0f–gf/fo0f Û x] k|e" arfpm, P afa' xf], pm7 pm7, u'dfpg k'U5g . cflv/, of] e'OFrfnf] xf] s] < lsg ;a} aflx/ lxF8 nf}, e'OFrfnf] cfof] . cfdf Û P cfdf Û uO/xG5 af/Daf/ / nfvf}Fsf] wgdfn df6f]df ldnfOlbG5, cF == cfF nf} g lg s;/L xlNnPsf] < pm== x]/ ¿vsf] sltn] Hofg u'dfpF5g / cem slt t ckfªu x'gk'U5g . 6'Kkf]n] e'O{+ 5'g cfF6of] . n == n == ;fgf] sfG5f]sf] 3/ s] o:tf] ljgf;sf/L e'OFrfnf] /f]Sg ;lsGg < o:tf t un{Dd} kf] n8]5 . x/] lzj lzj Û pm == pm x]/ Û k|nosf/L e'Orfnf]af6 aRg] s'g} pkfo 5}g t < F ;fOFnfbfOsf] 3/ t wh}whf eP/ lrl/P5, n85 ls Sof kGw| jif{cl3 @)$% ;fn ebf} % ut] k"jL{ g]kfnsf] 7"nf] xf] < P]of afaf Û x] O{Zj/ nf} g arfpm sf] 5 aflx/ e"–efudf Pp6f dWodvfn] e'OFrfnf] uPsf] lyof] . pQm < dnfO{ lems, nf} g afaf d/]F lg . n x]/, 7"nf] sfsfsf] e'OFrfnf]df &@! hgfn] Hofg u'dfPsf lyP, !,$@! 5f]/fn]s t ‰ofnaf6 xfdkmfn]/ v'§} kf] efFr]5 . u}/] hgfnfO{ uDeL/ rf]6 nfu]sf] lyof] / %,!#! hgf 3fOt] sfG5fsf] 5f]/frflxF dflyaf6 cf]n{gnfUbf ln:g' v;]/ ePsf lyP eg] %,^(@ hgfnfO{ ;fwf/0f rf]6k6s nfu]sf] n8]5, cfFlQP/ a]xf]; ePsf] 5 c/] .Æ lyof] . ;f] e'OFrfnf]af6 @!,@$# 3/x¿ Wj:t ePsf lyP e'OFrfnf] jf e"sDk hfFbf o:t} lsl;dsf lrTsf/ tyf / nueu ^^,))) a;f]af; ug{ gx'g]u/L rls{Psf lyP . b'Mvsf :j/x¿ ;'lgg] u5{g . sf]xL xtfl;P/ a]xf]; To;}u/L !,@)@ ljBfno, !,!%( ;fj{hlgs ejgx¿ ;f] x'G5g, sf]xL 3/n] k'l/P/ d5{g eg] slt t 3/af6 efUbf e'OFrfnf]sf] rk]6fdf k/]sf lyP eg] @,!#( 3/kfn'jf n8]/ jf w]/}hgf Ps}kN6 efUg vf]Hbf k]lnP/ Hofg hgfj/ d/]sf lyP . To;eGbf * jif{klxn] cyf{t @)#& g]kffndf P]ltxfl;s tyf k"j–P]ltxfl;s e"sDksf] cWoog { ;f]dgfy ;fksf]6f, dfwj/fh kf08] /fli6«o e"sDk dfkg s]Gb|, vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefu, n}grf}/, sf7df8f}+ . sl/a @) s/f]8 jif{cl3 ;'? ePsf] ef/tLo pkdxfåLk e" s Dk / !(#$ sf] laxf/–g] k fn e" s Dk o;sf cyf{t OlG8og Kn]6 pQ/tk{m lg/Gt/ ultzLn xF'b} hfg] pbfx/0fx¿ DfflgG5g . lxdfnL >[Înfdf ljutdf uPsf k|s[of (Plate Tectonics) df sl/a % s/f]8 jif{clw cGo e"sDkx¿sf] vf]hL u/L To:tf e"sDkx¿ k'g/fj[lQ o'/f]l;og Kn]6sf] blIf0fL pkv08 -ltAatLog Kn]6_ ;Fu x'g] ;do, :yfg / e"sDksf] dfg cflbsf] cWoog– 7Ss/ vfg uof] . ttkZrft OlG8og Kn]6 jflif{s @) cg';Gwfg ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf cfFs8fx¿n] e"sDkLo ldlnld6/sf b/n] ltAaltog Kn]6d'lg 3':g hfFbf o; k|sf]ksf]] ;xL d"Nofªsg u/L o; If]qdf e"sDksf] If]qdf adf{b]lv lxGb's'z;Dd sl/a @,%)) ls=ld= c;/af6 x'g;Sg] dfgjLo ;|f]t–;fwg Pj+ lhpwgsf] nfdf] lxdfno >[Înf aGg uPsf] xf] . oL kxf8x¿ IfltnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofpF5 . ef} u le{ s ;dosf] lx;fan] gofF l;lh{ t kxf8x¿ 7"nf tyf demf}nf e"sDkx¿ ef}ule{s b/f/x¿sf] dflgG5g . OlG8og Kn]6 ltAaltog Kn]6d'lg 3':g] lqmofzLntfaf6 pTkGg x'g] x'Fbf lxdfnL If]qdf e"sDk k|lqmofdf ;l~rt e"sDkLo ann] dxfe"sDksf] ¿k lng] pTkGg ug{ ;Ifd o:tf lqmofzLn b/f/x¿sf] klxrfg xF'bf of] If]q e"sDkLo hf]lvd If]qdf kb{5 . ljut ug'{ cTofjZos 5 . o:tf b/f/x¿sf] lqmofzLntfsf] !)) jif{leq o; If]qdf uPsf dxfe"sDkx¿ h:t} ;g k' g /fj[ l Q;d] t ljleGg tl/sf ckgfO{ d" N ofª s g !*(& / !(%) sf] cf;fd e"sDk, !()% sf] sfªu8f ug'{kb{5 . ;fwf/0ftof hlt 7""nf] e"sDksf] dfg eof], jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 10
  11. 11. k|fs[lt k|sf]k ;fndf klZrd g]kfndf uPsf] e'OFrfnf]sf sf/0f !)# e";txsf] s'g} sdhf]/ :yfgaf6 Hjfnfd'vL k'm6g]u5{ . hgfsf] hofg uPsf], #(! hgf 3fOt] ePsf / @%,)*^ o;/L Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6 x'Fbf To;j/k/sf] hldg 3/ eTs]sf lyP . ljqmd ;Djt !(() sf] df3 @ ut] xlNnguO{ e' O F r fnf] cfpF 5 . o:tfvfn] e' O F r fnf] ;f]daf/ g]kfnsf] dWoefu tyf laxf/df Ps eoªs/ Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6g x'g] ;Defljt If]qx¿df hfg]u5{ . ljWj+;fTds e'OFrfnf] uPsf] lyof] . h;df nueu *,%!( o;}u/L, k[YjLsf] ;txdf 7"nf–7"nf rnfodfg r§fgsf hgfn] Hofg u'dfpg'sf ;fy} nfvf}F kl/jf/ 3/af/ljxLg ;txx¿ cyjf e"v08 -6]S6f]lgs Kn]6_ x¿ 5g . oL ePsf lyP . To; e'OFrfnf]n] *),*(# 3/ kftfndf ljzfn e"v08x¿ Pscfk;df vlK6Fbf jf 5'l§Fbf k[YjLsf] wl;Psf lyP eg] !@^,#%% 3/ a:g gldNg]u/L Ifltu|:t dflyNnf] ;tx;Dd k'Ug]u/L hf]8bf/ sDkg k}bf x'G5 / x'gk'u]sf lyP . o;}nfO{ e'OFrfnf] elgG5 . kf}/fl0fs syg / j}1flgs ;j{k|yd e'OFrfnf] s] xf] / s;/L hfG5, To;sf] ljifodf JofVof a]Unfa]Un} eP tfklg e'OFrfnf] dflg;n] /f]s]/ s]xL rrf{ ug'{ plrt xf]nf . kf}/fl0fs ls+jblGtcg';f/ g/f]lsg] tyf slxn] hfG5 eg]/ eljiojf0fL ug{ g;lsg] ljzfn s5'jfsf] 9f8dfly plePsf rf/ eLdsfo xfQLn] k|fs[lts k|lqmof xf] eGg] ljifo eg] ;dfg 5 . k[YjLnfO{ af]ls/fv]sf 5g . tL xfQLnfO{ af]ls/fVg] o:tf k|nosf/L k|fs[lts k|lqmofx¿sf sf/0f e";txdf s5' j f jf k[ Y jLnfO{ cfˆgf] 9f8df c8 o fpg] rf/ cg]s kl/jt{g cfpg] u5{ . g]kfnsf] pQ/L e]udf kg]{ xfQLdWo] s;}n] s'g} klg sf/0fn] clnslt klg xnrn lxdfno >[ªvnfx¿ o:t} k|lqmofx¿sf sf/0f ;d'b|L u/] eg] k[YjL xlNnG5, kmn:j¿k e'OFrfnf] hfG5 . ptf, ;txaf6 p7]/ ag]sf x'g eg]/ e"ue{zf:qLx¿ atfpF5g . j}1flgsx¿sf] syg eg] a]Un} 5 . k[YjLsf] leqL ;txdf !(() ;fnsf] dxfe"sDk klg ef/tLo e"v08 -OG8f] ljBdfg clt pRrtfkqmdsf sf/0fn] x/]s j:t'x¿ Uofªufl6s Kn]6_ ltAatL e"vG8 -l6a]l6og Kn]6_ lt/ klUnP/ t/n cj:yfdf plDn/x]sf x'G5g . e"–ue{sf] of] ;+;/0f -;g]{ k|lqmof_ sf sf/0fn] pTkGg ePsf] lyof] . cj:yfaf6 ToxfF pTkGg pRrrfk clws ePkl5 ;f] dxfe"sDksf sf/0fn] k"jL{ g]kfnsf lxd>[ªvnfx¿ plt nfdf] k'g/fj[lQ ;do x'G5 . pbfx/0f :j¿k sl/a P]ltxfl;s tyf k"j{–P]ltxfl;s e"sDkx¿sf] cWoog * /]S6/:s]nsf] e"sDksf] k'g/fj[lQ ;do sl/a #)) ltgn] 5f8]/ uPsf ef}ule{s c;/x¿sf] vf]h tyf b]lv %)) jif{;Dd x'G5 . ctM nfdf] k'g/fj[lt ePsf cGj] i f0faf6 ug{ ;lsG5 . vf] h sf] l;nl;nfdf e"sDkx¿sf] d"NofÍg ug{ nfdf] cjlwsf] e"sDkLo cGj] i f0ffTds pTvgg klg ug' { k g] { x' G 5 . o;/L cfFs8fsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . cfjZos k/]df pTvgg u/L k[YjLsf] ;txsf] :j¿k o:tf e"sDkx¿ dfgj;Eotfsf] ljsf; eO;s]kl5 o; tyf ef}ule{s ;"rsx¿sf] cGj]if0f u/L P]ltxfl;s tyf If]qdf sltk6s uP eGg] cWoog–cg';Gwfg ug{ k"j{–P]ltxfl;s e"sDksf] cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug]{ e"sDkLo cfFs8fsf] ljleGg ;|f]tdf cfwfl/t x'g'kb{5 . ljwfnfO{ Paleoseismology elgG5 . To;sf nflu ljleGg kf}/fl0fs u|Gy, lznfkq / tfd|kq e"sDk hfFbfsf] ;dodf 5f8]/ uPsf c;/x¿df hldg cflbsf] cWoog u/L P]ltxfl;s e"sDksf] vf]hL ug'{kg]{ wl;g] (Liquefaction), klx/f] hfg] (Landslide), hldgsf] x'G5 . lnlvt Oltxf;sf] cefjn] ubf{ P]ltxfl;s ;tx lau|g] (Surface Deformation), e"sDk ;Fu;Fu} b:tfj] h af6 w] / } k' / fgf e" s Dksf] d" N ofª s g ug{ hldg ;g]{ (Co-seismic Slip) cflb kb{5g . logsf] ;lsFb}g . pbfx/0f:j?k, g]kfn lxdfnodf ;aeGbf cWoogaf6 ljutdf pTkGg ePsf e"sDkx¿sf] ljleGg k'/fgf] pNn]v ePsf] e"sDk ;g !@%% df /fhf ceo ;"rs Pj+ tYofªssf af/] hfgsf/L kfpg ;lsG5 . dNnsf] kfnfsf] b]lvG5 . o;df plNnlvt j0f{gx¿ g]kfndf e"sDk;DaGwL cWoog–cg';Gwfg vfgL tyf klg j}1flgs lgis;{ lgsfNg kof{Kt / ljZj;gLo klg e"ue{ ljefusf] /fli6«o e"sDkdfkg s]Gb|, n}grf}/n] b]lvFb}gg . e"sDk gfKg] oGqaf6 ;+slnt cfFs8faf6 k|mfG;sf] DASE ;Fusf] ;+o'Qm ;+nUgtfdf ub}{ cfPsf] klg ;fwf/0ftof ;g !(^) sf] bzskl5sf 5 . o; s]Gb|n] g]kfn clw/fHosf] k"j{b]lv klZrd;Dd e"sDkx¿sf] dfq dfg Pjd s]Gb|laGb' ;"Idtfk"j{s dWokxf8 / r'/]kxf8sf] If]qdf :yfkgf ul/Psf @! lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Dej 5 . b/f/x¿ lqmofzLn eO{ e"sDk j6f ;fOl:ds :6];gx¿ ;+rfng u/L e"sDkx¿sf] hfFbf s'g} g s'g} ef}ule{s c;/ 5f8]/ hfg] x'Fbf lg/Gt/ cWoog ul//x]sf] 5 . ljut !) jif{otf jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 11
