What is all this communications stuff? David Phillips  FCIPR, FSNCR
What We Will Do Today <ul><li>Look back to see what how much we know about communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about dif...
Interacting <ul><li>Communication through books - Did you delight in pp 144-146 of  Exploring Public Relations  2006 (Tenc...
History of Models <ul><li>Animals communicate – Humans communicate – what is the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>If humans c...
Laswell’s theory <ul><li>Who says – what – to whom – with what – effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Great for propagandists – all c...
Osgood and Schramm
All too linear <ul><li>Assumption that communication is linear </li></ul><ul><li>From someone to someone  </li></ul><ul><l...
Westley & McLean
Context, society, experience and culture <ul><li>Communication uses ‘signs’ (Peirce, Saussure)  </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures...
The inquisitive human <ul><li>McQuail/Blumer & Katz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks diversion (from boring lectures) </li></ul...
Maletzke C= Communicator, M = Message, R = Reciever
Mass media <ul><li>Does it work? It depends (friends & neighbours) </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion Formers and agenda setters </...
Social Media <ul><li>Network effect </li></ul><ul><li>One-2-one </li></ul><ul><li>One-2-many </li></ul><ul><li>Many-2-one ...
Lets try out the theory <ul><li>Facebook for the corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter for the newspaper </li></ul><ul><li...
What We Will Do Today <ul><li>Look back to see what how much we know about communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about dif...
What is all this communications stuff? David Phillips  FCIPR, FSNCR
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Communication Theory2

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First Year Comms Theory lecture

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Communication Theory2

  1. 1. What is all this communications stuff? David Phillips FCIPR, FSNCR
  2. 2. What We Will Do Today <ul><li>Look back to see what how much we know about communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about different models for communication </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the evolving communications landscape </li></ul>
  3. 3. Interacting <ul><li>Communication through books - Did you delight in pp 144-146 of Exploring Public Relations 2006 (Tench & Yeomans) and pp 20- 31 The Public Relations Handbook 2001 ( Theaker et al)? </li></ul><ul><li>Communication using experiences one to many - This slide show is available at Slideshare.net ( http://www.slideshare.net/dphillips4363 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding a bit of a symmetrical interaction, noise and feedback - You can have cell phones on, blog, Twitter, and ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>One to one is not all bad with a bit of symmetrical influence - You can email me david.g.h.phillips (at) geemaildotcom or chat on Google Talk/Live Messenger. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of Models <ul><li>Animals communicate – Humans communicate – what is the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>If humans communicate why don’t we understand much about it? </li></ul><ul><li>After 60,000 years of human evolution, Aristotle 2300 years ago thought of three models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethos – The nature and qualities of the communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logos – The nature, structure and content of the message (s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathos – The nature, feelings and thoughts of the audience. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Laswell’s theory <ul><li>Who says – what – to whom – with what – effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Great for propagandists – all control – and limited in effect (McQuail & Windahl) – audiences have feelings to (and can turn a deaf ear) </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon and Weaver explained how by adding Noise ( now extended to physical, cultural, intellectual, emotional) and Feedback (the receiver has a role too) we can see its not that simple. </li></ul><ul><li>The bank of England dropped interest rate 1.5% - did the message get through for student loans? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Osgood and Schramm
  7. 7. All too linear <ul><li>Assumption that communication is linear </li></ul><ul><li>From someone to someone </li></ul><ul><li>Who could possibly be interested? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the effect </li></ul><ul><li>Should communication ‘do something’? </li></ul><ul><li>A cognitive implication? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Westley & McLean
  9. 9. Context, society, experience and culture <ul><li>Communication uses ‘signs’ (Peirce, Saussure) </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures, words, movements etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They have meanings </li></ul><ul><li>My picture is not the same as your picture. My word means what it means to me not what it means to you (Fiske). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denotative - dictionary definition, explication of a picture etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connotative - experience of the sign – nice/nasty, fun/dull) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous - signs with many meanings – fit (healthy)/fit (worth a snog)/fit (shoes that don’t)/ fit (a health problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysemic can be interpreted differently. Often leads to misunderstanding – ‘I was bombed in London’ </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The inquisitive human <ul><li>McQuail/Blumer & Katz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks diversion (from boring lectures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks for personal relationships (the social animal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal identity (the ‘badges’ that say ‘I’m me’ in the group or crowd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveillance (where am I, opportunities, threats, what’s cool) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McGuire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for emotional reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active or passive engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition to get educated (internalised)/ need to get a degree (external badge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks gratification </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Maletzke C= Communicator, M = Message, R = Reciever
  12. 12. Mass media <ul><li>Does it work? It depends (friends & neighbours) </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion Formers and agenda setters </li></ul><ul><li>Two step flow (with ‘journalist’ in the middle) </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda setters </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Media <ul><li>Network effect </li></ul><ul><li>One-2-one </li></ul><ul><li>One-2-many </li></ul><ul><li>Many-2-one </li></ul><ul><li>Many-2-many </li></ul><ul><li>Niche not mass communication </li></ul><ul><li>The transition of mass media (http://www.glamourmagazine.co.uk) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lets try out the theory <ul><li>Facebook for the corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter for the newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube for the University </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Games for the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile for the fashion industry </li></ul><ul><li>Network or broadcast? </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media or niche media? </li></ul>
  15. 15. What We Will Do Today <ul><li>Look back to see what how much we know about communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about different models for communication </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the evolving communications landscape </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is all this communications stuff? David Phillips FCIPR, FSNCR

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