Chapter 17   Property Transactions:   §1231 and Recapture   Provisions   Individual Income Taxes© 2013 Cengage Learning. A...
The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)• Hazel Brown owns and operates a retail arts and  crafts store.   – She is a sole proprieto...
The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)• As of June 30, 2012, the equipment has an adjusted  basis of $74,960.   – $450,000 cost - ...
§1231 Assets                      (slide 1 of 4)• §1231 assets defined  – Depreciable and real property used in a business...
§1231 Assets                          (slide 2 of 4)• §1231 property does not include the following:   – Property not held...
§1231 Assets                     (slide 3 of 4)• If transactions involving §1231 assets result in:  – Net §1231 loss = ord...
§1231 Assets                       (slide 4 of 4)• Provides the best of potential results for the  taxpayer  – Ordinary lo...
The Big Picture - Example 1                       § 1231 Assets• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• If Ha...
Special Rules For         Certain §1231 Assets (slide 1 of 4)• Timber-Taxpayer can elect to treat the cutting  of timber h...
Special Rules For        Certain §1231 Assets (slide 2 of 4)• Livestock  – Cattle and horses must be held 24 months or mor...
Special Rules For         Certain §1231 Assets (slide 3 of 4)• Casualty gains and losses from §1231 assets  and from long-...
Special Rules For           Certain §1231 Assets (slide 4 of 4)• The special netting process for casualties & thefts  does...
General Procedure for           § 1231 Computation (slide 1 of 3)• Step 1: Casualty Netting   – Net all recognized long-te...
General Procedure for            § 1231 Computation (slide 2 of 3)• Step 2: § 1231 Netting   – After adding any net casual...
General Procedure for         § 1231 Computation (slide 3 of 3)• Step 3: § 1231 Lookback Provision  – The net § 1231 gain ...
Lookback Provision Example• Taxpayer had the following net §1231 gains  and losses:           2010        $ 4,000 loss    ...
Section 1231 Netting Procedure                                 17
Depreciation Recapture                         (slide 1 of 3)• Assets subject to depreciation or cost recovery  may be sub...
Depreciation Recapture                     (slide 2 of 3)• Depreciation recapture characterizes gains that  would appear t...
Depreciation Recapture                            (slide 3 of 3)• Depreciation recapture provisions generally  override al...
§1245 Recapture                        (slide 1 of 3)• Depreciation recapture for §1245 property  – Applies to tangible an...
§1245 Recapture                       (slide 2 of 3)• When gain on the disposition of a §1245 asset  is less than the tota...
§1245 Recapture                      (slide 3 of 3)• When the gain on the disposition of a §1245  asset is greater than th...
The Big Picture - Example 8           §1245 Recapture (slide 1 of 3)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• ...
The Big Picture - Example 8           §1245 Recapture (slide 2 of 3)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• ...
The Big Picture - Example 8            §1245 Recapture (slide 3 of 3)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.•...
Observations on § 1245                      (slide 1 of 3)• Usually total depreciation taken will exceed  the recognized g...
Observations on § 1245                        (slide 2 of 3)• Recapture applies to the total amount of  depreciation allow...
Observations on § 1245                    (slide 3 of 3)• Section 1245 does not apply to losses which  receive § 1231 trea...
§1250 Recapture                         (slide 1 of 3)• Depreciation recapture for §1250 property  – Applies to depreciabl...
§1250 Recapture                              (slide 2 of 3)• Section 1250 recapture rarely applies since only the  amount ...
§1250 Recapture                          (slide 3 of 3)• The § 1250 recapture rules also apply to the  following property ...
Real Estate 25% Gain                      (slide 1 of 4)• Also called unrecaptured §1250 gain or 25%  gain  – 25% gain is ...
Real Estate 25% Gain                     (slide 2 of 4)• Maximum amount of 25% gain is depreciation  taken on real propert...
Real Estate 25% Gain                            (slide 3 of 4)• Special 25% Gain Netting Rules  – Where there is a § 1231 ...
Real Estate 25% Gain                             (slide 4 of 4)• Net § 1231 Gain Limitation  – The amount of unrecaptured ...
Related Effects of Recapture                      (slide 1 of 8)• Gifts  – The carryover basis of gifts, from donor to don...
Related Effects of Recapture                      (slide 2 of 8)• Inheritance  – Death is only way to eliminate recapture ...
Related Effects of Recapture                      (slide 3 of 8)• Charitable contributions  – Recapture potential reduces ...
The Big Picture - Example 20    Depreciation Recapture and Charitable Transfers• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on...