  12. 12. k|fs[lt k|sf]k ef/tLo d}bfgL efux¿eGbf nueu % ld6/ dfly p7]sf kl/jt{g x'Fb} uO/x]sf] 5 . o; If]qdf olb b'O{ ;o lyP . ljqmd ;Djt !#!! b]lv !(() ;Ddsf] ^&( jif{df jif{;Dd 7"nf] e'OFrfnf] guPsf] v08df ;+;/0f jf g]kfnn] !(() ;fnsf] dxfe"sDk hlQs} zlQmzfnL !) ;ª3if{0fsf sf/0f oL e"v08x¿ @)) x @ = $))) j6f e'OFrfnf] a]xf]/]sf] Oltxf; 5 . ul0ftLo cf};tsf] ;]lG6ld6/ cyjf $ ld6/hlt wl;g] x'G5 . o:t}u/L, kfFr l;4fGtcg' ; f/ ;/b/ ^&=( jif{ d f Psk6s o:tf] ;o jif{;Dd klg s'g} 7"nf] e'OFrfnf] guPsf] v08df eg] ljgf;sf/L dxfe"sDk uPsf] b]lvG5 . jf:tjdf o;/L !) ld6/hlt wl;g] x'G5, h;sf] kl/0ffd cf7 /]S6/:s]n lglZrt ;dosf] cGt/fndf e'OFrfnf] uOlbg] eP ;fob a/fa/sf] e'OFrfnf]df kl/0ft x'g]5 . cyf{t o; If]qdf eljiojf0fL ug{ ;lsGYof] xf]nf . t/, l:ylt o:tf] 5}g . s'g} b'O{ dxfe"sDkaLrsf] ;dofGt/ hlt a9of], plt t}klg Oltxf;sf] n]vfhf]vf / xfn;fn} ePsf ljleGg cfufdL e'OFrfnf]sf] c;/ cem ljgf;sf/L x'g] x'G5 . cWoogx¿n] eg] &) b] l v !)) jif{ ; Dddf Pp6f o;sf] dtna e'Orfnf] hlt l9nf] uof], To;sf] kl/0ffd F dxfe"sDk cfpg] alnof] ;Defjgf b]vfPsf] 5 . !(() jf dfk plt g} a9g uO{ To;af6 x'g] ljgf;sf] tLj|tf ;fnsf] e'OFrfnf] uPsf] cfh &) jif{ k"/f ePsf] 5 . emg–emg a9b} hfG5 . kfNkf, a'6jn, e}/xjfh:tf g]kfnsf] klZrdf~rn tyf dWoklZrdfQrn If]qdf eg] 7fpFx¿df clxn];Dd e'Orfnf] guPsfn] eljiodf klg F s'g} 7"nf] dxfe"sDksf] lnlvt cyjf k|fdfl0fs Oltxf; hfFbg eg]/ 9'Ss x'g' s'g} klg xfntdf a'l4dfgL 7xl/Fbg . } } k|fKt x'g g;s]sf] sf/0faf6 of] If]q cem} k|nosf/L lsgeg] g]kfnsf] s'g} klg e"–efu e'Orfnf]sf] vt/faf6 F dxfe"sDksf] rk]6fdf kg]{ ;Defjgf alnof] x'Fb} uO/x]sf] d'Qm 5}g / g]kfnel/ g} ;fgf, demf}nf tyf 7"nf–7"nf 5 . o;sf] sf/0f s] eg] ef/tLo e"v08 ltAatL e'Orfnf] uO{ g} /xg]5g . e'Orfnf] g t /f]Sg ;lsG5, g F F e"v08lt/ k|ltjif{ @ ;]lG6ld6/sf b/n] ;+;/0f eO/x]sf]n] s'g–s'g ldltdf jf ;dodf sqf e'Orfnf] cfpF5g eg]/ F g] k fnsf] sf7df8f} F / ef/tsf] b] x /fb' g aLrsf] b" / L ls6fgL;fy eljiojf0fL ug{ g} ;lsg] l:ylt 5 . ;ª s lnt ;fOl:ds cfF s 8f tyf cGo cWoog– txn] 7f8f] sf6]/ dfly hfg] k|lqmof, tyf e"–;txsf] cg';Gwfgx¿af6 lxdfnosf] ;fOl:ds rqmsf] df]8]n aflx/L :j?k / ljleGg txx¿ aLrsf] cfGtl/s ljsf; ul/Psf] 5 . h;cg';f/ o; If]qdf uPsf ;+/rgfsf] cfwf/df ul/G5 . dflysf] tYox¿af6 tL dxfe"sDkx¿ r'l/ofsf] blIf0fL k]mbdf cjl:yt b/f/ e"sDkx¿sf] ;fk]lIfs pd]/ yfxf eP klg ltgsf] (Himalayan Frontal Thrust, HFT) df xnrn jf:tljs pd]/ cyf{t e"sDk uPsf] slt jif{ klxn] xf] pTkGg eO{ cyjf cem blIf0fL efudf gofF b/f/sf] eGg] k|:6 x'Fb}g . tL e"sDkx¿sf] jf:tljs pd]/ yfxf lgdf{0f eO{ ;txdf lg:s]sf] kfOG5 . To;}n] /fli6«o kfpg e"sDkn] c;/ kf/]sf / e"sDkkl5 y'kfl/Psf e"sDkdfkg s]Gb|n] k|mfG; / cd]l/sfsf j}1flgsx¿;Fu efudf /x]sf k|fËl/s /]l8of]wdL{ tŒj Carbon-14 sf] ldnL r' l /of kxf8sf] blIf0fL k] m bsf] cf;kf;df cWoogaf6 yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 . h;sf nflu lxdgbL, Paleoseismological cWoog–cg';Gwfg ug{;d]t ;'? vf]nf xfjf cyjf cGo s'g} ;|f]tn] To; ;dodf NofO{ ul/;s]sf] 5 . y'kf/]sf] sf7sf] 6'qmf k|of]u ul/G5 . k" j { – P] l txfl;s e" s Dkx¿sf] cWoog ubf{ To:tf pTvgg sfo{ ug{'k"j{ pTvgg ug]{ pko'Qm 7fpFsf] e"sDkx¿n] 5f8]/ uPsf c;/x¿ xfn vf]nfn] y'kf/]sf] 5gf]6 ug{sf nflu ;Defljt If]qsf] 6f]kf]u|flkms gS;f y]u|f] (Alluvial Deposit) sf] y'k|f] d'gL / kxf8af6 e"– (Topographical Maps), Pl/on kmf]6f]u|fkm (Aerial Ifo eO{ kxf8sf] k]mbsf] ;Dd k/]sf] efudf y'kf/]sf] Photos) / ;]6]nfO6 Od]h (Satellite Images) cflbsf] y'k|f] (Colluvial Deposit) df k'l/g uPsf] x'Fbf To:tf lj:t[t cWoog u/L :ynut lg/LIf0f;d]t ug{'kb{5 . 7fpFdf pTvgg sfo{ u/L tL e"sDkn] 5f8]/ uPsf g]kfn lxdfnosf] ;Gbe{df pTvgg ug]{ 7fpFsf] klxrfg c;/x¿sf] cWoog ul/G5 . o:tf] pTvgg sfo{ ubf{ lgDg rf/ aF'bfaf6 ug{'kg]{ x'G5 . Ps jf PseGbf a9L e"sDksf c;/x¿ k]mnf kfg{ != k|fs[lts Scarp / Tectonic Scarp sf] klxrfg ;lsG5 . Paleoseismological cWoog r§fg tyf @= b/f/sf] Foot-wall / Hanging-wall sf] l:ylt df6f]sf txx¿aLrsf] lj:yfkg, gofF txnfO{ k'/fgf] #= Tectonic Scarp sf] prfO % ld6/eGbf sd jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 12
  13. 13. k|fs[lt k|sf]k ;fwf/0ftof e'OFrfnf] cfkm}Fn] s;}nfO{ dfb}{g t/ o;sf] yfxf kfpg' plQs} ;fGble{s x'G5 . e'OFrfnf] hfFbf sf/0faf6 elTsPsf sdhf]/ 3/, k'n cflb dfgjlgld{t hldgsf] ;tx sDkg x'g] x'Fbf ;aeGbf klxn] 3/sf] hu ;+/rgfx¿sf] eUgfjz]ifn] lsr]/ jf e'OFrfnf]sf] a]nf xlNnG5 . hudfly ag]sf] ufx|f] hlt cUnf] 5, TolQ g} xtfl;P/ ;fF3'/f] :yfgaf6 w]/}hgf Ps}k6s efUg jf sDkgsf] j]u a95 / ;aeGbf cUnf] efudf of] j]u klg lg:sg vf]Hbf lslrP/ dflg;sf] Hofg hfg] ub{5 . ;aeGbf tLj| x'G5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu 7f8f] kf/]/ e'O{+df ljutsf e'OFrfnf]x¿n] eTsfPsf / To:tf k|nosf/L ufl8Psf] l;wf / !) ld6/ cUnf] kfOknfO{ hldg k|sf]kx¿df ar]sf ejgx¿sf] lj:t[t cWoog tyf ;tsdf ! ;]lG6ld6/ bfofFafofF ;g]{u/L xNnfPsf] v08df ljZn]if0f k|fljlwsx¿n] u/]sf 5g . o;sf] lgrf]8sf] To;sf] 6'Kkf]rflxF !) ;l]G6ld6/ bfofFafofF k'UghfG5 . ¿kdf e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds lgdf{0f k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ePsf] ctM 3/ hlt cUnf] eof], sDkgsf] j]u TolQ g} 7"nf] x'g] 5 . pQm k| l jlwsf] k| o f] u u/] / agfOPsf 3/x¿ x'Fbf cUnf 3/x¿sf] t'ngfdf xf]rf 3/x¿ e'OFrfnf]af6 e'OFrfnf]sf] a]nf ;fwf/0f tl/sfn] ag]sf 3/x¿sf] a9L ;' / lIft x' G 5g . g] k fndf ePsf 3/x¿sf] t'ngfdf w]/} ;'/lIft /xG5g / hgwgsf] Iflt klg guGo ljZn] i f0ffTds cWoog ubf{ lgDgcg' ; f/sf] x' g ] x' G 5 . ;fljss} lgdf{ 0 f ;fdu| L x¿ ;' w fl/Psf] sdLsdhf]/Lx¿sf sf/0f e'OFrfnf]sf] df/af6 aRg k|ljlwcg';f/ k|of]u u/]/ o:tf e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds g;Sg] s'/f kQf nfu]sf] 5, h'g xfd|f 3/df ePsf 3/x¿ agfpg ;lsG5 . o:tf sdLsdhf] / LnfO{ x6fP/ gofF 3/nfO{ e" s Dk e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds k|ljlwsf] rrf{ ug'{eGbf klxn] k|lt/f]wfTds agfpg ;lsG5 . e'OFrfnf]n] ejgdf s;/L c;/ ug{ eg]/ hfGg' h?