Chapter 5   Gross Income:   Exclusions   Individual Income Taxes© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be s...
The Big Picture (slide 1 of 3)• Paul is a graduate accounting student and was an intern with a  CPA firm this past summer ...
The Big Picture (slide 2 of 3)• In November, Paul was hit by a delivery van. The driver of  had a blood alcohol level of ....
The Big Picture (slide 3 of 3)• Paul’s mother was with him in the crosswalk but the  van did not hit her   –She did suffer...
Exclusions Defined• Items of income that are specifically  designated as not included in gross income• Exclusions are gene...
Gifts and Inheritances                      (slide 1 of 5)• Gifts are nontaxable to donee if:  – Transfer is voluntary wit...
Gifts and Inheritances                      (slide 2 of 5)• Inheritances are nontaxable to beneficiary• Income earned on g...
Gifts and Inheritances                      (slide 3 of 5)• Transfers by employers to employees do not  qualify as excludi...
Gifts and Inheritances                      (slide 4 of 5)• Employee death benefits: amount paid by  employer to deceased ...
Gifts and Inheritances                        (slide 5 of 5)• Employee death benefits may be excludible as  a gift if:    ...
The Big Picture - Example 1             Gifts to Employees• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 5-1.• The $1,500 ...
Life Insurance Proceeds                      (slide 1 of 5)• Exempt income to beneficiary if paid solely  due to death of ...
Life Insurance Proceeds                     (slide 2 of 5)• If owner of life insurance policy cancels the  policy and rece...
Life Insurance Proceeds                         (slide 3 of 5)• Accelerated death benefits  – Gain on cash surrender or tr...
Life Insurance Proceeds                         (slide 4 of 5)• Transfers for valuable consideration  – If policy is trans...
Life Insurance Proceeds                        (slide 5 of 5)• Investment earnings arising from the  reinvestment of life ...
Scholarships and Fellowships                        (slide 1 of 2)• An amount paid to or for the benefit of a  student to ...
Scholarships and Fellowships                      (slide 2 of 2)• Qualified tuition waivers or reductions by  nonprofit ed...
The Big Picture - Example 11      Compensation For Services• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 5-1.• Paul was p...
Damages (slide 1 of 3)• Tax consequences of receipt of damages  – Depends on type of harm taxpayer experienced  – The taxp...
Damages (slide 2 of 3)• Tax treatment of damages received for:  – Loss of income     • Generally, taxed the same as the in...
Damages (slide 3 of 3)• Tax treatment of damages received for:  – Property damaged or destroyed     • Treated as an amount...
Compensation for Injuries          and Sickness (slide 1 of 3)• Personal injury damages  – Compensatory damages received o...
Compensation for Injuries         and Sickness (slide 2 of 3)• Workers’ compensation  – Although may be payment for loss o...
Compensation for Injuries          and Sickness (slide 3 of 3)• Accident and health insurance benefits  – Benefits receive...
The Big Picture - Example 12                         Damages• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 5-1.• The damag...
Employer-Sponsored Accident and        Health Plans (slide 1 of 3)• Premiums paid by employer for insurance  coverage of e...
Employer-Sponsored Accident and        Health Plans (slide 2 of 3)• Payments for expenses that do not meet the  Code’s def...
Employer-Sponsored Accident and         Health Plans (slide 3 of 3)• One way to provide a medical reimbursement plan for  ...
Long-Term Care Insurance                   (slide 1 of 2)• Employer paid insurance premiums for employee’s long-  term car...
Long-Term Care Insurance                    (slide 2 of 2)• Exclusion of benefits received from policy is  limited to the ...
Meals and Lodging• Not taxable to employee if:  – Furnished by employer     • On employer’s business premises     • For co...
Other Fringe Benefits                        (slide 1 of 3)• Dependent care   – Up to $5,000 of care costs paid for by emp...
Other Fringe Benefits                         (slide 2 of 3)• Educational assistance programs  – Employer-provided educati...
Other Fringe Benefits                        (slide 3 of 3)• Adoption assistance programs  – Employee adoption expenses pa...
Cafeteria Plans• Allow employees to choose between cash and  certain nontaxable benefits  – If cash is chosen, the amount ...