Related Effects of Recapture                                (slide 4 of 8)• Nontaxable transactions   – When the transfere...
Related Effects of Recapture                         (slide 5 of 8)• Like-kind exchanges and involuntary  conversions  – P...
The Big Picture - Example 21    Depreciation Recapture and Like-Kind Exchanges• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on ...
Related Effects of Recapture                      (slide 6 of 8)• Installment sales  – Recapture gain is recognized in yea...
The Big Picture - Example 22  Depreciation Recapture and Installment Sales• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 1...
Related Effects of Recapture                      (slide 7 of 8)• Property Dividends  – A corporation generally recognizes...
Related Effects of Recapture                         (slide 8 of 8)• Sales between related parties  – Sales of depreciable...
Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)• Hazel maximized her depreciation deductions when  she acquired the store equipm...
Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)• One way Hazel could avoid recognizing the $53,040  ($128,000 - $74,960) gain wo...
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Ppt ch 17

  1. 1. Chapter 17 Property Transactions: §1231 and Recapture Provisions Individual Income Taxes© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1
  2. 2. The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)• Hazel Brown owns and operates a retail arts and crafts store. – She is a sole proprietor and files a Form 1040, Schedule C.• In 2009, she remodeled the store and replaced the store equipment (counters, display racks, etc.) at a cost of $450,000. – All of the equipment was used (she bought it from a competitor that was going out of business). – The equipment is 7 year MACRS property. – She took $250,000 of § 179 expense on it and depreciated the balance. 2
  3. 3. The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)• As of June 30, 2012, the equipment has an adjusted basis of $74,960. – $450,000 cost - $250,000 § 179 expense - $125,040 of MACRS depreciation.• Now, Hazel is again planning on replacing the store equipment. – She can sell all of the existing equipment for $128,000.• If Hazel completes this transaction, what will be the impact on her 2012 tax return? – Read the chapter and formulate your response. 3
  4. 4. §1231 Assets (slide 1 of 4)• §1231 assets defined – Depreciable and real property used in a business or for production of income and held >1 year – Includes timber, coal, iron, livestock, unharvested crops – Certain purchased intangibles 4
  5. 5. §1231 Assets (slide 2 of 4)• §1231 property does not include the following: – Property not held for the long-term holding period – Nonpersonal use property where casualty losses exceed casualty gains for the taxable year – Inventory and property held primarily for sale to customers – Copyrights, literary, musical, or artistic compositions and certain U.S. government publications – Accounts receivable and notes receivable arising in the ordinary course of a trade or business 5
  6. 6. §1231 Assets (slide 3 of 4)• If transactions involving §1231 assets result in: – Net §1231 loss = ordinary loss – Net §1231 gain = long-term capital gain 6
  7. 7. §1231 Assets (slide 4 of 4)• Provides the best of potential results for the taxpayer – Ordinary loss that is fully deductible for AGI – Gains subject to the lower capital gains tax rates 7
  8. 8. The Big Picture - Example 1 § 1231 Assets• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• If Hazel sells the store equipment, she will have disposed of a § 1231 asset because it was depreciable property used in a trade or business and held for more than 12 months.• Her gain will be $53,040. – $128,000 selling price - $74,960 adjusted basis. – Part of the gain may be treated as a long-term capital gain under § 1231. • Recapture rules may apply (discussed later in this chapter). 8
  9. 9. Special Rules For Certain §1231 Assets (slide 1 of 4)• Timber-Taxpayer can elect to treat the cutting of timber held for sale or for use in business as a sale or exchange • If elected, transaction qualifies under §1231 • Recognized §1231 gain or loss is determined at the time the timber is cut – Equal to difference between timbers FMV as of first day of tax year and the adjusted basis for depletion – If sold for more or less than FMV as of first day of tax year in which it is cut, difference is ordinary income or loss 9
  10. 10. Special Rules For Certain §1231 Assets (slide 2 of 4)• Livestock – Cattle and horses must be held 24 months or more and other livestock must be held 12 months or more to qualify under §1231 10
  11. 11. Special Rules For Certain §1231 Assets (slide 3 of 4)• Casualty gains and losses from §1231 assets and from long-term nonpersonal use capital assets are determined and netted together • If a net loss, items are treated separately – §1231 casualty gains and nonpersonal use capital asset casualty gains are treated as ordinary gains – §1231 casualty losses are deductible for AGI – Nonpersonal use capital asset casualty losses are deductible from AGI subject to the 2% of AGI limitation • If a net gain, treat as §1231 gain 11