/L • 3/sf] cfsf/k|sf/ tyf rf}8fOsf] t'ngfdf x'G5 . ;fljssf 3/x¿df ePsf sdLsdhf]/L tyf nDafO w]/} g} a9L x'g', sdhf]/ lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] ltgLx¿nfO{ e'OFrfnf]sf] ;fg} wSsfaf6 n8fpgsf] sf/0f k|of]u ul/g' . $= ;fgf vf]N;fx¿af6 df6f], l;N6, afn'jf / u|fe]nx¿ vf]N;fn] aufP/ NofPsf] kbfy{x¿ b/f/sf Foot-wall hDdf x'g] 7fpF df hDdf x'g] xF'bf Hanging-wall df ePsf s8f r§fgdf eGbf e"sDksf c;/x¿ oL kbfy{x¿df :ki6 o:tf] cj:yf ljleGg 6]S6f]lgs jftfj/0f (Tectonic b]Vg ;lsG5, ;fy} o:tf kbfy{x¿df k|r'/ dfqfdf Environment) df km/s–km/s x'g ;Sb5 . k|fËl/s tŒj (Carbon bearing substance) kfpg k|fs[lts Scarp ePsf] 7fpFdf pTvgg sfo{ ug{ sl7g ;lsg] ePsf]n] e"sDkx¿sf] pd]/ kQf nufpg;d]t x'G5 . lsgeg] o:tf Scarp x¿ ;fwf/0ftof vf]nfn] ;lhnf] kb{5 . sf6b} agfPsf] PstkmL{ lsgf/fdf b]lvG5g . h;df @)%* ;fnsf] d+ l ;/ dlxgfdf vfgL tyf e" u e{ vf]nfn] w]/}cufl8 y'kf/]sf] k'/fgf] df6f], l;N6 / afn'jf ljefusf] /fli6«o e"sDkdfkg s]Gb|–n}grf}/, k|mfG;sf] tx lg/Gt/ vf]nfsf] s6fOn] ubf{ aufP/ n}hfg] xF'bf DASE / CNRS / cd]l/sfsf] California State o:tf 7fpFx¿sf b/f/x¿df ;fk]lIfs lj:yfkg b]lvPtf University sf j}1flgsx¿sf] ;+o'Qm 6f]nLn] dxf]Q/L klg pQm lj:yfkgsf] qmlds ;do kQf nufpg ufx|f] lhNnfsf] vo/df/f uflj;cGtu{ t df/f vf] n fdf x'G5 . t/ o:tf k|fs[lts Scarp x¿n] To; 7fpFj/k/ pTvgg sfo{ ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . ;f] sfo{df pQ/– pTvgg sfo{sf nflu pko'Qm 7fpF k]mnf kg{ ;Sg] blIf0f / k"j{–klZrd lbzfdf u/L sl/a %) ld6/ nfdf], alnof] ;DefjgfnfO{ lgb]{lzt ub{5 . To;}n] o:tf 7fpF % ld6/ rf}8f / % ld6/ ulx/fOsf b'O{j6f 6«]Gr vlgPsf j/k/ % ld6/eGbf sd prfO ePsf Tectonic lyP . h;sf] k|f/lDes glthfaf6 To; If]qdf ljutdf Scarps / ;fgf] vf]N;fx¿n] aufP/ NofPsf kbfy{x¿ sDtLdf b'O{j6f e"sDkx¿ uPsf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg ug{ hDdf x'g] 7fpF k]mnf k/]df tL 7fpFx¿ pTvgg sfo{sf] nflu pko'Qm dflgG5g . Tectonic Scarps sf] prfO ;lsG5 . t/ oL e"sDkx¿ slxn] uPsf lyP eGg] tYo % ld6/eGbf a9L ePdf b/f/sf Hanging-wall / Carbon-14 sf] kl/0ffd k| f Kt ePkl5 dfq eGg Foot-wall sf] ;DaGw cWoog ug{ w]/} ulx/f] vfN8f] ;lsg] 5 . ;f] kl/0ffd k| f Kt ug{ ljleGg txaf6 vGg'kg]{ x'G5, h'g w]/} vlr{nf] / c;'/lIft x'g ;Sb5 . Carbon-14 sf gd'gfx¿ ;ªsng u/L k|of]uzfnf jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 13
  14. 14. k|fs[lt k|sf]k • df]6f] tyf w]/} jhg ePsf] leQf / 5fgf] agfpg] agfpg'k5{ . ljleGg ;txdf t];f]{ k|anLs/0f k]6L, s'gf, rng x'g' hf]gL{ tyf ‰ofn, 9f]sfx¿sf] bfofFafofF 7f8f] k|anLs/0f • ufx|f]df k|of]u ul/Psf OF6f tyf 9'ªufx¿aLr clgjfo{¿kdf /fVg'k5{ . 3/sf k|d'v cªux¿ hu, ufx|f], /fd|f] aGwg jf hf]8fOsf] cefj x'g' . rf]6f tyf 5fgfsf] aLrdf /fd|f] aGwg u/]/ agfpg] / • ufx|f], rf]6f, 5fgf cflb Pscfk;sf aLrdf rf]6f, 5fgfdf ;s];Dd xn'sf lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]u /fd|f];Fu aGwg gx'g' / s'gf tyf hf]gL{x¿ /fd|f] x'G5 . sdhf]/ x'g' . o; lsl;dsf] k|ljlwåf/f 3/ agfpFbf % b]lv & k|ltzt • 3/sf] tNnf] tnfdf k;nsf nflu rf} 8 f a9L vr{ x'G5 . eljiodf cfOkg]{ e'OFrfnf]sf df/af6 9f]sfx¿ /flvg' . x'g] hgwgsf] Iflt sd ug{ olt a9L nufgL u/]/ 3/ • ljutdf k|of]u ul/g] u/]sf sf7sf] t];f]{ aGwg agfpg' a'l4dfgL x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf s;}sf] b'O{ dt tyf 7f8g] vfFaf / blng tyf lgbfndf /flvg] gxf]nf . e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds k|ljlwsf] ;fy{stf tyf u/]sf r's'nsf] rng x/fpFb} hfg' . o;sf] ;+lIfKt k|fylds 1fg k|To]s g]kfnLnfO{ ;'ne x'g clt cfjZos 5 . • ‰ofn, 9f]sf, leQ] b/fhh:tf efux¿ ufx|f]df htftt} /flvg' . alg;s]sf 3/sf] klg e"sDkLo hf]lvd n]vfhf]vf u/L sdhf]/ ;fljt ePsf 3/x¿nfO{ ;Defljt e'OFrfnf]af6 Pn 6L jf o" cfsf/ jf afFs] k/]sf 3/x¿sf] t'ngfdf arfpgsf nflu ljz]if dd{t;'wf/ ug]{ k|ljlwsf] ljsf; juf{sf/ jf cfoftsf/ 3/x¿ ;'/lIft x'G5g . rf}8fOsf] eO;s]sf] 5 . o:tf] k|ljlwnfO{ e"sDkLo ;'b[9Ls/0f tLgu'0ff jf ;f]eGbf nfdf] / tLg tnfeGbf cUnf] 3/ elgG5 . klxn] g} alg;s]sf t/ e"sDkLo lx;fjn] gagfpg' /fd|f] x'G5 . olb ;f]eGbf cUnf] 3/ agfpg sdhf]/ b]lvPsf 3/x¿nfO{ geTsfO{sg} yk lgdf{0f k/]df of]Uo k|fljlwssf] k/fdz{ lnP/ dfq lgdf{0f sfo{ ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]uaf6 e"sDkLo ;'b[9Ls/0f (Sesmic Ret- ug' { k 5{ . l:y/ tyf vF l bnf] ;txdf plrt gfk / rofitting) ug{ ;lsG5 . alg;s]sf] 3/nfO{ k"/} eTsfP/ cfsf/sf] kSsL hu /fv]/ e/sf] jhg ;s];Dd sd gofF 3/ agfpg cfly{s tyf cGo sf/0fn] ;a}sf nflu ug]{ lgdf{0f ;fdu|L tyf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u u/L 3/ agfpg' ;Dej gx'g ;S5 . t/, o:tf 3/df e"sDkLo ;'/Iffsf kb{5 . plrt gfk, cfsf/ tyf :yfgdf dfq ‰ofn– nflu ‰ofn, 9f] s fx¿sf] gfk / :yfgdf x] / km] / 9f]sf /fVg'k5{ . leQfdf k|of]u x'g] lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx¿ cTofjZos yk aGwg tyf k|anLs/0fx¿ /fv]/ ;'/lIft Pjd s' g f tyf hf] g L{ x ¿aLr /fd| f ] aGwg x' g ] u /L agfpg ;lsG5 . ❊ /fli6« e"sDk ;'/Iff lbj; Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf k|of;df ;fy{s agf]; . cWoogsf nflu ljb]z k7fOPsf] 5 . / California State University cd]l/sfsf] ;+o'Qm g]kfndf k"j{–P]ltxfl;s e"sDkx¿sf] cWoog sfo{sf] k|of;df lxdfnosf] kl5Nnf] gofF b/f/ (HFT) sf l;nl;nfdf k|f= 8f= ljzfngfy pk|]tL / tfsf;L ljleGg v08df pTvgg sfo{ u/L P]ltxfl;s / k"j{– gfsftfn] k"jL{ g]kfnsf] ltdfO{ vf]nf / 6f]snf lrof P]ltxfl;s e"sDkx¿sf] cWoog ug]{ sfo{qmd /x]sf] aufg If]qdf pTvgg sfo{ u/L sl/a !,@)) b]lv 5 . k| f /lDes cg' d fgcg' ; f/ k" j { b ] l v klZrdL !,))) jif{ cl3 To; If]qdf e"sDk uPsf] x'g ;Sg] l;dfgf;Dd h;sf] kl/j]zdf g]kfn clw/fHodf sl/a lgisif{ lgsfn]sf 5g . o:t}, cWoog ef/tsf] b]x/fb'g @) 7fpFdf 6]«Gr pTvgg u/L P]ltxfl;s tyf k"j{– If]qdf ;]lGyn s'df/ / j]:g':sLsf] l6dn] pTvgg sfo{ P]ltxfl;s dxfe"sDkx¿sf] ef}ule{s c;/ lgwf{/0f ug{ u/L cfheGbf sl/a ^%) jif{otf b'O{j6f e"sDk ;s] ;do;fk]If e"sDk d"NofÍg ug{df 7"nf] ;3fp uPsf] lgisif{ pTvgg sfo{af6 cfPsf] cfFs8faf6 k'Ug ;Sg] b]lvG5 . lbPsf 5g . -;fef/ M ;dfrf/ klqsf, cÍ–!(, g]kfn ef}ule{s cfpFbf jif{df vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefu, DASE France, ;dfh, j}zfv @)%(_ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 14
  15. 15. k|fs[lt k|sf]k k|sf]k Go"g ug{ cfd;~rf/ dxŒjk"0f{ g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt, ljljwfo'Qm df};d / sf]dn hg;fwf/0f;Dd kx' F r /xg] cfd;~rf/sf dfWodsf] e" – ;txsf sf/0f af9Lklx/f] , v8] / L, e' O F r fnf] h :tf k|efjsf/L pkof]u ug{ cfd;~rf/sdL{nfO{ k|sf]k;DaGwL k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf b[li6n] hf]lvdk"0f{ 5 . To;df klg tflnd, 1fg, ;"rgf, ;dGjo, n]vgj[lQ cflbsf nflu ;dfh clzIff, c1fgtf / ul/aLn] cfqmfGt ePsfn] gLltut Joj:yf x'gkg]df ;xefuLx¿n] hf]8 lbPsf lyP . ' { k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly a9]sf] dfgjLo cltqmd0f / ljgf;n] ] sfo{zfnfdf ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnosf ;x;lrj ubf{ Pstkm{ k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Ifltdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] ;'zLn l3ld/]n] k|sf]k Joj:yfkg sfo{df ;dod} Wofg 5 eg] csf]tkm{ /f]usf] dxfdf/L, cfunfuL, ef]sd/Lh:tf { k'¥ofpg;s] o;af6 x'g] Iflt 36fpg ;lsg] s'/fdf hf]8 k|sf]ksf] Iflt klg al9/x]sf] 5 . o:tf