David Phillips

THE INTERNET – WHERE ISSUES BECOME
CRISIS
AN ISSUE
WHAT WAS SAID

WHAT IS MISSING







No mobile capability
No web pages
No response in some
online media
G+ nothing
T...
PRETTY PICTURES AND SAATCHI ADS
DON’T HACK IT ANYMORE






PRETTY AND SICKENING

People expect a human
response
Reali...
WHAT IS THE REALITY OF LIFE
How many people have mobiles?
 How many use mobiles for email?
 How many use mobile for Mess...
The Internet During Crisis?
● Almost instant data spike
● Very fast moving
● Aggregates all other activities
● Spreads eve...
It happens to the best
“I’m told by a reputable person they have killed Osama
Bin Laden.” Keith Urban at 03:24 – not The W...
What is a crisis online
●

●

●

●

It is a departure from a norm and can mostly be managed.

Variation
All plans/activiti...
The processes
The processes
The processes
The processes
A planned methodology
What does this entail
● Know what is „normal‟
● Have measures in place to be able to identify variation
● Be sure that var...
What is normal
Where do you find out?
The building blocks
● Every management reporting process is helpful.
● Mostly management reports do not have much

out of ...
Watching the normal
Network theory
● Who is linked to whom
● What is linked to what and who and how
● +davidghphillips #BoE, @RobElder etc

● ...
Influence networks in G+
Network theory
● Every thing you do

or say is
discoverable
● Your comments,
friends, location
etc
● Your
acquaintances
an...
What is changing
● From the perspective of population
● From the perspective of the Governor

● Lisbon Theory
● Semantic a...
Monitoring search profiles
● What is a „normal‟ profile
● This means you need to monitor all the time.
● PR „Evaluation‟ i...
The LinkedIn network
FB - who they know counts
Profile on Twitter

In 48 minutes 450 tweets collected, 157 of these tweets form connected components. From this, on the m...
Robert Peston‟s influence

Monitoring key influencers in different media is useful
YouTube influencers
Including Images

Curalate
•Ditto
•gazeMetrix
•LTU Technologies
•TinEye
How fast
● Is important to know – and if it gets faster.....
Google+

Twitter

LinkedIn
How many media
Blogs

Pinterest

There are Limits
Preparing for the day 1
● Re-visit social media
● Check all is up to date

● Watch who else is contributing
● Be ready to ...
Preparing for the day 2
● An escalation plan
● Important to react

● Important not to over react

● Who
● Nominated person...
Testing the system
● Narrowcast – broadcast
● Is it „Robert Peston‟s‟ network or Robert Peston the

person.
● Is it a spec...
Collateral/who/timing
● Content
● Essential facts
● Supporting data (hyperlinks)
● Images (get more attention)
● Mix and m...
The experts say
●

Risk management
●
●
●
●
●
●

Identify risk events
Assess the probability of each event
Make a cost-bene...
Evidence of SocMed
significance
● Blogs and Social Media: “The New Word of Mouth and its Impact

on the Reputation of the ...
Social Media part of Crisis
management say the
researchers
● Social media such as Twitter and Facebook have

become import...
What about Print media?
● There is little division between online PR and traditional press

relations
● European Public Re...
In Summary
● You face issues
● They will escalate to crisis

● Not all crisis is the same
● Possible to mitigate
● Network...
Questions
● Questions
● Contributions

● A bit of brain storming
Thank you
David Phillips FCIPR FSCR
david.g.h.phillips@gmail.com

http://nod3x.com/projects/dashboard/?project=20503
More reading
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Balmer, J.M.T., (2010) „The BP Deepwater Horizon debacle and corporate...
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Managing crisis world vision

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  • Great deck David. Glad you included Gazemetrix in your summary. We're doing a bunch of stuff related to detecting/predicting viral trends in photo based social media. Would love to connect and bounce ideas around.
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Managing crisis world vision