  12. 12. Special Rules For Certain §1231 Assets (slide 4 of 4)• The special netting process for casualties & thefts does not include condemnation gains and losses – A § 1231 asset disposed of by condemnation receives § 1231 treatment• Personal use property condemnation gains and losses are not subject to the § 1231 rules – Gains are capital gains • Personal use property is a capital asset – Losses are nondeductible • They arise from the disposition of personal use property 12
  13. 13. General Procedure for § 1231 Computation (slide 1 of 3)• Step 1: Casualty Netting – Net all recognized long-term gains & losses from casualties of § 1231 assets and nonpersonal use capital assets • If casualty gains exceed casualty losses, add the excess to the other § 1231 gains for the taxable year • If casualty losses exceed casualty gains, exclude all casualty losses and gains from further § 1231 computation – All casualty gains are ordinary income – Section 1231 asset casualty losses are deductible for AGI – Other casualty losses are deductible from AGI 13
  14. 14. General Procedure for § 1231 Computation (slide 2 of 3)• Step 2: § 1231 Netting – After adding any net casualty gain from previous step to the other § 1231 gains and losses, net all § 1231 gains and losses • If gains exceed the losses, net gain is offset by the ‘‘lookback’’ nonrecaptured § 1231 losses from the 5 prior tax years – To the extent of this offset, the net § 1231 gain is classified as ordinary gain – Any remaining gain is long-term capital gain • If the losses exceed the gains, all gains are ordinary income – Section 1231 asset losses are deductible for AGI – Other casualty losses are deductible from AGI 14
  15. 15. General Procedure for § 1231 Computation (slide 3 of 3)• Step 3: § 1231 Lookback Provision – The net § 1231 gain from the previous step is offset by the nonrecaptured net § 1231 losses for the five preceding taxable years • To the extent of the nonrecaptured net § 1231 loss, the current-year net § 1231 gain is ordinary income – The nonrecaptured net § 1231 losses are those that have not already been used to offset net § 1231 gains • Only the net § 1231 gain exceeding this net § 1231 loss carryforward is given long-term capital gain treatment 15
  16. 16. Lookback Provision Example• Taxpayer had the following net §1231 gains and losses: 2010 $ 4,000 loss 2011 $10,000 loss 2012 $16,000 gain – In 2012, taxpayer’s net §1231 gain of $16,000 will be treated as $14,000 of ordinary income and $2,000 of long-term capital gain 16
  17. 17. Section 1231 Netting Procedure 17
  18. 18. Depreciation Recapture (slide 1 of 3)• Assets subject to depreciation or cost recovery may be subject to depreciation recapture when disposed of at a gain – Losses on depreciable assets receive §1231 treatment • No recapture occurs in loss situations 18
  19. 19. Depreciation Recapture (slide 2 of 3)• Depreciation recapture characterizes gains that would appear to be §1231 as ordinary gain – The Code contains two major recapture provisions • §1245 • §1250 19
  20. 20. Depreciation Recapture (slide 3 of 3)• Depreciation recapture provisions generally override all other Code Sections – There are exceptions to depreciation recapture rules, for example: • In dispositions where all gain is not recognized – e.g., like-kind exchanges, involuntary conversions • Where gain is not recognized at all – e.g., gifts and inheritances 20
  21. 21. §1245 Recapture (slide 1 of 3)• Depreciation recapture for §1245 property – Applies to tangible and intangible personalty, and nonresidential realty using accelerated methods of ACRS (placed in service 1981-86) • Recapture potential is entire amount of accumulated depreciation for asset • Method of depreciation does not matter 21
  22. 22. §1245 Recapture (slide 2 of 3)• When gain on the disposition of a §1245 asset is less than the total amount of accumulated depreciation: – The total gain will be treated as depreciation recapture (i.e., ordinary income) 22
  23. 23. §1245 Recapture (slide 3 of 3)• When the gain on the disposition of a §1245 asset is greater than the total amount of accumulated depreciation: – Total accumulated depreciation will be recaptured (as ordinary income), and – The gain in excess of depreciation recapture will be §1231 gain or capital gain 23
  24. 24. The Big Picture - Example 8 §1245 Recapture (slide 1 of 3)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• Hazel purchased the equipment for $450,000 – She has taken $375,040 of depreciation on it. • $250,000 § 179 expense + $125,040 regular MACRS depreciation – The equipment’s adjusted basis is $74,960.• If Hazel sells the equipment for $128,000, she will have a gain of $53,040. – $128,000 − $74,960 24
  25. 25. The Big Picture - Example 8 §1245 Recapture (slide 2 of 3)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• If it were not for § 1245, the $53,040 gain would be § 1231 gain. – Section 1245 prevents this potentially favorable result by treating as ordinary income (not as § 1231 gain) any gain to the extent of depreciation taken.• In this example, the entire $53,040 gain would be ordinary income. 25