k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt lbFb} o;;DaGwL hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug{ cfd;~rf/sf] pkof]u Go"g ug{ r]tgf clej[l4n] cxd e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ x'bf F ug'{kg]{df hf]8 lbg'eof] . To;}u/L g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf cfd;~rf/sf dfWodn] o;df dxŒjk" 0 f{ sfo{ ug{ dxfk|aGws b'uf{gfy zdf{n] g]kfndf ljB'tLo tyf 5fkfsf ;Sb5g . ;~rf/dfWodsf] /fd|f] ljsf; eO;s]sf] x'bf oL dfWodn] F /fli6«o e"sDk ;'/Iff lbj;–@)^) sf] cj;/ kf/]/ /fli6«o k| s f] k Joj:yfkg, k" j { t of/L / p4f/sf ;DaGwdf ;dfrf/ ;ldlt, PS;gP8 g]kfn, e"sDk k|ljlw /fli6«o gful/snfO{ ;r]t u/fpg;Sg] wf/0f JoQm ug'eof] . { ;dfh tyf Pl;og l8hf:6/ lk|k8g]; ;]G6/n] ;+oQm¿kdf' sfo{qmddf /fli6«o ;dfrf/ ;ldltsf cWoIf >L/fdl;+x cfof]hgf u/]sf] æk|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf cfd;~rf/dfWodsf] a:g]tn] k|sf]knfO{ klg ljsf; kqsfl/tfsf] cleGg cªusf] e"ldsfÆ ljifos sfo{zfnfsf jQmf tyf sfo{kq k|:tf]tfn] ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg'kg]tkm{ hf]8 lbFb} k|sf]k b}jLzlQmaf6 { cfd;~rf/dfWodn] hgtfnfO{ k|sf]k;DaGwL k'g:yf{kgf, geO{ k|fs[lts jf dfgjLo lqmofsnfksf sf/0f cfpg] k"j{tof/L / p4f/sf If]qdf ;r]t u/fpg;Sg] atfP . x'Fbf o;af6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug{ hgtfdf r]tgf Nofpg sfo{zfnfdf k|sf]kaf6 ljZj, Pl;of / g]kfndf ;g !(*@ ;~rf/dfWod k|efjsf/L x'g] atfpg'eof] . b]lv @))@ sf] cjlwdf ePsf] hgwgsf] Ifltsf] ljj/0f e"sDkljb OlGhlgo/ dx]z gsdL{n] g]kfn e"sDkLo b[li6n] k| : t' t ub} { g] k fndf hgwgsf] Iflt cTolws x' g ' d f r]tgfsf] cefj g} k|dv sf/s /x]sf]tkm{ ;ªst ul/Psf] ' ] hf]lvdk"0f{ /x]sf] hgfpFb} g]kfndf !(() ;fnsf] h:t} !! lyof] . af9Lklx/f]sf] k|sf]k x/]s jif{ cfpg] g]kfndf j6f e'Orfnf] cfO;s]sf] / km]l/ klg To:t} e'Orfnf] cfP F F To;af6 jif]{gL sl/a #)) hgfsf] d[To' x'g] / b;f}F xhf/ sf7df8f}Fdf $) xhf/ dflg; dg{;Sg] / 7"nf] cfly{s dflg; k|efljt x'g]u/]sf 5g . gf]S;fgL x'g] ;Defjgf /x]sf]n] a]ndf ;ts{tf ckgfpg'kg]{ } s'/fdf hf]8 lbg'eof] . k|sf]kaf/] r]tgf clej[l4n] gf]S;fgL ;g !(*@ b]lv @))@ ;Dddf k|sf]kaf6 ePsf] Iflt Go"g ug{ k|efjsf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ x'bf kqsf/x¿nfO{ F If]q cjlw-;g_ d[To' k|efljt o;df Wofg lbg gsdL{n] cfu|x;d]t ug'{eof] . g]kfn !(*@–(@ @,#%% (^*,@## 5fkf tyf ljB'tLo cfd;~rf/dfWodsf k|ltlglw, k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf If]qdf sfo{/t ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L If]qsf !((#–)@ #,*($ !,!$&,&*% sl/a ^) hgfsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] ;f] sfo{zfnfdf e"sDk k|ljlw /fli6«o ;dfhsf cWoIf lzjaxfb'/ k|wfgfªu / Pl;of !(*@–(@ #@^,)&$ !,#((,^*#,%*( dxf;lrj cfdf]bdl0f bLlIftn] cfd;~rf/dfWodn] k|sf]ksf] !((#–)@ $^@,&*% @,@&$,@@),@@( Iflt Go"g ug{ dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{;Sg]tkm{ Oªlut ub} { sfo{zfnfaf6 k|fKt ;'emfjsf] sfof{Gjog x'g;s] ljZj !(*@–(@ !,))^,*$@ !,^@#,)#%,!@@ hgwgsf] Iflt Go"g ug{ ;lsg] s'/f pNn]v ug'eof] . { !((#–)@ ^@#,(@& @,$(^,*!),&*@ To;}u/L Pl;og l8hf:6/ lk|k8g]; ;]G6/sf a'l4 j]/fl;ªu] tyf ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmdsf dfgaxfb'/ yfkf ' k|:t't tYofªsnfO{ x]bf{ Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf k|efjsf/L / PS;g P8 g]kfnsf Zofd;'Gb/ 1jfnLn] lbuf] ljsf; / pkfox¿ cjnDjg gu/]s} sf/0f Pl;ofdf k|sf]kaf6 x'g] ul/aL lgjf/0fsf nflu klg k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ckl/xfo{ ePsf] Iflt t'ngfTds ¿kdf cTolws /x]sf] b]lvG5 . k|sf]k tyf cfxtn] /fxt kfpg' gful/s clwsf/ g} ePsf] x'bf F cj:oDefjL eP klg k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ kLl8tnfO{ tTsfn /fxt pknAw u/fpg'kg]{ ljifodf hf]8 hgr]tgfn] cxd e"ldsf v]Nb5 . cftM o; sfo{df lbFb} cfd;~rf/;Fu ;a}n] xft]dfnf] ug'kg]{ atfpg'eof] . { jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 15
  16. 16. k|fs[lt k|sf]k k[ k[ Y jLsf] ef} u f] l ns agfj6, xfjf, kfgLsf] ;+/rgf, h}ljs / ch}ljs j:t'aLrsf] lgoldt cflb ljifodf klg k"j{cg'dfg ug{ ;lsg] cfj:yfsf] ljsf; eO;s]sf] 5 . e"ue{sf] cj:yfsf] cWoogåf/f tyf cfsl:ds lqmof–k| l tlqmofsf sf/0f ljleGg e' O F r fnf] s f] nflu vf; If] q nfO{ s' g xb;Ddsf] lsl;dsf 36gf tyf b'3{6gf eO/xG5g . log} lqmof– ;Dj]bgzLn If]q xf] eg]/ lgwf{/0f ug{ ;lsg] eP klg k|ltlqmofsf sf/0fn] x'/Latf; rNg', cl;gfkfgL kg'{, e'OFrfnf] cfpg] ljifodf k"j{cg'dfg ug{ cfh;Dd ePsf] clt jiff{ x'g', v8]/L kg'{, af9L cfpg', r6oª kg'{, j} 1 flgs pGgltn] ;kmntf kfPsf] 5} g . e' O F r fnf] l;tnx/ rNg', klx/f] hfg' / e'OFrfnf] cfpg'h:tf cfO;s]kl5 To;sf] pTklQ s]Gb| / Ifdtfsf] dfkg x'g] k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf 36gf lgoldt eO/xG5g . o:tf w/} k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ePsf] eP klg of] sqf], s'g 7fpFdf / k|fs[lts k|sf]k k|s[ltsf] ;+/rgfdf x'g] xnrn tyf s'g ;dodf cfpF5 eg]/ cg'dfg ug{ ;lsFb}g . oltdfq k|s[ltdf cfkm}F pTkGg c;Gt'ngsf sf/0f x'g] ub{5g xf]Og o; k|sf]kn] af9L–klx/f]n]h:tf] s'g} lgwf{l/t e'Orfnf] M lgoGq0f ug{ ;ls“bg “ } aRg] pkfo u/f}“ –kof{j/0f 8]:s eg] sltko k|fs[lts k|sf]k dfgjLo sf/0fn] klg x'g] If]qnfO{ dfq c;/ kfb}{g . ;dy/ t/fO{, dWo tyf pRr ub{5g . dflg;n] k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 g} pTkGg x'g] kxf8 / lxdfn, pkTosfh:tf ljleGg ef}uf]ls If]qdf k|sf]ksf] qf;bL sfnfGt/ b]lv vKg' kl//x]s} 5 . /x]sf k|fs[lts ;fwg / dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgfnfO{ o;n] To;df klg hg;ªVof j[l4, clgof]lht ljsf;–lgdf{0f, g/fd|/L IftljIft kfg{ ;Sb5 . To;}sf/0f e'OFrfnf]nfO{ bL3{sfnLg ;f]rsf] cefjdf ul/Psf lg0f{o / cGo sfo{, ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf k|nosf/L / ljgf;sf/L k|fs[lts lg/Gt/ a9b} uPsf ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfo{n] pTkGg k|sf]ksf ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . kl/l:ylt tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]tdfly al9/x]sf] cltqmd0fn] eO/x] s f] jftfj/0fLo ljgf;sf sf/0faf6 sltko e'O“rfnf] s] xf] < k|fs[lts k|sf]k ckm}+n] lgDTofO{ dflg;n] tLgsf] ;fdgf k| f s[ l ts k| s f] k dWo] e' O F r fnf] Psbd} zlQmzfnL, ul//xg'k/]sf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] cWoogcg';f/ dfgjLo ljgf;sf/L / qf;bLk"0f{ k|fs[lts k|sf]k xf] . k[YjLsf] sf/0faf6 geP/ k|fs[lts sf/0faf6} cfpg] e'OFrfnf] ef}ule{s cyjf leqL xnrnsf sf/0f k[YjLsf] ;tx cyjf e"–sDk k[YjLsf] w/ftndf ck"/0fLo Iflt k'¥ofpg] xlNng] k|lqmofnfO{ e'OFrfnf] elgG5 . g]kfnL efiffsf eoªs/ ljgf;sf/L k|fs[lts k|no dflgPsf] 5 . x'g t b'O{ zAb– e'O{+ = e"ld cyjf hldg / rfn = rNg', ljZjdf k| f s[ l ts k| s f] k cfpg] k" j { ; " r gf lbg w/} xlNng'_ sf] ld>0faf6 ag]sf] e'OFrfnf]n] e"ld sfFKg] j}1flgs k|ljlwx¿ ljsf; eO;s]sf 5g tyflk, ;a} k| l qmofnfO{ hgfpF 5 . e' O F r fnf] s f] kl/efiff lbF b } k| s f/sf k| f s[ l ts RofDa/sf] @)( cf} F k|sf]ksf] k"jf{g'dfg ug]{ e'O“rfnf] s] xf] < ;] G r' / L zAbsf] i fn] sfo{ r'gf}tLk"0f{ g} /x]sf] • k[YjLsf] cfGtl/s tyf ef}ule{s cj:yfdf …hldg xNng' g} e'Orfnf] F 5 . df};dsf ;DaGwdf cfpg] kl/jt{gaf6 l;h{gf x'g] c;Gt'ngsf xf]Ú eg]sf] 5 eg] g]kfn jfo'sf] cj:yf, rfk, ult, sf/0f pTkGg x' g ] ef} u le{ s sDkgn] /fhsLo tfkqmddf eO/x] s f] e";txnfO{ lbg] hf]8bf/ wSsfaf6 e"ld xlNng] k|1fklti7fgåf/f lgoldt kl/jt{ g h:tf lqmofnfO{ e'O“rfnf] elgG5 . k| s flzt a[ x t g] k fnL ljifosf] cWoog u/] / • k[YjLsf] leqL ;txdf /x]sf] tftf] n]bf] kbfy{ zAbsf] z df …e' O F r fnf] , k"jf{g'dfg nufpg ;lsG5 -DofUdf_ aflx/ lg:sg vf]Hbf jf lg:s“bf e" s Dk jf e} F r fnf] eg] cltj[li6, cgfj[li6 k[YjLsf] ;txdf x'g] xnrn tyf sDkg . Hjfnfd' v L lj:kmf] 6 g jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 16