  1. 1. David Phillips THE INTERNET – WHERE ISSUES BECOME CRISIS
  2. 2. AN ISSUE
  3. 3. WHAT WAS SAID WHAT IS MISSING      No mobile capability No web pages No response in some online media G+ nothing Turning a Crisis into a disaster CRISIS MANAGEMENT - FAIL
  4. 4. PRETTY PICTURES AND SAATCHI ADS DON’T HACK IT ANYMORE     PRETTY AND SICKENING People expect a human response Reality Reigns Playing at it is insulting Expectations are high IT IS POSSIBLE TO TURN A DISASTER INTO A DEATH RATTLE
  5. 5. WHAT IS THE REALITY OF LIFE How many people have mobiles?  How many use mobiles for email?  How many use mobile for Messaging, Facebook, apps, web?  Do you think press release first or mobile first?  Where does the web fit? 
  6. 6. The Internet During Crisis? ● Almost instant data spike ● Very fast moving ● Aggregates all other activities ● Spreads every detail to all media and the population at large. ● Fortunately verification is not always good enough in the first few minutes. ● Unfortunately, verification tools are becoming very intelligent.
  7. 7. It happens to the best “I’m told by a reputable person they have killed Osama Bin Laden.” Keith Urban at 03:24 – not The White House! In "Social Business Readiness: How Advanced Companies Prepare Internally," Altimeter Group analyzed 50 social media crises that have occurred since 2001. He was not the first reporter. Shortly after 4pm EST on 1 May Sohaib Athar (@ReallyVirtual on Twitter) was live-tweeting a series of helicopter flypasts and explosions and was unwittingly covering the US forces raid on Osama Bin Laden‟s compound. Meanwhile somewhere in the vicinity @m0hcin was reporting too. They found that those reaching mainstream media have risen steadily through the past decade, with just 1-2 incidents per year in the first five years and a total of 10 social media crises last year alone. The report also sheds light on exactly how social media crises arise and how companies can avoid them. Source: Mashable Source: leverwealth
  8. 8. What is a crisis online ● ● ● ● It is a departure from a norm and can mostly be managed. Variation All plans/activities have expected outcomes, financial budgets and timescales. These are often identified using aids for project planning. Monitoring such plans will identify where plans are going awry. This is normal day to day management. We all do it. Foreseen uncertaintiesThere are some variations that are identifiable and understood that the PR team cannot be sure will occur or when. They can be planned for and are part of management. Like coping with unexpected staff illness – managers cope. Unforeseen UncertaintyThis kind of event cannot be identified during project planning. Or during risk management planning. There is no Plan B. Good management has crisis management planning in place to mitigate effects (this is what today is about – good management.
  9. 9. The processes
  10. 10. The processes
  11. 11. The processes
  12. 12. The processes
  13. 13. A planned methodology
  14. 14. What does this entail ● Know what is „normal‟ ● Have measures in place to be able to identify variation ● Be sure that variation can be managed by a wide community. ● Foreseen uncertainty circumstances are identified by looking at historic variation – are there generic foreseen circumstances (e.g. staff illness, transport strike etc) did we manage it well, how can we manage it better. Train people to recognise and manage ● Unforeseen Uncertainty requires having crisis management tools in place (monitoring, evaluation, reporting and information dissemination, multi location/time zone responses etc. ● Need for impact analysis
  15. 15. What is normal
  16. 16. Where do you find out?
  17. 17. The building blocks ● Every management reporting process is helpful. ● Mostly management reports do not have much out of the ordinary (much as we would like to think otherwise) ● We look for variance. ● There are tools to help ● Public Relations practitioners are allowed to use Big Data tools too!
  18. 18. Watching the normal
