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Thrombosis And Embolism

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Thrombosis And Embolism

  1. 1. Thrombosis and Embolism
  2. 2. Thrombosis : Formation of solid mass in circulation from the blood constituents - (Thrombus)
  3. 4. Virchow’s triad <ul><li>Endothelial injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Alteration in the Blood flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercoagulability of the Blood. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Blood vessel wall <ul><li>Anti thrombotic factors : Heparin like substance , Thrombomodulin , Inhibitors of platelet aggrigation – ADPase, PGI2 Tissue plasminogen activator </li></ul>
  5. 6. Blood vessel wall <ul><li>Prothrombotic factors : Thromboplastin , von Willebird factor , Platelet activating factor , Inhibitor of plasminogen activator </li></ul>
  6. 7. Role of Platelets <ul><li>Adhesion </li></ul><ul><li>Platelet release reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Platelet aggrigation </li></ul>
  7. 8. Coagulation system <ul><li>Plasma Fibrinogen ------ Fibrin </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Pathway & Extrinsic Pathway </li></ul>
  8. 12. Hypercoagulability of the Blood <ul><li>Increased coagulation factors </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Platelet Count and their adhesiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased coagulation inhibitots – Antithrombin III </li></ul>
  9. 13. Alteration in the Blood flow <ul><li>Turbulance and Stasis </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets near endothelial lining. </li></ul>
  10. 14. Morphology <ul><li>Sites – Heart , Arteries, Veins, Capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Arterial Thrombi – Effect is Ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Venous Thrombi – Effect is Embolism </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>Gross – Various shapes n sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Arterial thrombi – White and mural </li></ul><ul><li>Venous thrombi – Red and occlusive </li></ul><ul><li>M/E : “Lines of Zahn” </li></ul><ul><li>Arterial Vs Venous thrombi </li></ul>
  12. 17. Fates of Thrombi <ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Embolism </li></ul>
  13. 18. Predisposing factors : <ul><li>Genetic – Deficiency of Antithrombin, Protein C and S , Fibrinolysis . </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired – Old age , Prolonged Bed rest ,Immobilisation , oral contraceptives , smoking , Trauma fracture burns , Atherosclerosis , Varicose veins, Cancers </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>Thank You... </li></ul>

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