  26. 26. The Big Picture - Example 8 §1245 Recapture (slide 3 of 3)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• If Hazel sold the machine for $485,000, she would have a gain of $410,040. – $485,000 − $74,960 adjusted basis.• The § 1245 gain would be $375,040 – Equal to the depreciation taken.• The § 1231 gain would be $35,000. – Equal to the excess of the sales price over the $450,000 original cost. 26
  27. 27. Observations on § 1245 (slide 1 of 3)• Usually total depreciation taken will exceed the recognized gain – Therefore, disposition of § 1245 property usually results in ordinary income rather than § 1231 gain – Thus, generally, no § 1231 gain will occur unless the § 1245 property is disposed of for more than its original cost 27
  28. 28. Observations on § 1245 (slide 2 of 3)• Recapture applies to the total amount of depreciation allowed or allowable regardless of – The depreciation method used – The holding period of the property • If held for < the long-term holding period the entire recognized gain is ordinary income because § 1231 does not apply 28
  29. 29. Observations on § 1245 (slide 3 of 3)• Section 1245 does not apply to losses which receive § 1231 treatment• Gains from the disposition of § 1245 assets may also be treated as passive activity gains 29
  30. 30. §1250 Recapture (slide 1 of 3)• Depreciation recapture for §1250 property – Applies to depreciable real property • Exception: Nonresidential realty classified as §1245 property (i.e., placed in service after 1980 and before 1987, and accelerated depreciation used) – Intangible real property, such as leaseholds of § 1250 property, is also included 30
  31. 31. §1250 Recapture (slide 2 of 3)• Section 1250 recapture rarely applies since only the amount of additional depreciation is subject to recapture – To have additional depreciation, accelerated depreciation must have been taken on the asset • Straight-line depreciation is not recaptured (except for property held one year or less) – Depreciable real property placed in service after 1986 can generally only be depreciated using the straight-line method • Therefore, no depreciation recapture potential for such property – § 1250 does not apply if the real property is sold at a loss 31
  32. 32. §1250 Recapture (slide 3 of 3)• The § 1250 recapture rules also apply to the following property for which accelerated depreciation was used: – Additional first-year depreciation [§ 168(k)] exceeding straight-line depreciation taken on leasehold improvements, qualified restaurant property, and qualified retail improvement property. – Immediate expense deduction [§ 179(f)] exceeding straight- line depreciation taken on leasehold improvements, qualified restaurant property, and qualified retail improvement property. 32
  33. 33. Real Estate 25% Gain (slide 1 of 4)• Also called unrecaptured §1250 gain or 25% gain – 25% gain is some or all of the §1231 gain treated as long-term capital gain – Used in the alternative tax computation for net capital gain 33
  34. 34. Real Estate 25% Gain (slide 2 of 4)• Maximum amount of 25% gain is depreciation taken on real property sold at a recognized gain reduced by: – Certain §1250 and §1245 depreciation recapture – Losses from other §1231 assets – §1231 lookback losses• Limited to recognized gain when total gain is less than depreciation taken 34
  35. 35. Real Estate 25% Gain (slide 3 of 4)• Special 25% Gain Netting Rules – Where there is a § 1231 gain from real estate and that gain includes both potential 25% gain and potential 0%/15% gain, any § 1231 loss from disposition of other § 1231 assets • First offsets the 0%/15% portion of the § 1231 gain • Then offsets the 25% portion of the § 1231 gain – Also, any § 1231 lookback loss • First recharacterizes the 25% portion of the § 1231 gain • Then recharacterizes the 0%/15% portion of the § 1231 gain as ordinary income 35
  36. 36. Real Estate 25% Gain (slide 4 of 4)• Net § 1231 Gain Limitation – The amount of unrecaptured § 1250 gain may not exceed the net § 1231 gain that is eligible to be treated as long- term capital gain – The unrecaptured § 1250 gain is the lesser of • The unrecaptured § 1250 gain, or • The net § 1231 gain that is treated as capital gain – Thus, if there is a net § 1231 gain, but it is all recaptured by the 5 year § 1231 lookback loss provision, there is no surviving § 1231 gain or unrecaptured § 1250 gain 36
  37. 37. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 1 of 8)• Gifts – The carryover basis of gifts, from donor to donee, also carries over depreciation recapture potential associated with asset – That is, donee steps into shoes of donor with regard to depreciation recapture potential 37
  38. 38. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 2 of 8)• Inheritance – Death is only way to eliminate recapture potential – That is, depreciation recapture potential does not carry over from decedent to heir 38