Flexible Spending Plans• Allow employees to accept lower cash compensation  in return for employer agreeing to pay certain...
Classes of Nontaxable            Employee Benefits•   No-additional-cost services•   Qualified employee discounts•   Worki...
No Additional Cost Services• Are nontaxable if:  – Employee receives services (not property)  – Employer incurs no substan...
Qualified Employee Discounts• Are nontaxable if:  – Discount is not on realty or investment property  – Item discounted is...
Working Condition Fringes• Not taxable if employee could have deducted  cost of item if they had actually paid for them  –...
De Minimis Fringes (slide 1 of 2)• These benefits are so small that accounting for  them is impractical  – Examples includ...
De Minimis Fringes (slide 2 of 2)• Subsidized eating facilities operated by  employer are excluded if:  – Located on or ne...
Qualified Transportation Fringes• This fringe benefit is designed to encourage the use  of mass transit for commuting to w...
Moving Expenses• Employer payment or reimbursement of  employee’s qualified moving expenses is  excludible  – No deduction...
Qualified Retirement           Planning Services• Value of any retirement planning advice or  information provided by empl...
Nondiscrimination Provisions• For no-additional-cost services, qualified  employee discounts, and qualified retirement  pl...
Foreign Earned Income                      (slide 1 of 3)• Income from personal services in a foreign  country can be excl...
Foreign Earned Income                      (slide 2 of 3)• Exclusion amount is limited to $95,100  – For married persons, ...
Foreign Earned Income                      (slide 3 of 3)• In addition, reasonable housing costs in excess  of a base amou...
Interest on State and Local        Government Obligations• Interest from municipal bonds is tax exempt  – Reduces borrowin...
Dividends• Taxable to extent paid out of either current or  accumulated earnings and profits (E&P)• Dividends in excess of...
Stock Dividends• Stock dividends (e.g., common stock issued to  common shareholders) are not taxable  – If shareholder has...
Educational Savings Bonds• Interest on Series EE U.S. Savings Bonds may  be excluded from income if:  – Proceeds used to p...
Qualified Tuition Programs                      (slide 1 of 2)• Amounts contributed must be used to pay  qualified higher ...
Qualified Tuition Programs                     (slide 2 of 2)• Earnings on contributions, including  discounted tuition fo...
Tax Benefit Rule• If taxpayer claims a deduction for an item in  one year and in a later year recovers all or a  portion o...
Discharge from Indebtedness• Income from the forgiveness of debt is taxable   – Certain discharge of indebtedness situatio...
Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)• You have looked into Paul’s tax situation and have  the following information f...
Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)• Damages - Damages awards that relate to personal  physical injury or sickness c...
If you have any comments or suggestions concerning this                    PowerPoint Presentation for South-Western Feder...
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P pt ch 05

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P pt ch 05

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Gross Income: Exclusions Individual Income Taxes© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1
  2. 2. The Big Picture (slide 1 of 3)• Paul is a graduate accounting student and was an intern with a CPA firm this past summer – The CPA firm was so pleased with Paul’s work that at the conclusion of his internship • He was given a bonus of $1,500 more than the firm had agreed to pay him. • The extra amount was intended to help with his graduate school expenses. • The CPA firm has offered him a full-time job after he completes his graduate program in December.• Paul has a graduate assistantship that waives his tuition of $6,000 per semester and pays him $400 per month. – Paul is required to teach a principles of accounting course each semester. – Paul has used the $400 per month for books and for room and board. 2
  3. 3. The Big Picture (slide 2 of 3)• In November, Paul was hit by a delivery van. The driver of had a blood alcohol level of .12. Paul suffered a severe injury to his right arm. The delivery company’s insurance company settled the case by paying damages, itemized as follows: Compensatory damages: Medical expenses $ 30,000 Injury to Paul’s right arm 100,000 Pain and suffering 50,000 Loss of income 15,000 Legal fees 25,000 Punitive damages 160,000 $380,000 3
  4. 4. The Big Picture (slide 3 of 3)• Paul’s mother was with him in the crosswalk but the van did not hit her –She did suffer emotional distress and received $25,000 in the settlement.• Besides being Paul’s girlfriend, you also are a senior accounting major and have a keen interest in taxation. – You tell Paul that you will look into the tax consequences of the settlement.• Read the chapter and formulate your response. 4
