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Developing Strategies


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Developing Strategies

  1. 1. Internal and external Objectives and strategies David Phillips
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will identify why strategic planning is important </li></ul><ul><li>You will discover that strategic planning is a core management tool </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn what is involved in strategic and operational planning </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn how to create a strategy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Public Relations is, at its best a management function &quot;Simply put, I have come to understand public relations as a strategic management function that uses communication to cultivate relationships with publics that have a stake in the behaviour of the organization&quot; Grunig
  4. 4. Strategic Planning – the MOST important management tool O’Regan, and Ghobadian demonstrate that Strategic planning is one of the most used and most popular management tools (50% more popular than customer segmentation or customer relationship management). O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A. (2005) The strategic planning process: a navigational tool for competitive advantage International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005
  5. 5. Strategic Planning is about the future According to George Steiner, strategic planning involves anticipating the future environment, but decisions or plans are made in the present. Steiner, G., Top Management Planning, Simon & Schuster, 1969
  6. 6. The Nature of Strategic Planning (Steiner) 1. Strategic planning is both continuous and irregular in response to non-routine stimuli. 2. The problems confronted by strategic planning are unstructured and usually unique. 3. Strategic planning tends to encompass the entire scope of activity of an organization. 4. Strategic planning requires large amounts of information. 5. Strategic planning is heavily dependent upon subjective assessments. 6. Strategic planning usually involves making a choice among a range of alternatives. 7. Uncertainty and risk is high in strategic planning. 8. Strategic planning usually covers a long time period. 9. Strategic planning should guide tactical planning.
  7. 7. What are the benefits of Strategic Planning <ul><li>Become more future oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Respond more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Use systematic analyses and plans to inform and persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Better anticipate what resources are needed, what decisions must be made, what actions must be taken and avoid problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce gaps and overlaps in activities among individuals and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel J. &quot;Dan&quot; Power </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. Getting started <ul><li>Analysis is the critical starting point of strategic thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies can be proposed top down or bottom up </li></ul><ul><li>Manager’s need intellectual flexibility and creativity to devise realistic responses to changing situations </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies can suffer from 'group think' </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies can be long term or short term. </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel J. &quot;Dan&quot; Power </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 9. The people part of strategy development Strategies should become a shared vision (especially inside the organisation) Strategy development is best when it is collaborative Strategy development requires leadership Strategies change – so get used to the idea and don't be disappointed when 'your baby' gets whiskers.
  10. 10. Strategic to tactical strategies Corporate Strategy will affect the long term future of the organisation interpreted as corporate mission, aims and objectives. Operational strategies translate corporate strategies, mission, aims and objectives into a manageable and actionable framework that allocates resources.
  11. 11. To create strategy we have to: Anticipated benefit Have an understanding of the eventual outcome Identify measurable goals Identify resource options Identify and minimise risk Chose most suited resources Plan and estimate: Cost and time Manning and manpower Managers must make choices
  12. 12. Where to begin – Good objectives <ul><li>e.g. 'To create a policy to respond to online communities'? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Specific – Objectives should specify what they want to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Measurable – You should be able to measure whether you are meeting the objectives or not. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Achievable - Are the objectives you set, achievable and attainable? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Realistic – Can you realistically achieve the objectives with the resources you have? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Time – When do you want to achieve the set objectives? For CIPR..... within the year. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Where to begin – with good objectives Overview. We have identified that advances in Reach , interactivity and economic consequences of social media for communication and community building are significant. They affect the Institute; its members; its services and its internal and external relationships. Analysis of existing online interactivity evidences opportunities for improvement. The data suggest that this is a rapidly growing trend. This proposal identifies five specific objectives that need to be met:
  14. 14. Where to begin – with good objectives #Objective 1 Within the first quarter of the year: To identify and evaluate the ten most affective media that influence relationships with the CIPR in its effort to meet its strategic objectives ; Identify and evaluate their content and technologies; asses each such media for effect, impact, rate of change and risk; identify required nature and extent of response and interaction. #Objective 2 ....
  15. 15. Developing and Operational strategy <ul><li>Who is to be involved for optimum effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>What management support is required (involvement of dominant coalition, policy statements, resource commitments, technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>How do I meet the objective's requirements (people, process, technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the goal posts, people, workloads, dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>What are the progressive deadlines </li></ul>
  16. 16. Today we get organised Go back to those honed and practical objectives (OK hone those objectives to make them useful for operational strategy development) Anticipated benefit Have an understanding of the eventual outcome you want to achieve. Identify measurable goals - put in provisional dates
  17. 17. What you have to do You can now begin to add more references to the tactical plan such as findings from your landscaping research; types of social media you want to consider with hyperlinks to them on the wiki; examples of this kind of social media in case studies (with hyperlinks to work done by colleagues on the wiki etc).
  18. 18. Learning outcomes <ul><li>You will identify why strategic planning is important </li></ul><ul><li>You will discover that strategic planning is a core management tool </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn what is involved in strategic and operational planning </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn how to create a strategy </li></ul>