  39. 39. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 3 of 8)• Charitable contributions – Recapture potential reduces the amount of charitable contribution deductions that are based on FMV 39
  40. 40. The Big Picture - Example 20 Depreciation Recapture and Charitable Transfers• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• If instead of selling the old equipment Hazel gives it to a charity, her charitable contribution is limited to zero. – The potential § 1245 recapture on the equipment is $375,040 (the depreciation taken). – When that amount is subtracted from the equipment’s $128,000 fair market value, the result is zero. 40
  41. 41. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 4 of 8)• Nontaxable transactions – When the transferee carries over the basis of the transferor, the recapture potential also carries over • Included in this category are transfers of property pursuant to the following: – Nontaxable incorporations under § 351 – Certain liquidations of subsidiary companies under § 332 – Nontaxable contributions to a partnership under § 721 – Nontaxable reorganizations – Gain may be recognized in these transactions if boot is received • If gain is recognized, it is treated as ordinary income to the extent of the recapture potential or recognized gain, whichever is lower 41
  42. 42. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 5 of 8)• Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions – Property received in these transactions have a substituted basis • Basis of former property and its recapture potential is substituted for basis of new property – Any gain recognized on the transaction will first be treated as depreciation recapture, then as §1231 or capital gain • Any remaining recapture potential carries over 42
  43. 43. The Big Picture - Example 21 Depreciation Recapture and Like-Kind Exchanges• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• Rather than sell the equipment, Hazel could exchange it for equipment worth $150,000. – Hazel would have to pay $22,000 and would have a § 1031 like-kind exchange. • $150,000 FMV of equip. rec’d – $128,000 FMV of the equip. given up – Because boot was given (the $22,000 cash) and not received, her realized gain of $53,040 is not recognized • $128,000 FMV of equip. given up − $74,960 adjusted basis of the equip. given up. – The $375,040 of depreciation recapture potential under § 1245 carries over to the replacement equipment. 43
  44. 44. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 6 of 8)• Installment sales – Recapture gain is recognized in year of sale regardless of whether gain is otherwise recognized under the installment method 44
  45. 45. The Big Picture - Example 22 Depreciation Recapture and Installment Sales• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 17-1.• Assume Hazel could sell the used equipment for $28,000 down and the balance in five yearly installments of $20,000 plus interest.• She would have to recognize her entire $53,040 gain ($128,000 sale price - $74,960 adjusted basis) in 2012. – All of the gain is § 1245 depreciation recapture gain because the $375,040 depreciation taken exceeds the $53,040 recognized gain. 45
  46. 46. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 7 of 8)• Property Dividends – A corporation generally recognizes gain on the distribution of appreciated property to shareholders – Recapture applies to the extent of the lower of the recapture potential or the excess of the property’s FMV over its adjusted basis 46
  47. 47. Related Effects of Recapture (slide 8 of 8)• Sales between related parties – Sales of depreciable assets between related parties can cause the total gain to be recognized as ordinary income • Applies to related party sales or exchanges of property that is depreciable in hands of transferee 47
  48. 48. Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)• Hazel maximized her depreciation deductions when she acquired the store equipment in 2009.• When she sells the equipment in 2012, however, she has a gain because of the low adjusted basis resulting from the § 179 immediate expensing and the rapid seven-year MACRS depreciation. – Section 1245 ‘‘recaptures’’ this gain as ordinary income. 48
  49. 49. Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)• One way Hazel could avoid recognizing the $53,040 ($128,000 - $74,960) gain would be to do a like-kind exchange. – Trade the 2009 equipment for the new equipment. – She would likely have to give up the 2009 equipment plus cash to acquire the replacement equipment. – Thus, there would be no ‘‘boot received’’ and, therefore, no current gain recognized.• However, the depreciation recapture potential on the 2009 equipment would carry over to the replacement equipment. 49
  50. 50. If you have any comments or suggestions concerning this PowerPoint Presentation for South-Western Federal Taxation, please contact: Dr. Donald R. Trippeer, CPA trippedr@oneonta.edu SUNY Oneonta© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 50

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