  17. 17. k|fs[lt k|sf]k cflbsf sf/0fn] k[ Y jLsf] ub{5 . e'OFrfnf]n] k|fs[lts ultdf c;Gt'ng cfO{ ;tx e'Orfnf] s;/L hfG5 < +{ tyf dflg;n] agfPsf xlNng] sfdÚ eg] / • k[YjLsf] leqL efudf kUn]sf] tftf] n]bf] jf ef}lts ;+/rgf, kf}/fl0fs kl/eflift ul/Psf] 5 . t/n kbfy{ Hjfnfd' v Lsf ¿kdf aflx¿ tyf P]ltxfl;s ;Dkbf cflb o;k| s f/ k[ Y jLsf] leqL ;d] t elTsP/, k' l /P/, ef}ule{s cj:yfdf cfpg] lg:s“bf jf cGo sf/0fn] leqL ;txdf efl;P/ ;dfKt x' G 5g . kl/jt{ g tyf xnrnaf6 xnrn x'“bf . dflg;, 3/kfn'jf hgfj/, l;h{ g f x' g ] c;Gt' n gsf • ;d'b|df Hjf/ef6 p7]/ cf;kf;sf] hldgdf jGohGt' cflb dfl/g] / sf/0f pTkGg x'g] ef}ule{s 7f]lSsO{ hldgdf xnrn cfp“bf . k|fs[lts ;+/rgfdf g} klg sDkgn] e" ; txnfO{ lbg] kl/jt{ g cfpg] Jofks hf]8bf/ wSsfaf6 hldg tyf e"ld xlNng] lqmofnfO{ ;Defjgf /xG5 . e'Orfnf] elgG5 . o;/L e"ld xlNnFbf hldg lr/f kg],{ F kmf6g,] dflg;åf/f lgld{t ef}lts ;+/rgf tx;gx; x'g,] e'O“rfnf] s;/L gflkG5 < hldg wl:;g], kxf8L If]qdf klx/f] hfg] / t/fO{ If]qdf k[YjLsf] kUn]sf] leqL efu dflylt/ lg:sFbf kg]{ rfkn] tyf ;dy/ e"ld efl:;g uO{ tnfp aGg]h:tf c:jfefljs rs]{sf] 7fpFdf 7"nf] zlQm pTkGg x'G5, h;nfO{ zlQms]Gb| -Hypocenter_ elgG5 . zlQms]Gb|sf] 7Ls dfly kg]{ cj:yf l;h{g x'G5g . e";txdf klxnf] wSsf kbf{ x'g] xnrnsf] s]Gb|nfO{ e'O“rfnf] lsg cfp“5 < s] G b| l aGb' (Epicenter) elgG5 . e' O F r fnf] hfF b f k[YjLsf] ;tx w]/} tx tyf kftfx¿ ldn]/ ag]sf] 5 . s]Gb|laGb'df slt 7"nf] wSsf k¥of] eg]/ gfKgsf nflu k[YjLsf] ;txaf6 hlt tn tyf leqL efult/ uOG5 l;:df]u|fkm (Seismograph) gfds oGq k|of]u x'G5 . TolQ g} tfk a9 b } hfG5 . j} 1 flgsx¿sf cg' ; f/ l;:df]u|fkmn] gfKg] e'OFrfnf]sf] wSsfnfO{ /]S6/:s]n k[YjLsf] sl/a dWo;efult/ x'g] l;;f, kmnfdh:tf j:t' (Richter Scale) elgG5 . klg clws tfksf sf/0f klUnP/ emf] n tyf n]bf]sf]¿kdf kl/0ft ePsf x'G5g . u'?Œjfsif{0fn] ubf{ e'O“rfnf]sf] Ifdtf / Ifltsf] ;Defjgf To;/L klUnPsf] t/n tyf emf]n kbfy{nfO{ k[YjLsf] e'OFrfnf] k[YjLsf] ef}ule{s agf]6, tNnf] txaf6 dflylt/ dflyNnf] txn] bjfj lbg] jf lyRg] sfd ub{5 . To;f] cfpg] nfef tyf klUnPsf] n]bf] kbfy{sf] ult / To;sf] x'Fbf k[YjLsf] dflyNnf] tx emf]n jf n]bf]df 8'Ag] / leqL rfkdf e/ kb{5 . k[YjLsf] leqL ;txdf x'g] tLa| txdf /x]sf] tftf] n]bf] kbfy{n] k[YjLsf] dflyNnf] txlt/ xnrnsf sf/0f e'OFrfnf] cfpg'cufl8 To;sf] k"j{ bafa lbg] qmd ;'? x'G5 . n]bf] / 7f]; j:t'aLr x'g] ;"rgf tyf To;sf] ult jf Ifdtfsf ljifodf s'g} cfGtl/s rfksf sf/0f k[YjLsf] dflyNnf] sdhf]/ hfgsf/L kfpFg ;lsFb}g . lgoldt¿kdf x'g] ef}ule{s efusf kq tyf r§fgL If]qn] Tof] rfknfO{ yfDg ;Sb}gg rfnaf6 ;fdfGotof ! b]lv # /]]S6/:s]nsf] e"sDksf] / lr/fx¿af6 n]bf] aflx/tkm{ lg:sG5 / lr/fg]/ 7"nf] wSsf pTkGg x'G5 . e'OFrfnf]sf o:tf ;fgf wSsfnfO{ zlQm pTkGg x' G 5 . ToxL zlQmsf sf/0f hf] 8 bf/ xfdLn] dx;'; ug{ ;Sb}gf} t/ # /]S6/eGbf dflysf] e"sDkLo nx/x¿ k}bf x'G5g, h'g e' O F r fnf] n fO{ xfdLn] dx;' ; k[YjLsf] aflx/L ;txsf] tn jf e'Orfnf];DaGwL unt wf/0ff ug{;S5f}F . l;:df]u|fkmdf eg] ;– +{ leqsf] s'g} laGb'af6 k|lt;]s]G8 • b]jL b]jtf l/;fPsf] sf/0fn] ;fgf wSsfsf] ;d] t /] s 8{ ;of}F lsnf]ld6/sf] ultdf k[YjLsf] eO/x]sf] x'G5 . xfn;Dd ul/Psf aflx/L ;txtkm{ lg:sG5g . o:tf e'O{+rfnf] cfp“5 . cWoog / e' O F r fnf] a f6 nx/ cyjf t/ªun] ubf{ kxf8x¿ • ljZjdf cTolws kfkhGo sfo{ ljZjJofkL¿kdf ePsf Ifltsf] PSsfl; k'm65g, 9N5g, hldg ul/Pdf e'O{+rfnf] cfp“5 . cfF s ng ubf{ % lr/f k5{, ;fd'lb|s Hjf/ pTkGg /] s 6/:s] n ;Ddsf] e' O F r fnf] n ] x'G5 . o;/L cfpg] e'OFrfnf]sf] • k[YjLnfO{ sf“wdf af]Sg] xfQL, hldgnfO{ ;fdfGo ¿kdf dfq lg/Gt/tfn] k[ Y jLsf] ef} l ts z]ifgfu, xj]ndf5f, a“b]n cflbn] xNnfpg] x'Fbf To;eGbf dflysf ;+/rgfdf kl/jt{g klg eO/xg] sf“w km]bf{ e'O{+rfnf] cfp“5 . e'OFrfnf]n] a9L Iflt k'¥ofpg] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 17
  18. 18. k|fs[lt k|sf]k u/] s f] kfOPsf] 5 . To;eGbf a9L /] S 6/:s] n sf] sf7df8f} pkTosf sl/a % xhf/ jif{klxn] 7"nf] tfnsf] e'OFrfnf]n] eg] hldg lr/f kg]{, efl;g], klx/f] hfg], ¿kdf /x]sf]n] oxfFsf] leqL df6f] g/d / anf}6] 5 . kfgLsf] d"n k'6g] tyf ;'Sg], dfgjåf/f ljsf; ul/Psf o:tf] g/d df6f]dfly agfOPsf ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ 3/, ;+/rgfx¿ eTsfpFbf ToxLF k'l/P/, lylrP/, lslrP/ sfof{no ejg, Jofkfl/s ejg, d7dlGb/, k'n, ;8s dflg; cGo hLjsf] Iflt x'G5 . e'OFrfnf]af6 x'g] Iflt cflbn] e'OFrfnf]sf] ;fdfGo wSsf klg yfDg g;Sg] x'Fbf e'OFrfnf] hfg] k|s[lt, :yfg, cj:yf cflbdf klg e/ g] k fnnfO{ ljz] i fu/L sf7df8f} F pkTosfnfO{ clt kb{5 . e'OFrfnf]sf t/ªux¿ ;txL ¿kdf (horigental) ;+j]bgzLn cyjf ;ªs6fled'v If]q dflgPsf] 5 . uPsf 5g eg] To;n] 7"nf] Iflt gk'¥ofpg ;S5 / ToxL t/ªudf aqmfsf/ (verticle) ¿k cfPdf w]/} Iflt g]kfnn] ;g !@%% b]lv clxn];Dd w]/} ljWj+;fTds k'¥ofpg] x'G5 . t;y{ e'OFrfnf] e'OFrfnf]sf] kL8f ef]lu;s]sf] 5 . cfpg'cufl8 o;af6 x'g] Ifltsf] e'Orfnf]n] ug]{ c;/ < !(() ;fn -;g !(#$_ df uPsf] “ s'g} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsFbg . } • hldg lr/f k5{, kxf8 eTsG5 jf e' O F r fnf] s f] kL8faf] w ;dfKt e' O F r fnf] a f6 s' g 7fpF d f, slt eO;s] s f] 5} g . ef/tsf] pQ/ klx/f] hfG5, ;a} If] q sf 3/ ljxf/ / g] k fndf uPsf] ;f] Iflt k' U b5 eGg] s' / f o;sf] elTsG5g . pTklQs]Gb| / km}nfj6 / ef}uf]lns e' O F r fnf] n ] 7' n f] hgwgsf] Iflt agfj6h:tf s'/fdf e/ kb{5 . • ef}lts ;+/rgf elTs“bf dflg;, u/] s f] lyof] . d] h / hg/n e' O F r fnf] s f t/ª u x¿ o;sf] 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ k'l/P/, lylrP/ a| X dzdz] / ha/f åf/f lnlvt s] G b| l aGb' a f6 hldgsf] rf/} l t/ 3fOt] x'G5g jf dfl/G5g . …g] k fnsf] dxfe" s Dk, !(()Ú df km}nG5g . o;nfO{ /fd|/L a'‰g • k'/ftflTjs ;Dkbf gi6 x'G5g . pNn]v ePcg';f/ ;f] e'OFrfnf]af6 xfdLn] kf]v/Lsf] dfemdf 9'ªuf jf • hldg elTsP/, klx/f] uP/ w"jf“ g]kfndf *,%!( / ef/tdf &,!** hgfn] Hofg u' d Psf] tYofª s s' g } j:t' kmNbf pTkGg x' g ] w"nf]n] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf vnn kfOG5 . g]kfndf To; e'OFrfnf]af6 t/ª u nfO{ x] g { ; Sb5f} F . 