  19. 19. Network theory ● Who is linked to whom ● What is linked to what and who and how ● +davidghphillips #BoE, @RobElder etc ● Who and what is changing ● How fast ● News Monitoring/tone is now automated ● Its the news (an RSS feed on your phone) ● Internet monitoring is a bit more difficult ● Big Data monitoring is essential ● But it is very creepy
  20. 20. Influence networks in G+
  21. 21. Network theory ● Every thing you do or say is discoverable ● Your comments, friends, location etc ● Your acquaintances and followers and their networks too ● So too for organisations.
  22. 22. What is changing ● From the perspective of population ● From the perspective of the Governor ● Lisbon Theory ● Semantic analysis ● Tag the concepts ● To what extent ● Is this item relevant ● Important ● Helpful ● Dangerous ● To what extent are there new semantic concepts ● Do they need to be managed
  23. 23. Monitoring search profiles ● What is a „normal‟ profile ● This means you need to monitor all the time. ● PR „Evaluation‟ is now Old old old fashioned (for practitioners over 55! ● Normal is OK other than normal is is an issue
  24. 24. The LinkedIn network
  25. 25. FB - who they know counts
  26. 26. Profile on Twitter In 48 minutes 450 tweets collected, 157 of these tweets form connected components. From this, on the map we can see 3 large communities of Twitter users, joined by multiple smaller ones (Source: Keene Communications).
  27. 27. Robert Peston‟s influence Monitoring key influencers in different media is useful
  28. 28. YouTube influencers
  29. 29. Including Images Curalate •Ditto •gazeMetrix •LTU Technologies •TinEye
  30. 30. How fast ● Is important to know – and if it gets faster..... Google+ Twitter LinkedIn
  31. 31. How many media Blogs Pinterest There are Limits
  32. 32. Preparing for the day 1 ● Re-visit social media ● Check all is up to date ● Watch who else is contributing ● Be ready to edit fast (e.g. Wikipedia)
  33. 33. Preparing for the day 2 ● An escalation plan ● Important to react ● Important not to over react ● Who ● Nominated person ● Trained person ● Available information ● Fast internal monitoring ● Fast external monitoring ● Establishment of the facts
  34. 34. Testing the system ● Narrowcast – broadcast ● Is it „Robert Peston‟s‟ network or Robert Peston the person. ● Is it a specific media (e.g. Twitter) or across social media – knowing that it will cross media borders fast ● Robert is on Radio, TV, Blogs, Twitter etc etc. ● Have the information about him to hand? ● Once you use a media you have to keep doing it. ● If you don‟t you don‟t have a voice/credibility ● If you do, it has to be part of the overall strategic comms plan (content, monitoring, analysis ROI etc)
  35. 35. Collateral/who/timing ● Content ● Essential facts ● Supporting data (hyperlinks) ● Images (get more attention) ● Mix and match people ● A method that allows you to say the same thing over and again without looking like stonewalling ● First response quick ● Then keep up a series of contributions (e.g. Every hour) ● Never stretch the truth – a million experts online will put you right!
  36. 36. The experts say ● Risk management ● ● ● ● ● ● Identify risk events Assess the probability of each event Make a cost-benefit analysis of response alternatives Choose a response Re-assess probability and impact with company response On-going monitoring of risk events ● “Crisis is a process of transformation where the old system can no longer be maintained. ● 1. unexpected (i.e., a surprise) ● 2. creates uncertainty ● 3. is seen as a threat to important goal system that can no longer be maintained." ● Most “research does not consider the enormous influence a crisis has on social media that further affects the relationship between social media and the stock market.” ● There are measurable differences in the way microblog messages propagate. ...these differences relate to newsworthiness and credibility of the information conveyed, and (there are) features that are effective for classifying information automatically as credible or not credible. Source: Venette, S. J. (2003). Risk communication in a High Reliability Organization: APHIS PPQ's inclusion of risk in decision making. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Proquest Information and Learning. Source: Jiang, CuiQing, et al. "Analyzing market performance via social media: a case study of a banking industry crisis." Science China Information Sciences (2013): 1-18. Source: Carlos Castillo, Marcelo Mendoza, Barbara Poblete, (2013) "Predicting Information Credibility in Time-Sensitive Social Media", Internet Research, Vol. 23 Iss: 5
