War and revolution in Europe during the age of empires


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War and revolution in Europe during the age of empires

  1. 1. As kings and queensbecame stronger andstronger, individualsbegan to defend theirRIGHTS and demandmore freedom.War and revolution inthe Age of EmpiresAfter 1492, countriesFOUGHT each other forcontrol of empires.Then, theCatholicChurch SPLIT,leading tomore war.1
  2. 2. By 1600, Europe ruled a large part of the world,especially the Americas 2
  3. 3. Who wouldbe thestrongestcountry inEurope:Spain,France, orEngland?3
  4. 4. At first,Spain wasthestrongestcountry inEurope.Spain controlled1. The Spanish peninsula2. Southern ITALY3. The Netherlands4. AustriaSpainAustria4
  5. 5. The Spanish empire included landin…1. North America2. South America3. Africa4. Philippines5
  6. 6. At the center of theSpanish web was Charles_V (5th), a deeply Catholicruler in Catholic Europe.Under him, Spain grewrich from SILVER andsugar. His son, Philip II,further expanded theSpanish empire.Spain’s power did not lastlong….Spain6
  7. 7. After 1520 many Europeans left Catholic Churchand started a new religion: Protestantism.Protestants were Christians who opposed the power of the CatholicChurch. There were many types of Protestants: Lutherans,Calvinists, Presbyterians, Anglicans, Quakers, Shakers, Pilgrims,Puritans, and more.7
  8. 8. • They believed that only faith inGod could lead to salvation(going to heaven).• They believed that the Bible issource of truth about God.• Individuals must make theirown choices about right andwrong.What did Protestants believe?They did NOT believe that...• following the Church’s rulescould help get you into heaven.• Catholic priests had specialpowers or deserved specialprivileges.8
  9. 9.  The change from Catholicism to Protestantism was called theReformation.The Reformation started in the German states of central Europe (G) andspread to Switzerland, the Netherlands, England, and Scandinavia. The bluecountries are Protestant.G9
  10. 10. After the Reformation,War broke out everywhereWITHIN countries, andBETWEEN Catholiccountries and Protestantcountries. Two wars struckdirectly at Spanish power.Spain1. Protestants in the Netherlands broke away fromSpain and formed the Dutch Republic (also calledHolland) in the late 1500s. Spain and the Netherlandswere at war for almost 80 years. In 1648, theNetherlands finally became independent.10
  11. 11. 1. Queen Elizabeth worried that Catholics were trying to take overEngland. She had her sister, a Catholic, beheaded.2. England sided with the Netherlands against Catholic Spain3. England wanted to take Spanish land in the New World. Englandwanted to cash in on sugar and silver.2. Another warbroke out betweenProtestant Englandand Catholic Spain.Three reasonswhy theyfought:11
  12. 12. Spain sent a large navy (Armada) against England in 1588.England’s navy destroyed the Spanish Armada (on the right) inone of the great naval battles in world history. 12
  13. 13. Spain lost most of its powerin the 1600s.• France and England nowcompeted to be thestrongest country.• They were very differentsorts of countries.FranceEngland13
  14. 14. Louis XIV (14th)wanted to expandthe borders ofFrance into theNetherland andSpain.He claimed all hispower came fromGod and calledhimself the SunKing.France was becoming the strongest land empire inthe 1600 and 1700s.Louis’ palace at Versailles (VER-SIGH) was the largest and most beauti-ful in Europe. It was a symbol of Louis XIV’s power as the “sun king.”14
  15. 15. After defeating Spain,England was thegreatest sea empire andits control of NorthAmerica, India, and thesugar islands of theCaribbean.Queen Elizabeth. Notice the sceneoutside the window. It shows the SpanishArmada attacking England, then beingdestroyed. What is the object on whichElizabeth’s hand is resting?Unlike Louis XIV, Elizabeth couldnot do anything she wanted. Shehad to respect the power ofParliament, a group ofelected lawmakers.15
  16. 16. After Elizabeth, English kings tried toincrease their power, which stirred upa revolution– a change in the type ofgovernment.1. In the 1630s, King Charles I neededmoney to fight a war, butParliament refused to help himout. When he tried to rule withoutParliament, angry lawmakers cutoff his head.2. In the 1680s, King James II tried tomake England Catholic again andraise taxes without Parliament’sapproval. Angry English peoplerefused. They said they were bornwith rights that kings could nottake away. They believedindividuals have a right to saywhat they want, believe whatthey want, and protect their ownproperty.In 1688, England had a “GloriousRevolution.” From now on, kingsand queens had to share powerwith Parliament. Their powercame NOT from GOD (as in othercountries) but from the PEOPLE.16
  17. 17. In the 1700s, England and France were different sortsof country, and they went to war. Both wanted tocontrol the sugar islands of the Caribbean, as well asland in North America and India.War broke out betweenEngland & France inEurope. Countries lined upwith either England orFrance.17
  18. 18. War spread to Asia and the Caribbean and became a “world war.” Thefighting in North America was known as the Frencgh and Indian War.The British won, and the French lost most of their land in NorthAmerica.Before 1763: With the French After 1763: without the French18
  19. 19. After decades offighting…England and Francewere broke, Wars areexpensive, and bothcountries were in debt.19
  20. 20. The British triedto raise moneyby taxing itscolonies inAmerica.They taxed sugar,tea, paper, andother productsbought fromBritain.20
  21. 21. Americansweren’tvery happy.Angrycoloniststhrew tea offthis Britishship toprotest thetaxes.Americans wanted tomake their owndecisions.21
  22. 22. Americans such as Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson,and Tom Paine did not like kings. ANY kings. Theybelieved individuals are born with rights to freespeech, property, liberty, and religion. Even peoplein the colonies of America had rights. It wasn’tenough to limit the power of kings. They wanted tocreate a new government without kings, orrepublic. Creating a new type of governmentrequired a revolution.22
  23. 23. 1. In 1775, war broke out with British soldiers in the littletowns of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts2. In 1776, America declared its independence from Britain3. In 1781, Americans defeated the British and began formingtheir own country. They wanted to govern themselveswithout a king.4. In 1787, they wrote a Constitution creating a newgovernment based on these new ideas.…so Americans had a23
  24. 24. From… To…Kings and queens who saidthey got their power fromGod (monarchy)People who are free to choosetheir own leaders (democracy)Special privileges for thewealthy and the CatholicChurchEqual rights for every individualContinuous war PeaceSlavery FreedomA revolution is a change ofgovernment. What kind of change?24
  25. 25. The king wanted totax the people, butNO ONE would pay.Revolution broke out in1789, and the king lostpower (and his head).The French revolution led to a violent war WITHINFrance and between France and countries thatstill had kings and queens.A few years after the AmericanRevolution, the French had their ownrevolution25
  26. 26. • Britain and France lost empires in NorthAmerica.• The desire for revolution spread, so Spain’scolonies in the Americas becameindependent too.• Demands for individual freedom led theBritish and Americans to end the slave trade.• The slaves of the sugar island of Haiti had arevolution and began to govern themselves!As a result of revolutions….Toussaint L’Ouverture led a slave on thesugar island of Haiti, a French colony. Hebecame the first black leader of theformer French colony.26