9' ª u f pTkGg x'G5 / jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0f @,)&,&$) 3/, d7dlGb/ tyf v;]sf] :yfgaf6 t/ªu–nx/ hlt a9 b 5 . kf6Lkf}jf Wj:t ePsf lyP . ;f] 6f9f uof] TolQ g} ;' : t x' F b } e'OFrfnf] *=! /]S6/:s]ndf sl/a hfG5 . o;k|sf/ e'OFrfnf]sf] s]Gb|laGb' cf;kf; jf @÷# ldg]6 uPsf] dflgPsf] 5 . To;}u/L @)$% ;fndf glhssf] If]qdf a9L Iflt k'Ub5 eg] hlt 6f9f uof], g]kfnsf] k"jL{ w/fgdf uPsf] e'OFrfnf] klg ljgf;sf/L To;sf] c;/ klg sd x'Fb} hfG5 . t/, e"v08sf] cj:yfn] /x]sf] lyof] . g]kfndf uPsf e'OFrfnf]sf P]ltxfl;s To:tf] Ifltsf] :t/df kl/jt{g klg NofOlbg;S5 . tYosf] cWoogsf cfwf/df ljz]if1x¿n] k|To]s &) pbfx/0fsf] nflu @)$% ;fndf pbok'/lt/ s]Gb|laGb' b]lv !)) jif{sf] cjlwdf dxfe"sDk hfg] s'/f atfPsf ePsf] e'OFrfnf]af6 ToxfFaf6 k"j{ w/fgdf a9L Iflt 5g . k'¥ofPsf] lyof] eg] pbok'/df s]xL ePsf] lyPg / klZrd e'OFrfnf]sf] Iflt To;sf] cj:yf, :t/ / ;dofjlwn] If]qsf] Iflt klg Go"glyof] . lgSof]{n ug]{x'Fbf clxn] sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf !(() g]kfndf e'O“rfnf]sf] hf]lvd slt < ;fnsf] h:t} e'OFrfnf] cfPdf s] slt Iflt x'g;S5 g]kfn blIf0fsf] OlG8og / pQ/sf] lta]ltog 6]S6f]lgs eg] / 7f] s ' j f ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf 5} g . t/ klg Kn]6x¿ -e"v08sf tx jf kfk|fx¿_ sf] ;ªuddf /x]sf] sf7df8f}Fsf] ef}ule{s agfj6, ;x/Ls/0fsf] cj:yf / 5 . oL b'O{ Kn]6x¿ x/]s jif{ s]xL ;]lG6ld6/sf b/n] w]/}h;f] k'/fgf / clgof]lht ¿kdf lgld{t ;+/rgf ePsf Ps csf{lt/ ;l//x]sf 5g . oL Kn]6sf] o;/L ;g]{ ultdf sf/0f lgs} 7"nf] Iflt x'g;Sg] cg'dfg ;lhn};Fu ug{ obfsbf leGgtf cfpg] ub{5 / e"v08df cgfof; rfk ;lsG5 . ljleGg If]qaf6 ePsf cWoogcg';f/ !(() pTkGg eO{ e'Orfnf] cfpg] ;Defjgf a9b5 . sydsbflrt ;fnsf] h:t} e'OFrfnf] cfPdf sf7df8f}Fsf nueu ^) F tL b'O{ Kn]6x¿ Ps cfk;df 7Ss/ vfP eg] o; If]qdf k|ltzt 3/ tyf ejg / ef}lts ;+/rgf elTsg], ljB't k|nosf/L e'Orfnf] hfg]5 . log} sf/0f g]kfnnfO{ e"sDk cfk"lt{ aGb x'g,] ;8sdf lr/fx¿ kg]{ / 7"nf] dfgjLo Iflt F ;+jbgzLn If]q dflgG5 . ] x'g] k"jf{g'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . To;f] ePdf sf7df8f}Fsf] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 18
  19. 19. k|fs[lt k|sf]k hghLjg xKtf},F dlxgf}F / jiff};Dd klg c:tJo:t x'g] +{ • ufpF tyf 6f]ndf ePsf ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] klxrfg ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 . ug]{ . l5d]sdf ePsf 8fS6/, OlGhlgo/x¿;Fu klg e'O“rfnf]af6 x'g] Iflt lgoGq0f tyf Go"gLs/0f 5nkmn u/L cfktsfnLg a;f]af;sf] ;Defljt If]qsf] klxrfg ug]{ / ;ªs6df e' O F r fnf] lgoGq0f ug{ g;lsg] ;a}eGbf ljgf;sf/L k|fs[lts k|sf]k e'Orfnf]af6 w]/} Iflt x'g] k/]sfsf] p4f/, 3fOt]sf] pkrf/ / “ -;ªs6fled'v_ If]qx¿ /fxt Joj:yfkgsf nflu xf] . o;sf] ljgf;sf/L k|efj k|fo cfjZos s' / fx¿df ;fd' b flos ;a} If]qdf kb{5 / o;n] ;fgf] jf 7"nf] eGb}g . t/ o;sf] ;Defjgfk|lt • hueGbf dfly km} l nPsf, 5nkmn u/L /0fgLlt tof/ ug]{ . ;r]t /x]/ Iflt Go"g ug{ cfjZos kxf8sf] 6' K kf] , km] b jf • cfk" m eGbf 6f9f /x] s f jf k" j { t of/L ug' { xfdL ;a} s f nflu le/fnf]df agfOPsf 3/x¿ . sf7df8f} F a flx/ /x] s f cfˆgf] lxts/ x'g]5 . o;af6 x'g] Ifltsf] • 7" n f Uof;sf kfOknfOg / kl/jf/sf ;b:o tyf gft]bf/sf] :j¿ksf ljifodf hfgsf/L lnP/ ;Dks{ 7]ufgf cfk"mn] /fVg] cfˆgf] pRr ljB'tLo If]q glhssf 7f]ufgf klg pgLx¿nfO{ lbg' /fd|f] aRg] / arfpg] k| o f; ul/Pdf 3/ / a:tLx¿ . hgwgsf] IfltnfO{ t'ngfTds ¿kdf x'G5 . 7]ufgfdf kmf]g, Od]n cflb Go"g ug{ ;lsG5 M • cTolws hg3gTj ePsf, :ki6 n] v ] / cfk" m ;F u ;' / lIft ;f“u'/f, u'h'd'Hh / cUnf tyf /fVg'kb{5 . e'O“rfnf] cfpg'eGbf cufl8 s] ug]{ < sdhf]/ hu ePsf 3/x¿ . • ljBfnodf ljBfno ejgsf] s'g} klg k|fs[lts k|sf]k k"j{ ;"rgf lbP/ • c;' / lIft tj/af6 lgdf{ 0 f cj:yf, v'nf :yfg cflbsf] cWoog cfpFbg . To;df klg e'Orfnf] cfpg] / } F u/L ljBfno e" s Dk ;' / Iffsf ul/Psf ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ . pkfox¿sf] klxrfg u/L To;n] k'¥ofpg] Ifltsf] k"j{ cg'dfg ug{ ;Dej 5}g . ljutdf uPsf e'OFrfnf] / To;af6 cfktsfnLg of]hgf tof/ ug]{ / cfˆgf ljBfyL{nfO{ ePsf Ifltsf] cWoogaf6 o:tf] x'g;S5 eg]/ cg'dfg To;sf] hfgsf/L lbP/ ;'/lIft /xg] pkfox¿ l;sfpg] . ug];Dd dfq xf] . of] k|sf]k s'g} klg ;dodf x'g;Sg] • a"9fa"9L, ckfªu / afnaRrfx¿sf] ;'/Iff tyf { ePsfn] o;af6 aRg cfktsfnLg of]hgf agfO/fVg' x]/ljrf/sf nflu ljz]if k|aGw ug]{ . pkof]uL x'G5 . e'Orfnf]af6 aRg / hgwgsf] Iflt Go"g • cfktsfnLg ;]jf k'¥ofpg] ;/sf/L lgsfo, :jf:Yo F ug{ agfOg] cfktsfnLg of]hgfdf d"ntM lgDg s'/fx¿ rf}sL jf c:ktfn, ;'/Iff lgsfo, /]8qm;, jf?0foGq / ;dfj]z ul/g' x'G5g M :yfgLo txdf sfd ug]{ ;fdflhs ;ª3;+:yfx¿sf] gfd, s= hgr]tgf clej[l4 / cfktsfnLg of]hgf M 7]ufgf, kmf]g gDa/ cflb cfk"mn] af]Sg] 8fo/Ldf ;'/lIft /fVg] / ufpF, 6f]n l5d]sLnfO{ klg /fVg nufpg] . • cfˆgf 3/kl/jf/sf ;b:o / ufpF, 6f]nl5d]ssf • cfˆgf] ;DklQsf] ljdf u/fpg] / To;sf nflu ;b:o tyf ;d'bfonfO{ e'OFrfnf] cfPsf] ;dodf 6f]nl5d]snfO{ klg clek|]l/t ug]{ . gcfFQLsg ;s];Dd ;'/lIft :yfgdf a:g l;sfpg] . v= cfktsfnLg emf]nfsf] Joj:yf M • e''O{+rfnf] uPdf To;kl5 cfˆgf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿ • cfktsfnLg ;dodf cfjZos kg]{ kfgL, vfg]s'/f, s'g 7fpFdf e]6 ug]{ eg]/ cfktsnLg ;~rf/of]hgf k|fylds pkrf/sf nflu cf}iflw, dndk§Lsf ;fdfg, agfpg] . e'O{rfnf] uO;s]kl5 6]lnkmf]g laR5]b ePsf] cf>osf nflu kfn, nufpg] tyf cf]9g] cf]5ofpg] x'g;S5, aflx/ lxF88'n ug{ s7Lg / 8/nfUbf] x'G5 . n'uf, s]xL cf}hf/x¿ / Pp6f emf]nfsf] ;+of]hgnfO{ o; cj:yfsf] ;fdgf ug{ kl/jf/ / 5/l5d]saLr cfktsfnLg emf]nf elgG5 . o:tf ;fdfg ;s];Dd ldn]/ cfktsfnLg of]hgf agfP/ To;sf] kxn ug'{ xn'sf / pkof]uL x'g'kb{5 . /fd|f] x'G5 . • o:tf ;fdfg ;''/lIft /fVg l6gsf] afs; jf emf]nf • e'OFrfnf] s] xf] / o;af6 s;/L aRg ;lsG5 eGg] klg k| o f] u ug{ ;lsG5 . cfktsfnLg ;fdfg ljifodf ufpF, 6f]n tyf 5/l5d]sdf 5nkmn ug]{ . /flvPsf] To:tf] afs;df ;fFrf] nufpg x'Fb}g lsgeg] cfk;L ;DaGw / ;befj sfod /fv]/ ufpF tyf e'OFrfnf] cfPsf] ;dodf ;fFrf] e]6g sl7g x'G5 . 6f]n:t/Lo cfktsfnLg of]hgf agfpg] . ;'/Iff afs;nfO{ cfk"m / cfˆgf kl/jf/sf ;b:on] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 19