  5. 5. Exclusions Defined• Items of income that are specifically designated as not included in gross income• Exclusions are generally found in Sections 101 through 150 5
  6. 6. Gifts and Inheritances (slide 1 of 5)• Gifts are nontaxable to donee if: – Transfer is voluntary without adequate consideration, and – Made out of affection, respect, admiration, charity, or donative intent 6
  7. 7. Gifts and Inheritances (slide 2 of 5)• Inheritances are nontaxable to beneficiary• Income earned on gifts or inheritances is taxable under normal rules – Example: Father gifts corporate bond to daughter. Gift is excluded from daughter’s gross income, but interest income earned after gift date is taxable to her. 7
  8. 8. Gifts and Inheritances (slide 3 of 5)• Transfers by employers to employees do not qualify as excludible gifts – May be excludible under other provisions, e.g., employee achievement awards – Victims of a qualified disaster who are reimbursed by their employers for living expenses, funeral expenses, and property damage can exclude the payments from gross income 8
  9. 9. Gifts and Inheritances (slide 4 of 5)• Employee death benefits: amount paid by employer to deceased employee’s spouse, child, or others – If decedent had a nonforfeitable right to payments (e.g., accrued salary), amounts are taxable to employee 9
  10. 10. Gifts and Inheritances (slide 5 of 5)• Employee death benefits may be excludible as a gift if: • Paid to surviving spouse or children (not employee’s estate) • Employer derived no benefit from payments • Surviving spouse and children performed no services for employer • Decedent had been fully compensated for services rendered, and • Payments made pursuant to board of director’s resolution under a general company policy 10
  11. 11. The Big Picture - Example 1 Gifts to Employees• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 5-1.• The $1,500 paid to Paul by his summer employer was compensation for services rather than a gift. – The payment was most likely not motivated by the employer’s generosity, but as a result of business considerations. – Even if the payment had been made out of generosity, because the payment was received from his employer, Paul could not exclude the “gift.” 11
  12. 12. Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 1 of 5)• Exempt income to beneficiary if paid solely due to death of insured – Relationship to decedent not determinative 12
  13. 13. Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 2 of 5)• If owner of life insurance policy cancels the policy and receives the cash surrender value – Gain must be recognized to extent amount received exceeds premiums paid on policy – Loss is not recognized 13
  14. 14. Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 3 of 5)• Accelerated death benefits – Gain on cash surrender or transfer of life insurance policy by terminally or chronically ill individual is excludible • Exclusion for chronically ill is limited to amounts used for long-term care 14
  15. 15. Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 4 of 5)• Transfers for valuable consideration – If policy is transferred for valuable consideration, proceeds are taxable to extent they exceed amount paid for policy plus subsequent premiums paid – Exceptions exist for policy transfers: • To facilitate funding of buy-sell agreements, • Pursuant to a tax-free exchange, and • For receipt of a policy by gift 15
  16. 16. Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 5 of 5)• Investment earnings arising from the reinvestment of life insurance proceeds are generally subject to income tax – e.g., Beneficiary elects to collect the insurance proceeds in installments • The annuity rules are used to apportion the installment payment between the principal element (excludible) and the interest element (includible) 16
  17. 17. Scholarships and Fellowships (slide 1 of 2)• An amount paid to or for the benefit of a student to aid in pursuing a degree at an educational institution – Nontaxable to extent of tuition and related expenses (e.g., fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for courses) • Amounts received for room and board are taxable 17
  18. 18. Scholarships and Fellowships (slide 2 of 2)• Qualified tuition waivers or reductions by nonprofit educational institutions are excluded from income – Generally limited to undergraduate tuition waivers – Exception for graduate teaching or research assistants 18
  19. 19. The Big Picture - Example 11 Compensation For Services• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 5-1.• Paul was paid $400 a month by the university for teaching. – This is reasonable compensation for his services.• Although he received the assistantship because of his excellent academic record, the monthly pay of $400 must be included in his gross income. – However, the $6,000 graduate tuition reduction can be excluded from gross income. 19
