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# Exposure Basics: Learn to Correctly Expose Your Photographs

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A short very basic presentation on the basics of proper exposure. A look at aperture, shutter speed & ISO

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• ### Exposure Basics: Learn to Correctly Expose Your Photographs

1. 1. Exposure Basics: Learn to Correctly Expose Your Photographs Presented by Don Hazelwood Sunday, March 1, 2009
2. 2. What is Exposure? Exposure is the amount of light collected by the sensor or ﬁlm in your camera during a single picture. photograph by Jonathan Assink - Attribution-No Derivative Works 2.0 Generic Sunday, March 1, 2009
3. 3. What is Exposure? Understanding how to correctly manipulate your camera to achieve the exposure you desire is the key to taking good photos every time. Sunday, March 1, 2009
4. 4. How do we control the exposure? Exposure is nothing more then the aperture and shutter speed working together within the ‘conﬁnes’ of a predetermined ‘ISO’. Sunday, March 1, 2009
5. 5. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure Sunday, March 1, 2009
6. 6. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure opening in the lens through which light is admitted designated by f the smaller the number the larger the opening & vice versa dependent upon the lens Sunday, March 1, 2009
7. 7. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure depth of ﬁeld is the portion of a scene that appears sharp in the image. a smaller opening, f/16 will produce a longer depth of ﬁeld a larger opening, f/1.4 will produce a very narrow depth of ﬁeld Sunday, March 1, 2009
8. 8. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure the amount of time the sensor or ﬁlm is exposed to light designated in seconds or fractions thereof dependent upon the camera body Sunday, March 1, 2009
9. 9. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure a faster shutter speed lets in less light and can “freeze” objects in motion a slower shutter speed will allow more light to enter and can also capture a sense of motion the bulb setting, noted as B, allows the shutter to stay open as long as the shutter button is depressed Sunday, March 1, 2009
10. 10. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure also known as ﬁlm speed is the measure of the sensor or ﬁlm's sensitivity to light. lower sensitivity (lower ISO speed) requires a longer exposure and is thus called a slow ﬁlm higher sensitivity (higher ISO speed) can shoot the same scene with a shorter exposure and is called a fast ﬁlm. Sunday, March 1, 2009
11. 11. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure the higher rated the ﬁlm/ sensor the grainer/noisy the image will be & less detail will be captured ﬁlm uses larger silver halide crystals digital sensors have to increase the signal gain Sunday, March 1, 2009
12. 12. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure 2 Now for photographical math Sunday, March 1, 2009
13. 13. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure Aperture is measured in f/stops as indicated in the series below: 1, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 45 1 being the largest opening 45 being the smallest each step to the right - HALF as much light allowed in Sunday, March 1, 2009
14. 14. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure Shutter Speed indicates how long the camera shutter remains open to let light onto the ﬁlm or sensor. These usually aren't noted on your camera as fractions to save space, however they represent fractions of a second. B, 15, 8, 4, 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000, 1/8000 each step to the right - HALF as much light allowed in Sunday, March 1, 2009
15. 15. (Aperture + Shutter Speed)^ISO = Exposure ISO or Film Speed is noted as follows: 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 each step to the right - HALF as much light allowed in Sunday, March 1, 2009
16. 16. Measurement Review • Aperture (noted by f ): 1, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 45 • Shutter Speed (measured in seconds or fractions thereof): B, 15, 8, 4, 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000, 1/8000 • ISO: 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 each step to the right - HALF as much light allowed in Sunday, March 1, 2009
17. 17. The Sunny 16 Rule • This is a GREAT starting point to learn expoure • Normal Sunny Day outside • Set aperture to f/16 and shutter speed (reciprocal seconds) to ISO ﬁlm speed • For example, for ISO 100 ﬁlm, choose shutter speed of 1/100 second (or 1/125 second) • (f/16 + 1/100 second)^100 = Proper Exposure Sunday, March 1, 2009
18. 18. Now go out and take properly exposed Photos! Sunday, March 1, 2009