  37. 37. Evidence of SocMed significance ● Blogs and Social Media: “The New Word of Mouth and its Impact on the Reputation of the Voluntary Dector and on their Capability” ● ...Social media-based metrics (Web blogs and consumer ratings) are significant leading indicators of firm equity value. ● Companies, brands, politicians, governmental institutions, and celebrities have increasingly been facing the impact of negative online WOM and complaint behaviour. ● In reaction to any questionable statement or activity, social media users can create huge waves of outrage within just a few hours. Source: Eleftheria (Roila) Christakou, George-Michael Klimis Handbook of Social Media Management Media Business and Innovation 2013, pp 715-735 Source: Luo, Xueming, J. Zhang, and W. Duan (2013), “Social Media and Firm Equity Value,” Information Systems Research, Forthcoming Source: J. Pfeffera*, T. Zorbachb & K. M. Carleya (June 2013) Understanding online firestorms: Negative word-of-mouth dynamics in social media networks. Journal of Marketing Communications
  38. 38. Social Media part of Crisis management say the researchers ● Social media such as Twitter and Facebook have become important tools for crisis communication. ● These interactive venues require public relations practitioners to be risk managers, organisational strategists, crisis responders, and intelligence gatherers in addition to their role as advocates. Source: Theorizing Crisis Communication, First Edition. Edited by Timothy L. Sellnow and Matthew W. Seeger. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Source: Duhe, S & Wright D K. 2013 Public Relations and Communications Management: Current Trends and Emerging Topics. Routledge.
  39. 39. What about Print media? ● There is little division between online PR and traditional press relations ● European Public Relations Education and Research Association papers this year show that Media Relations is more productive when conducted using social media (except via Facebook). ● Online Circulations are up a lot. ● NRS PADD Survey reports the Guardian now has 1.7 million more monthly readers than the Telegraph, compared to May when this figure was 1.6 million. ● Guardian is the most-read news site in the UK with 10.4 million readers, 523,000 more than the Mail Online (9.9 million). ● Trade media as well as newspapers
  40. 40. In Summary ● You face issues ● They will escalate to crisis ● Not all crisis is the same ● Possible to mitigate ● Network theory semantic evaluation and related ● ● ● ● data analysis are big allies Not possible to respond across all media A need to plan, prepare, train and test. Good research available to aid decision making Online and offline media are converging
  41. 41. Questions ● Questions ● Contributions ● A bit of brain storming
  42. 42. Thank you David Phillips FCIPR FSCR david.g.h.phillips@gmail.com http://nod3x.com/projects/dashboard/?project=20503
  43. 43. More reading ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Balmer, J.M.T., (2010) „The BP Deepwater Horizon debacle and corporate brand exuberance‟ in Journal of Brand Management, vol.18, Macmillan Publishers Bergin, T. 2011. Spills and Spin: the Inside Story of BP. Random House. Fearn-Banks, K. (2008) Crisis Communication Student Workbook. London: Routledge BLAND, Michael, When it hits the Fan, Centre Publishing Ltd 2004 CURTIN, Tom, with Daniel Hayman and Naomi Husein, Managing a Crisis: A practical guide, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 QUIRKE, Bill, Communicating