  20. 20. Damages (slide 1 of 3)• Tax consequences of receipt of damages – Depends on type of harm taxpayer experienced – The taxpayer may seek damages for: • Loss of income • Expenses incurred • Property destroyed • Personal injury 20
  21. 21. Damages (slide 2 of 3)• Tax treatment of damages received for: – Loss of income • Generally, taxed the same as the income replaced – Exceptions exist related to personal injury – Reimbursement for expenses incurred • Not income, unless the expense was deducted – Damages that are a recovery of the taxpayer’s previously deducted expenses are generally taxable under the tax benefit rule 21
  22. 22. Damages (slide 3 of 3)• Tax treatment of damages received for: – Property damaged or destroyed • Treated as an amount received in a sale or exchange of the property – Thus, taxpayer has realized gain if damage payments exceed property’s basis – Personal injury • Receives special treatment 22
  23. 23. Compensation for Injuries and Sickness (slide 1 of 3)• Personal injury damages – Compensatory damages received on account of physical personal injury or physical sickness are excludible • Includes amounts received for loss of income associated with the physical personal injury or physical sickness – All other personal injury damages are taxable • Compensatory damages for nonphysical injury • All punitive damages 23
  24. 24. Compensation for Injuries and Sickness (slide 2 of 3)• Workers’ compensation – Although may be payment for loss of wages, workers’ compensation is specifically excluded from gross income 24
  25. 25. Compensation for Injuries and Sickness (slide 3 of 3)• Accident and health insurance benefits – Benefits received under policy purchased by taxpayer are excludible • Even if benefits are substitute for income – Different rules apply if the accident and health insurance protection was purchased by the individual’s employer 25
  26. 26. The Big Picture - Example 12 Damages• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 5-1.• The damages Paul received were awarded as a result of a physical personal injury. – Therefore, the compensatory damages can be excluded. – Even the compensation for loss of income of $15,000 can be excluded.• The punitive damages Paul received, however, must be included in his gross income.• Paul’s mother did not suffer a personal physical injury. – Therefore, the $25,000 she received must be included in gross income. 26
  27. 27. Employer-Sponsored Accident and Health Plans (slide 1 of 3)• Premiums paid by employer for insurance coverage of employee, spouse, and dependents are not taxable to employee• Amounts received from insurance are not taxable when received for medical care or for permanent loss of body part or function 27
  28. 28. Employer-Sponsored Accident and Health Plans (slide 2 of 3)• Payments for expenses that do not meet the Code’s definition of medical care must be included in gross income• Amounts received for medical expenses deducted on a prior return must be included in gross income 28
  29. 29. Employer-Sponsored Accident and Health Plans (slide 3 of 3)• One way to provide a medical reimbursement plan for employees is as follows – The employer purchases a medical insurance plan with a high deductible then make contributions to the employee’s Health Savings Account (HSA) • Employer contribution to HSA and earnings on funds in the account are excludible • Contributions limited to 100% of deductible amount for individual or family coverage – Monthly deductible amount is limited to the lesser of: » One twelfth of the annual deductible under a high deductible plan or » $3,100 for self-only coverage ($6,250 for family coverage) – Withdrawals from HSA are excludible to the extent used for qualified medical expenses 29
  30. 30. Long-Term Care Insurance (slide 1 of 2)• Employer paid insurance premiums for employee’s long- term care are excludible subject to annual limits as follows:Insured’s Age beforeClose of Tax Year 2012 201140 or less $ 350 $ 34041 to 50 660 64051 to 60 1,310 1,27061 to 70 3,500 3,390More than 70 4,370 4,240 30
  31. 31. Long-Term Care Insurance (slide 2 of 2)• Exclusion of benefits received from policy is limited to the greater of: • $310 in 2012 for each day patient receives long-term care (indexed amount for 2011 is $300) • The actual cost of the care – Reduced by any amounts received from other third parties (e.g., damages received) 31
  32. 32. Meals and Lodging• Not taxable to employee if: – Furnished by employer • On employer’s business premises • For convenience of employer – In the case of lodging, employee is required to accept lodging as a condition of employment 32
  33. 33. Other Fringe Benefits (slide 1 of 3)• Dependent care – Up to $5,000 of care costs paid for by employer can be excluded• Athletic facilities – Value of use of athletic facilities located on employer premises can be excluded 33