  20. 20. k|fs[lt k|sf]k ;d]t ;lhn} e]6g;Sg] 7fpFdf /fv]/ / kl/jf/nfO{ cfˆgf] cf]5ofgd'lg /fVg] / 6r{nfO6 tTsfn cfk"mn] To;sf af/]df hfgsf/L klg lbg'kb{5 . e]6g]u/L l;/fgd'lg /fVg] . • o:tf] cfktsfnLg ;fdu|L ePsf] afs;sf] k|aGw e'O“rfnf] cfO/x]sf] cj:yfdf s] ug]{ < cfˆgf] sfd ug]{ :yfg jf sfof{no / 3/sf] cj:yf e'OFrfnf] cfOxfn]df clQg' dfgjLo :jefj g} xf] . t/, cflbnfO{ klg ljrf/ u/]/ ug'{kb{5 . e"sDkLo ;'/Iff xfdLn] cfk" m nfO{ ;Dxfn] / gcfF Q LO{ s g jf w} o { ; F u cjwf/0ffcg';f/ ;lsPdf o:tf] cfktsfnLg ;fdu|L xf]l;of/L ckgfof}F eg] o;sf] df/af6 aRg ;lsG5 . ePsf] # j6f afs; agfpg' /fd|f] x'G5 . Pp6f afs; e'OFrfnf] sltv]/ cfpF5 eGg] yfxf gx'g] x'Fbf xfdL 3/sf] nflu, Pp6f sfof{nosf] nflu / Pp6f xd]zf 3/kl/jf/;Fu} x'G5f}F eGg] 5}g . xfdL sfof{no, ;8s, ;fydf af]Sg] jf ufl8df /fVgsf nflu . ahf/ jf 3/ hxfF klg x'g;S5f}F / e'OFrfnf] klg • cfktsfnLg afs;df /flvPsf ;fdfgsf kf]sfx¿sf] cfpg;S5 . ctM xfdL hxfF x'G5f}F, To;}cg';f/ aRg] pkfo aflx/ s'g ;fdfg xf] eg]/ k|:6;Fu n]Vg'k5{ . To;f] u/]df cfktsf ;dodf rflxPsf] ;fdfg lgsfNg e'Orfnf]af6 aRg s] ug]{ < +{ ;lhnf] x'G5 / ;dosf] art klg x'G5 . • eTsgnfu] s f jf k' / fgf 3/ eTsfP/ • e'OFrfnf] cfO;s]kl5 3/ tyf a;f]af; ;g'{kg]{ x'g;Sb5 . To;sf nflu cTofjZos ;fdfg ;lhn} e" s DkLo ;' / Iffo' Q m 3/ agfpg] . af]Sg;Sg] u/L ;–;fgf kf]sf agfP/ kfgLn] gleHg] 3/glhssf ;'s]sf jf 9Ng nfu]sf ¿v u/L ;' / lIft 7fpF d f /fVg' k 5{ . o;/L ul/g] sf6]/ x6fpg] . cfktsfnLg ;fdfgsf] tof/Ln] e'Orfnf] cfO;s]kl5 F • cTojf:os ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] lgsfo jf kg]{ ljkbsf] ;dodf s]xL xb;Dd eP klg /fxt k'Ub5 . ;+:yfx¿–/]8qm;, PDa'n]G;, bdsn, :jf:Yo u= ;'/lIft 3/ jf :yfgsf] klxrfg / cGo Joj:yf M ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] lgsfo, ;'/Iff lgsfo • cfˆgf] 3/ ;'/lIft 5 jf 5}g, klxrfg ug]{ . k'/fgf] / :yfgLo:t/df ;fd' b flos sfo{ ug] { cyjf n8g nfu]sf] 3/ eP eTsfP/ gofF agfpg] jf lgsfosf] hfgsf/L, ;Dks{ kmf]g cflb /fVg] . /fd|/L dd{t ug'kb{5 . gofF 3/ agfpFbf e"sDkLo ;'/Iff { k|ljlwo'Qm 3/ agfpg' ;a}eGbf /fd|f] pkfo x'g5 .] • 3/kl/jf/sf ;b:o tyf ;d' b fodf • cfˆgf] 3/leqsf] ;a}eGbf vt/fk"0f{ / ;a}eGbf e'O{+rfnf]af6 aRg / cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ;'/lIft :yfg jf sf]7f, cfktsfnLg ;dodf aflx/ ug]{ sfo{sf af/]df 5nkmn ug]{, cfktsfnLg lg:sg] j}slNks af6f] klxrfg tyf Joj:yf ug]{ . of]hgf agfpg] . kfgLsf] wf/f, lah'nL, Uof; cflb aGb ug]{ 7fpF yfxf • 3/leq /]l8of], 6r{nfO6, Aof6«L, d}gaQL kfO/fVg] , cfkt s fnLg pkrf/ cyjf ;' / Iff / k|fylds pkrf/sf ;fdfgx¿ssf] Joj:yf ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf ug]{ / o:tf s'/fsf] hfgsf/L kl/jf/sf ;a} ;b:onfO{ u/fpg] . u/L cfk"m / kl/jf/n] ;lhn} e]6g;Sg] • 3/leq b/fh, 7"nf] jf cUnf] ¥ofs, 6]lnlehgh:tf 7fp“df /fVg] . ;fdfg ;fdfGo xnrnaf6 gn8g] jf gemg]{u/L • cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf cfjZos kg]{ xn'sf alnof];Fu afFw]/ /fVg] . / ;'Vvf vfg]s'/f–e'6]sf] ds}, la:s'6, • k|m]d nufOPsf tl:a/, P]gfh:tf j:t' cf]5ofgaf6 rfprfp, e' h f, u' G b| ' s cflbsf] hf] x f] 6f9f /fVg] . ul///fVg] . • lalu|Psf lah'nLsf tf/ dd{t ug],{ aNa tyf 6oanfO6 ' • cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf k|of]u ug{ cfj:os gv:g]u/L alnof];Fu hf]8g], sL6gf;s cf}iflw, HjngzLn kbfy{x¿nfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf /fVg], ;s];Dd ;fwgx¿ –a]Nrf, 8f]/L, km?jf, afN6L, vfgf ksfpg] Uof;sf] l;lnG8/nfO{ efG;f jf lqkfn, af]/f, v's'/L cflb tTsfn e]l6g] 3/alx/sf] a/G8f cflbdf 8f]/L jf tf/n] afFw/ /fVg] . ] :yfgdf /fVg] / o;k|sf/sf] Joj:yf ug{ • cfktsfnLg ;dodf nufpg Pshf]/ h'Qf, hfd ;d'bfonfO{ klg ;Nnfx / k|]/0ff lbg] . ePsf] 9f]sf jf ‰ofn vf]Ng kmnfdsf] un -8G8L_ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 20
  21. 21. k|fs[lt k|sf]k ckgfpg' cfjZos x'G5 M 3/aflx/ ePdf 3/leq ePdf • eTsg nfu]sf jf cUnf] 3/, lah'nLsf] vDaf jf • gcfFlQg], zfGt /xg] / kl/jf/sf ;b:onfO{ klg zfGt tf/, 9Ng nfu]sf ¿v cflb vt/fo'Qm 7fpFdf ghfg] / To:tf 7fpFdf eP ;s];Dd v'nf 7fpFlt/ hfg] . /fVg] . afnaflnsf, ue{ j tL dlxnf, czQm ;b:onfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg k|of; ug]{ . • ;fF3'/f] uNnL / k'nlt/ ghfg] . • hldgdf 3f]lK6P/ a:g], e'OFrfnf] g/f]lSsP;Dd To;/L • 3/sf] ;a}eGbf ;'/lIft 7fpFdf vf;u/L 6]a'n, vf6, g} a:g] . 9f]sfsf] rf}sf];d'lg a:g] / kl/jf/sf ;a} ;b:onfO{ • kl/l:ylt 7Ls ePkl5 la:tf/} v'nf 7fpFdf hfg] / ;Dxfn]/ To:t} ;'/lIft :yfgdf /fVg] . ;ªs6df k/]sfsf] p4f/sf nflu cfk"mnfO{ tof/ /fVg] . • l;;fsf] ‰ofn / ux|f}F j:t' v:g ;Sg] 7fpFdf ga:g] . • lgx'/]/ s'g} j:t'n] 6fpsf]nfO{ 5f]Kg] / To:tf s'g} rln/x] s f] ;jf/L;fwgdf eP j:t' geP cfˆgf] kfv'/fn] 6fpsf]nfO{ arfpg] k|of; • ;8s v'nf 5 eg] tTsfn uf8L /f]Sg], a;f]af; ug]{, cfFvf lrDng] . If]q, 7"nf ejg, ¿v, k'n jf lah'nLsf tf/x¿ ePsf] If]qdf eP la:tf/} v'Nnf 7fpFdf k'Ug] k|of; ug]{ . • 3/ xlNn/x]sf] ;dodf e¥ofªaf6 glxF8g,] ‰ofnaf6 • e' O F r fnf] cfPsf] ;dodf uf8Lleq eP sDkg aflx/ gx]g,{] ;s];Dd tTsfn} 3/af6 aflx/ glg:sg] . g/f]lsP;Dd ufl8leq} a:g] . • efG;fdf eP Uof;, cfuf] cflb aGb ug]{, cf]5ofgdf e'OFrfnf]af6 aRg cGo w]/} pkfox¿ ckgfpg ;lsG5 eP tlsofn] 6fpsf] 5f]Kg] jf vf6d'lg l5g]{, sf]7fsf] tfklg d"ntM dfly pNn]v ePsf ljlw ckgfPdf Ifltsf] 9f]sf aGb ePdf To;nfO{ tTsfn} vf]Ng] . 7"nf] df/af6 aRg ;lsG5 / IfltnfO{ klg sd ug{ ;lsG5 . • e'OFrfnf] /f]lsPkl5 klg To;sf nx/x¿ k'gM cfpg] xfdLn] ;r]t eP/ cfˆgf kl/jf/sf ;b:o / l5d]sLnfO{ ;Defjgf x'G5 ctM ;a} kl/l:ylt ljrf/ u/]/ dfq ;d]t ;ts{ u/fpg;s] o;sf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg / arfpg 3/aflx/ lg:sg] . ;xof]u ldNg]5 . ✪ k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf k"j{tof/Lsf If]qdf sfo{ ug]{ k|d'v ;+:yfx¿ != >L % sf] ;/sf/, u[xdGqfno !)= #$ j8f k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldlt b}jLk|sf]k Joj:yfkg dxfzfvf ledz]guf]nf sf7df8f}F l;+xb/af/, sf7df8f}F} . !!= g]kfn k|x/L k|sf]k lgoGq0f zfvf @= g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L, k|x/L k|wfg sfof{no, gS;fn, sf7f8f}F . k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ljefu !@= o'gfO6]6 ld;g 6' g]kfn kf]:6aS; g+= @!&, tfxfrn, sf7df8f}F . kf]:6aS; g+= !@^, sf7df8f}F . #= PS;gP8 g]kfn !#= s]o/ g]kfn kf]:6aS; g+= ^@%&, nflhDkf6, sf7df8f}F . kf]:6aS; g+= !^^!, sf7df8f}F . $= n'y/g jN8{ km]8/];g g]kfn !$= k|sf]k Joj:yfkg s]Gb| g]kfn kf]:6aS; g+= ###), lqk'/]Zj/, sf7df8f}F . kf]:6aS; g+= $)%*, sf7df8f}F . %= cGt/f{li6«o PsLs[t kj{tLo ljsf; s]Gb|, !%= k|fs[lts k|sf]k Joj:yfkg d~r kf]:6aS; g}+= #@@^, sf7df8f}F kf]:6aS; g+= !*&(, sf7df8f}F . ^= e"sDk k|ljlw /fli6«o ;dfh– g]kfn !^= g]kfn :sfp6 kf]:6aS; g+= !#&&%, afg]Zj/, sf7df8f}F, /fli6«o k|wfg sfof{no –g]kfn &= ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª3 ljsf; sfo{qmd kf]:6aS; g+= !)#&, n}grf}/, sf7df8f}F . kf]:6aS; g+= !)*, sf7df8f}F . !&= jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf– g]kfn *= ljZj :jf:Yo ;ªu7g kf]:6aS; g+= !(&@), wf]law/f/f, sf7df8f}F . ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª3 ejg ;Gbe{ ;fdu|L kf]:6aS; g+= !)*, k'Nrf]s sf7df8f}F . (= sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf, ;dfhsNof0f ljefu, != sf7df8f}df e'Orfnf]sf] k"jtof/L, LWF & NSET, 2002 F F { kf]:6aS; g+= !#%!@, sf7df8f}F . @= e"sDk Ps kl/ro, sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsf, ;dfhsNof0f ljefu jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 21