Change, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1995 TENCH, Ralph & Liz Yeomans, Exploring Public Relations, Prentice Hall, 2006 Ajder, M., 2011. Three Minute Lesson: Rebuilding Trust and Revision Notes: Deepwater Horizon. CorpComms, 57, p.48. Anthonissen, P.F. ed., 2008. Crisis Communications: practical PR strategies for reputation management and company survival. London: Kogan Page. Barnett, M.L. and Hoffman, A.J., 2008. Beyond Corporate Reputation: Managing Reputational Interdependence. Corporate Reputation Review, 11, pp.1-9. Barton, L., 2004. Crisis Management: Master the Skills to Prevent Disasters. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Bland, M., 1998. Communicating Out of a Crisis. London: Macmillan Business. Borda, J. L. and Mackey-Kallis, S., 2004. A Model for Crisis Management. In: R. L. Heath and D. P. Millar, ed. 2004. A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communications: Management, Communication Processes, and Strategic Responses. Kindle ed. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ch.8. Carroll, C., 2009. Defying a Reputational Crisis – Cadbury's Salmonella Scare: Why are Customers Willing to Forgive and Forget? Corporate Reputation Review, 12, pp.64-82. Cave, A., 2011. BP: One Year On. CorpComms, 57, pp.37-41. Johns, T., 2011. How Could BP Get It So Wrong? CorpComms, 57, p.46. Langford, M., 2006. Crisis Public Relations Management. In: R. Tench and L. Yeomans, ed. 2006. Exploring Public Relations. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd. Ch.20. Langford, M., 2005. Smelling of Roses or Drowning in Crude Oil? A Point of View on Managing Environmental Crises. Journal of Communication Management, 9(3), pp.365374. Lee, J. Woeste, J.H. and Heath, R.L., 2007. Getting Ready for Crises: Strategic Excellence. Public Relations Review, 33, pp.334-336. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Leighton, N. Shelton, T., 2008. Proactive Crisis Communication Planning. In P.F. Anthonissen, ed. 2008. Crisis Communications: practical PR strategies for reputation management and company survival. London: Kogan Page. Ch.2. Middlemass, N., 2011. How Can BP Regain Trust? CorpComms, 57, p.47. Milenkovic, G., 2001. Early Warning of Organizational Crises: A Research Project from the International Air Express Industry. Journal of Communication Management, 5(4), pp.360373. Olaniran, B.A. and Williams, D.E., 2001. Anticipatory Model of Crisis Management: A Vigilant Response to Technological Crises. In: R.L. Heath, ed. 2001. Handbook of Public Relations. California: Sage Publications Inc. Ch.41. Pang, A. Crop, F. and Cameron, G.T., 2006. Corporate Crisis Planning: Tensions, Issues and Contradictions. Journal of Communication Management, 10(4), pp.371-389. Phillips, D. & Young, P 2009 Online Public Relations Kogan Page Seeger, M.W. Sellnow, T.L. and Ulmer, R.R., 2001. Public Relations and Crisis Communication: Organizing and Chaos. In: R.L. Heath, ed. 2001. Handbook of Public Relations. California: Sage Publications Inc. Ch.11. Walker, K., 2010. A Systematic Review of the Corporate Reputation Literature: Definition, Measurement, and Theory. Corporate Reputation Review, 12, pp.357-387. Yu, T. and Lester, R.H., 2008. Moving Beyond Firm Boundaries: A Social Network Perspective on Reputation Spillover. Corporate Reputation Review, 11, pp.94–108. Deloach, J. (2013) Managing Reputation Risk, http://www.corporatecomplianceinsights.com/managing-reputation-risk accessed 27 January 2013 Honey, G. (2009) A Short Guide to Reputation Risk, Gower, UK, p. 26 https://fp7.portals.mbs.ac.uk/Portals/59/docs/KNPapers2/Do_banks_manage_Reputation al_Risk.pdf CIPR Crisis Diploma Reading List Bland, M (1998) Communicating Out of a Crisis, London: Macmillan Wolstenholme, S [ed.] (2009) The PR Digest, Harlow: Pearson Education & The CIPR Regester, M & Larkin, J. (2008), Risk Issues and Crisis Management, Kogan Page/CIPR, 4th ed Seymour, M and Moore, S (2000) Effective Crisis Management: worldwide principles and practice. London: Cassell

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