  34. 34. Other Fringe Benefits (slide 2 of 3)• Educational assistance programs – Employer-provided educational assistance for undergraduate and graduate education is excludible • Exclusion limited to $5,250 per year • Includes tuition, fees, books, and supplies 34
  35. 35. Other Fringe Benefits (slide 3 of 3)• Adoption assistance programs – Employee adoption expenses paid or reimbursed by employer are excludible • Exclusion limited to $12,650 • Exclusion phases-out as AGI increases from $189,710 to $229,710 35
  36. 36. Cafeteria Plans• Allow employees to choose between cash and certain nontaxable benefits – If cash is chosen, the amount received is taxable – If a nontaxable benefit is chosen, the benefit remains nontaxable• Provide tremendous flexibility in tailoring the employee pay package to fit individual needs 36
  37. 37. Flexible Spending Plans• Allow employees to accept lower cash compensation in return for employer agreeing to pay certain costs without the employee recognizing income – Called a use or lose plan since reduction in pay cannot be recovered if covered expenses are less than expected• Recently issued IRS rules allow a 2 ½ month grace period (until the 15th day of the 3rd month after the end of the plan year) to use the funds for qualified expenses 37
  38. 38. Classes of Nontaxable Employee Benefits• No-additional-cost services• Qualified employee discounts• Working condition fringes• De minimis fringes• Qualified transportation fringes• Qualified moving expense reimbursements• Qualified retirement planning services 38
  39. 39. No Additional Cost Services• Are nontaxable if: – Employee receives services (not property) – Employer incurs no substantial additional cost in providing the services – Services offered are within line of business in which employee works – Benefit is offered on nondiscriminatory basis 39
  40. 40. Qualified Employee Discounts• Are nontaxable if: – Discount is not on realty or investment property – Item discounted is from same line of business in which employee works – Discount cannot exceed gross profit on property or 20% of the customer price on services – Benefit is offered on nondiscriminatory basis 40
  41. 41. Working Condition Fringes• Not taxable if employee could have deducted cost of item if they had actually paid for them – Includes personal use of auto by full-time auto salespeople and employee business expenses that would be eliminated by the 2% floor on miscellaneous deductions 41
  42. 42. De Minimis Fringes (slide 1 of 2)• These benefits are so small that accounting for them is impractical – Examples include: • Supper money • Occasional personal use of company copying machine • Company cocktail parties • Picnics for employees 42
  43. 43. De Minimis Fringes (slide 2 of 2)• Subsidized eating facilities operated by employer are excluded if: – Located on or near employer’s premises – Revenue equals or exceeds direct operating costs – Nondiscrimination requirements are met 43
  44. 44. Qualified Transportation Fringes• This fringe benefit is designed to encourage the use of mass transit for commuting to work – Includes: • Transportation in commuter highway vehicle and transit passes – Limit on the exclusion for 2012 is $125 per month • Qualified parking – Limit on the exclusion for 2012 is $240 per month • Qualified bicycle commuting reimbursement – Can exclude up to $20 per month received from an employer as reimbursement for the cost of commuting by bicycle » i.e., Bicycle purchase, improvement, repair, and storage – May be provided directly by the employer or may be in the form of cash reimbursements 44
  45. 45. Moving Expenses• Employer payment or reimbursement of employee’s qualified moving expenses is excludible – No deduction by employee is allowed for reimbursed moving expenses 45
  46. 46. Qualified Retirement Planning Services• Value of any retirement planning advice or information provided by employer who maintains a qualified retirement plan is excluded from income – Designed to motivate more employers to provide retirement planning services 46
  47. 47. Nondiscrimination Provisions• For no-additional-cost services, qualified employee discounts, and qualified retirement planning services – If the plan is discriminatory in favor of highly compensated employees, these key employees are denied exclusion treatment – Non-highly compensated employees can still exclude these benefits from income 47
  48. 48. Foreign Earned Income (slide 1 of 3)• Income from personal services in a foreign country can be excluded from income• To qualify for the exclusion, must be either: – A bona fide resident of foreign country, or – Present in foreign country at least 330 days during any 12 consecutive months 48