  22. 22. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ ;f}o{ 3/]n' lah'nL k|0ffnL –;/f]h yklnof ;" o{sf] tfkzlQmnfO{ ;f]em} ljB'tLo zlQmdf kl/jt{g yfn]sf 5g . u/L pTkfbg ul/g] lah'nLnfO{ ;f}o{ (Solar) lah'nL elgG5 . 3/]n' ;f}o{ lah''nL k|0ffnL ljB'tsf cGo ;|f]t g]kfndf ;f}o{ lah'nLsf] ;Defjgf gePsf 7fp“df aQL afNg, /]l8of]–Sof;]6 ahfpg / g]kfn hn;|f]tsf nflu wgL d'n's eP klg k|ljlw / 6]lnlehg x]g{ k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ;fwf/0ftof #) b]lv nufgLsf] cefjn] ubf{ kof{Kt lah'nL pTkfbg x'g $) jf6 Ifdtfsf] ;f}o{ k|0ffnLsf] h8fgaf6 Ps 3/sf] g;s]sfn] b]zsf sl/a *# k|ltzt gful/s lah'nLsf] nflu & b]lv !) jf6sf tLgj6f aQL afNg / b'O{ ;' l jwfaf6 jl~rt 5g . To;df klg ef} u f] l ns 306f;Dd ZofdZj]t 6]lnlehg x]g{ ;lsG5 . t/ a9L ljs6tfsf sf/0f pTkflbt hnljB'tsf] ;j{;'ne ljt/0f Ifdtfsf] ;f}o{ k|0ffnL h8fg u/]df Ifdtf cg';f/ a9L lgs} sl7g 5 eg] s]Gb|Lo k|;f/0f nfOgaf6 b'u{d aQL afNg / /ªuLg 6]lnlehg klg x]g{ ;lsG5 . ufp“df lah'nL ljt/0f ug{ dx“uf] klg x'G5 . oftfoftsf] cefj /x]sf clwsfªz ufp“df 7"nf hnljB't pTkfbg ;f}o{ lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ k|of]u ul/g] d'Vo pks/0fnfO{ cfof]hgfsf] ljsf;sf] ;Defjgf Go"g ePsf]n] ljB't ;f]nf/ Kofg]n jf ;f]nf/ df]8o'n elgG5 . ;f]nf/ nufot lasf;sf cGo k"jfwf/x¿ tL ufp“;Dd k'Ug df]8o'n ;f]nf/ ;]n (Solar Cell) x¿ ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 . ;f}o{ df]8o'n cw{;'rfns l;lnsg (Silicon) af6 ;s]sf] 5}g . o;/L lk5l8Psf ufp“sf] ljsf;sf nflu ag]sf] x'G5 . k[YjLdf kfOg] afn'jf g} cw{;'rfns j:t' j}slNks pkfox¿ cjnDag ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . u|fdL0f xf], h'g ;f}o{ df]8o'n agfpg k|of]u x'G5 . If]qdf ;f}o{ lah'nLsf] pTkfbg ;f]nf/ Kofgnsf] Ifdtfdf e/ 3/]n';f}o{ lah'nL k|0ffnL kb{5 . Ps yfg ;f]nf/ Kofg]naf6 ;fdfGotof Pp6f 3/df #–$ j6f aQL afNg, /]l8of] Sof;]6 ahfpg, Zofd– Zj]t 6]lnlehg x]g{ rflxg] lah'nL pTkfbg x' G 5 . o;eGbf a9L Ifdtfdf lah'nL pTkfbg ug'{k/]df jf PseGbf a9L ;f]nf/ Kofg]n :yfkgf ug'{k5{ . g]kfndf pknAw ;f}o{ lah'nLdf 8L= ;L= (Direct Current) ef]N6]h dfq x'G5 . o; k4ltaf6 pTkfbg x' g ] lah' n Lsf] Pp6f tf/df wgfTds (+) / csf] { tf/df C0ffTds (-) ljB'tLo wf/fsf] k|jfx x'G5 . ;f}o{ k|of]u eO/x]sf k/Dk/fut OGwgsf] ;f6f] ;f}o{zlQmaf6 Kofgn jf df]8o'naf6 pTkfbg x'g] lah'nL Aof6«Ldf pTkflbt pmhf{{ pkof]udf Nofpg;s] ToxfFsf] hghLjg ;~ro x'g] / Toxf“af6 k|of]udf cfpg] x'“bf k|ToIf ;xh x'g] / pmhf{ vktdf ;d]t art x'g] ePsfn] s/]G6 (Direct Current) sf] ¿kdf pTkfbg x'G5 . t/ ljs6 u| f ld0f If] q sf] lasf;sf nflu ;f} o { 3/] n ' o;nfO{ ljz]if k|ljlwaf6 P= ;L= (Alternating Current) lah'nLsf] dxŒj a9b} uPsf] 5 . df klg kl/jt{g ug{ ;lsG5 . cGt/f{li6«o ahf/df ;f}o{ pmhf{–;|ftsf] cefj ePsf u|fdL0f If]qsf nflu ;f}opmhf{{ { ] { lah'nL pTkfbgdf P= ;L= ;f}o{ df]8on klg pknAw x'g pko'Qm ePsfn] o; If]qdf sfd ul//x]sf ;/sf/L ' jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 22
  23. 23. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ lgsfo, u} / ;/sf/L pks/0fdf nfug] eG;f/ z'Ns ldgfxf u/]sf] 5 . o;/L ;ª3;+:yf / lghL ;f}o} pmhf{{ pkof]u Ifdtf ;'ljwf pknAw u/fPsf sf/0f 3/df lah'nL afNg, If]qn] ;f}o{ pmhf{{sf] 10% Zofd–Zj]t 6]lnlehg x]g{ x'g] Ifdtfsf] ;f}o{ 3/]n' lah'nL ljsf;sf nflu sfd 15% % 3 k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug{ sl/a @( xhf/ ?k}of“ / dWod:t/sf] ul//x] s f 5g . 1 % Ifdtf ePsf] k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug{ sl/a $^ xhf/ cfsfz v' N nf eO{ 21% ¿k}of“ nfUb5 . o; /sddf ;/sf/n] ;'ud If]qdf eP 3fd nflu/xg] x'“bf 50 % ?= &,@)) / b'u{d If]qdf ?= !),))) cg'bfg lbg] g] k fndf ;f} o { Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ;f}o{ 3/]n' lah'nL k|0ffnL :yfkgf pmhf{sf] k|r/ ;Defjgf eP klg xfn;Dd !=$ d]ufjf6 { " ubf{ ;'?df s]xL dx“uf] k/] klg o;sf] ;~rfng / dd{t dfq ;f}o{ pmhf{ pTkfbg ePsf] 5 . pTkflbt ;f}o{ vr{ Hofb} Go"g x'g] x'“bf bL3{sfnLg nfut ;:tf] kb{5 . pmhf{dWo] g]kfn b"/;~rf/ ;+:yfgn] &)) lsnf]jf6 pmhf{{ >L % sf] ;/sf/ tyf 8flg8fsf] pmhf{{If]q ;xof]u vkt ul//x] s f] 5 . gjf} “ k~rjifL{ o of] h gf;Dddf sfo{qmdcGtu{t g]kfndf ;a} lsl;dsf gjLs/0fLo clw/fHosf ljleÌ lhNnfsf #* xhf/ 3/df ;f}o{ ljB't pmhf{{sf] ljsf;df cg'bfg pknAw u/fpg] sfo{qmd ljt/0f ug]{ nIo /flvPsf] eP klg g]kfndf 3/]n' ;~rflnt 5 . o:tf]] cg'bfg sfo{qmddf ;/sf/n] !) pkef]usf nflu xfn;Dd ;/sf/L cg'bfgaf6 sl/a !# k|ltzt / 8flg8fn] () k|ltzt nufgL ug]{ Joj:yf xhf/ 3/df dfq ;f}o{ lah'nL k|0ffnL :yfkgf ePsf 5g . /x]sf] 5 . x'g t xfd|f]h:tf] ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zdf dfq ljZj hnjfo' ;ªu7gsf cg';f/ g]kfnsf] Ps ju{ld6/ geP/ ljsl;t b]zx¿ cd]l/sf, hfkfg, hd{gh:tf If]qkmndf k|ltlbg $=% lsnf]jf6 k|lt306f ;f}o{zlQm d'n'sdf klg ;f}o{pmhf{{sf] ljsf;df cg'bfg lbg] Joj:yf pknAw x'G5 . o; lx;fan] x]bf{ g]kfnsf] s"n If]qkmnaf6 /x]sf] 5 . o;/L b]zsf] ul/aL lgjf/0f / jftfj/0f ^,^@,#)) luufjf6 k| l t306f ;f} o { z lQm pTkfbg ;+/If0fsf nflu klg ;f}o{ pmhf{{sf] ljsf; dxŒjk"0f{ x'g;S5 . o;/L g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] )=! k|ltzt ePsfn] ;/sf/L cg' b fg j[ l 4 u/L ;f} o { pmhf{ { s f] dfq ;f}o{ pmhf{{ pTkfbg ug]{ xf] eg] ^^@ luufjf6 ljsf;df oy]i6 ;3fpg'kg]{ b]lvG5 . t/, ;/sf/n] k| l t306f zlQm pTkfbg x' G 5 . oxf“ s f] ef} u f] l ns j}slNks pmhf{{df lb“b} cfPsf] cg'bfgdf k|To]s jif{ agfj6sf sf/0f jif{df sl/a #)) lbg 3fd nfUg] x'“bf 36fp“b} hfg' eg] b'vb kIf xf] . k|r'/ dfqfdf ;f}o{zlQm pTkfbg x'g;Sg] atfOPsf] 5 . g]kfndf xfn ;f}opmhf{sf] If]qdf sfd ug]{ lghL tyf { g]kfndf ;f}o{ lah'nLsf] pkof]u Ifdtf Jofkfl/s ;+:yfx¿ Ps bh{geGbf a9L /x]sf 5g . ;/sf/n] g]kfn ;f}opmhf{{ ;dfhn] k|sfzdf NofPsf] tYofªscg';f/ { u|fdL0f If]qdf ;~rflnt a}ªssf zfvf tyf ;xsf/L d'nssf sl/a )=@% k|ltzt kl/jf/ cg'bfg gkfP klg ' ;+:yfdfkm{t ;'ne Jofhb/df C0f pknAw u/fpg]] Joj:yf ;f}o3/]n' lah'nL pkof]u ug{;Sg] Ifdtf /fV5g eg] sl/a { u/]df dfq klg ;f}o{ pmhf{{ pTkfbg tyf ljt/0fsf If]qdf % k|ltzt kl/jf/ ;/sf/L cg'bfg kfPdf ;f}o{ pmhf{{ sfo{ ug]{ sDkgLx¿ kl/rflnt eO{ cg'bfglagf klg ;f}o{ pkef]u ug{ ;Sb5g . g]kfnsf !) k|ltzt kl/jf/ pmhf{sf] ljsf;sf] /fd|f] ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 . { ;/sf/L cg'bfgsf ;fy}} ljQLo ;+:yfx¿af6 ;x'lnot ;f}o{ 3/]n' lah'nLsf] dxŒj tyf pkof]lutf Jofhb/df C0f kfPdf ;f}opmhf{{ pkef]u ug{ rfxG5g . { b]zsf] 7"nf] If]qkmn lxdfnL / kxf8L e"ldn] 9fs]sf sf/0f t/ %) k|ltzt kl/jf/ eg] sdhf]/ cfly{s cj:yfsf b'/b/fhsf las6 Onfsfdf ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/ g} tof/ sf/0f rfx]/ klg of] pmhf{{ pkef]u ug{ ;Sb}gg . cWoogn] x'g ;s]sf 5}gg . ;8s oftfoft, cf}Bf]lus ljsf;, @@ k|ltzt dflg;df ;f}opmhf{sf ljifodf s]xL hfgsf/L { { :jf:Yo, lzIffsf] cefjsf sf/0f cfly{s ultljlwdf g} gePsf] s'/f;d]t b]vfPsf] 5 . lk5l8Psf xfd|f u|fdL0f ;dfhsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] ;d:of ul/aL xf] . xfdL;“u pknAw ;fwg / ;|ftsf] kl/rfng ] ;/sf/af6 eO/x]sf] cg'bfg Joj:yf ;xL 9ªuaf6 x'g g;Sbf ul/aL lgjf/0fsf of]hgfx¿n] g]kfnsf u|fdL0f If]qdf ;f}o{pmhf{{sf] ljsf; ug]{ nIo klg ;kmntf kfpg ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . pmhf{ cefjs} sf/0f lnP/ ;/sf/n] @)$% ;fnb]lv o;sf nflu cfjZos ljsf;af6 lk5l8Psf] u|fdL0f If]qdf ;f}o{ pmhf{sf] lj:tf/{ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 23

×