  49. 49. Foreign Earned Income (slide 2 of 3)• Exclusion amount is limited to $95,100 – For married persons, both with foreign earned income, the exclusion is computed separately for each spouse – Congress recently decreased its benefit by requiring a special tax computation • The tax on taxable income after the foreign earned income exclusion is calculated using the tax rate that would apply if the excluded foreign earned income were included in gross income 49
  50. 50. Foreign Earned Income (slide 3 of 3)• In addition, reasonable housing costs in excess of a base amount may be excluded from gross income – The base amount is 16% of the statutory amount ($95,100 for 2012) assuming all days are qualifying days for the foreign earned income exclusion – The housing costs exclusion is limited to 30% of the statutory amount (as indexed) for the foreign earned income exclusion 50
  51. 51. Interest on State and Local Government Obligations• Interest from municipal bonds is tax exempt – Reduces borrowing costs of state and local governments – High-income taxpayers can increase after-tax yields with municipal bonds – Municipal interest is considered for Social Security benefits inclusion and may be considered for alternative minimum tax calculation 51
  52. 52. Dividends• Taxable to extent paid out of either current or accumulated earnings and profits (E&P)• Dividends in excess of E&P are treated: – As nontaxable return of capital to extent of stock basis (which is reduced) – As capital gain to extent in excess of basis 52
  53. 53. Stock Dividends• Stock dividends (e.g., common stock issued to common shareholders) are not taxable – If shareholder has the option to receive stock or cash, the dividend is taxable whether the shareholder receives cash or stock 53
  54. 54. Educational Savings Bonds• Interest on Series EE U.S. Savings Bonds may be excluded from income if: – Proceeds used to pay for qualified higher educational expenses – Bonds issued after 12/31/89, and – Bonds issued to person at least 24 years old• Exclusion is phased-out once modified AGI exceeds threshold amount 54
  55. 55. Qualified Tuition Programs (slide 1 of 2)• Amounts contributed must be used to pay qualified higher education expenses – Includes tuition, fees, books, supplies, room and board, and equipment – ARRTA of 2009 extends the definition to include computers and computer technology, including software that provides access to the Internet 55
  56. 56. Qualified Tuition Programs (slide 2 of 2)• Earnings on contributions, including discounted tuition for plan participants, are not taxable if used for qualified higher education expenses – Refunds from program are taxable to the extent they exceed contributions 56
  57. 57. Tax Benefit Rule• If taxpayer claims a deduction for an item in one year and in a later year recovers all or a portion of the prior deduction, the recovery is included in gross income – Amount included in income is limited to the amount for which a tax benefit was received 57
  58. 58. Discharge from Indebtedness• Income from the forgiveness of debt is taxable – Certain discharge of indebtedness situations get special treatment: • Creditors’ gifts • Discharges in bankruptcy and when debtor is insolvent • Discharge of farm debt • Discharge of qualified real property business indebtedness • Seller’s cancellation of buyer’s debt • Shareholder’s cancellation of corporation’s debt • Forgiveness of certain student loans • Discharge of indebtedness on taxpayer’s principal residence that occurs between Jan. 1, 2007 and Jan. 1, 2013, and is the result of the financial condition of the debtor 58
  59. 59. Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)• You have looked into Paul’s tax situation and have the following information for him:• Compensation - The amount Paul was paid for his internship is compensation for services rendered and must be included in his gross income. – This includes both his base pay and the $1,500 bonus.• Graduate assistantship - The tuition waiver of $6,000 is excluded from Paul’s gross income. – The related payments of $400 per month are intended as a form of compensation and must be included in his gross income. 59
  60. 60. Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)• Damages - Damages awards that relate to personal physical injury or sickness can be excluded from gross income if payments for compensatory damages. – All the compensatory damages of $220,000 can be excluded from gross income. – The punitive damages of $160,000 must be included in Paul’s gross income. – Likewise, the compensatory damages of $25,000 received by Paul’s mother must be included in her gross income • Emotional distress does not qualify as personal physical injury or sickness. 60
  61. 61. If you have any comments or suggestions concerning this PowerPoint Presentation for South-Western Federal Taxation, please contact: Dr. Donald R. Trippeer, CPA trippedr@oneonta.edu SUNY Oneonta© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 61

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