Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence


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Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence

  1. 1. Leading with Influence
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>State the differences among trait, behavioral, and situational leadership theorists. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the terms manager and leader are not interchangeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe leadership trait theory, and identify Ghiselli’s six significant leadership traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the major similarity and difference between two-dimensional leadership styles and the Leadership Grid ® . </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the management levels at which charismatic, transformational, transactional, symbolic, and servant leadership styles are most appropriate. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes (cont’d) <ul><li>State the primary difference between the contingency leadership model and other situational approaches to leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the major criticism of both the leadership continuum model and the path-goal leadership model. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the major characteristic of the normative leadership model. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  4. 4. IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at American Express <ul><li>What leadership traits does Ken Chenault have? </li></ul><ul><li>Which behavioral leadership styles does Ken Chenault use? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Ken Chenault a charismatic, transformational, symbolic, and/or servant leader? </li></ul><ul><li>Which situational leadership styles does Ken Chenault use? </li></ul><ul><li>Is handling complaints important at American Express? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Leadership <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of organizational objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership versus Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is a functional activity incorporated within the broader scope of management activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers lacking the ability to influence others are not true leaders. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Leadership Trait Theory <ul><li>Leadership Trait Theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to determine a list of distinctive characteristics that account for leadership effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have been unsuccessful in identifying a universal set of traits that all leaders possess. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ghiselli Study (1971) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concluded that certain traits are important to effective leadership: supervisory ability, need for occupational achievement, intelligence, decisiveness, self-assurance, and initiative. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Behavioral Leadership Theories <ul><li>Behavioral Leadership Theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early researchers who attempted to identify the “best leadership style” for all situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to determine distinctive styles used by effective leaders. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also focused on the relationship between leaders and followers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of traits, skills, and behaviors managers use in interacting with employees. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Dilbert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you agree with Scott Adams that leadership is basically manipulation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we really need leaders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible to make fun of CEOs? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Basic Leadership Styles <ul><li>Autocratic Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One who makes all the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considered a Theory X-type leader. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One who encourages employee participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considered a Theory Y-type leader. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Basic Leadership Styles (cont’d) <ul><li>Laissez-Faire Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One who takes a leave-employees-alone approach, allowing them to make the decisions and decide what to do, and does not follow up. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles <ul><li>Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on job structure and employee consideration, which result in four possible leadership styles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ohio State University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structuring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which the leader takes charge to plan, organize, lead, and control as the employee performs the task. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which the leader communicates to develop trust, friendship, support, and respect. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job-centered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous to structuring. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee-centered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous to consideration. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Exhibit 9 – 1 ● The Ohio State University and University of Michigan Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
  13. 13. The Leadership Grid ® <ul><li>The Leadership Grid ® </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the ideal leadership style as incorporating a high concern for both production and people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impoverished management style (1, 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority-compliance management style (9, 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country-club management style (1, 9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-of-the-road management style (5, 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team management style (9, 9) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Leadership Grid ® (Blake and McCanse)
  15. 16. Contemporary Perspectives <ul><li>Charismatic Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leadership style that inspires loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformational Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leadership style that brings about continuous learning, innovation, and change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactional Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leadership style based on exchange. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Contemporary Perspectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Symbolic Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leadership style based on establishing and maintaining a strong organizational culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Servant Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leadership style based on simultaneously meeting the needs and goals of employees and the goals of the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on motivating employees by meeting their higher-level needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivates employees to go beyond role requirements and do what it takes to attain the goals of the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Situational Approaches to Leadership <ul><li>Situational Leadership Theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to determine the appropriate leadership style for various situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency leadership model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership continuum model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Path-goal model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normative leadership theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Leadership ® model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership substitutes and neutralizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Should the leader change his/her style or should the situation be changed to fit the leader’s style?” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Contingency Leadership Model <ul><li>Contingency Leadership Model (Fiedler) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine if one’s leadership style is task- or relationship-oriented and if the situation matches the leader’s style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale measures a leader’s task (job) or relationship (employee) orientation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational favorableness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leader-follower relations (good or poor?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task structure (structured or unstructured?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position power (strong or weak?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Exhibit 9 –2 ● Contingency Leadership Model
  20. 22. Leadership Continuum Model <ul><li>Leadership Continuum Model (Tannenbaum and Schmidt) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine which of seven styles of leadership, on a continuum from autocratic (boss-centered) to participative (employee-centered), is best for a given situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors determining selection of style: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The leader’s preferred style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The subordinates’ preferred style for the leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s size, structure, climate, goals, technology, and higher-level management leadership style and the time available </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Exhibit 9 –3 ● The Leadership Continuum Source : Adapted from Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern,” Harvard Business Review (May/June, 1973).
  22. 25. Path-Goal Model <ul><li>Path-Goal Model (House) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine employee objectives and to clarify how to achieve them using one of four leadership styles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considers subordinates’ situational factors and environmental factors in determining a leadership style. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership styles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The leader provides high structure. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The leader provides high consideration. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The leader considers employee input when making decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement-oriented </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The leader sets difficult but achievable goals, expects subordinates to perform at their highest level, and rewards them for doing so </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Exhibit 9 –4 ● A Summary of Path-Goal Factors and Styles Situational Factors Subordinate authoritarianism locus of control ability Environmental task structure formal authority work group Goal Achievement Performance Satisfaction Leadership Styles Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented determine that affect
  24. 27. Normative Leadership Model <ul><li>Normative Leadership Model (Vroom and Jago) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decision tree that enables the user to select one of five leadership styles appropriate for a situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determination of leadership style is based on two factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of individual versus group decisions (input and participation). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of time-driven versus development-driven decisions (time-pressure and quality of decision). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Situational Leadership ® Model <ul><li>Situational Leadership ® Model (Hersey and Blanchard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to select one of four leadership styles that match the employees’ maturity level in a given situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving employees explicit directions about how to accomplish a task. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining decisions to gain understanding. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating decision making among subordinates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delegating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving employees responsibility for their decisions and their implementation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Exhibit 9 –5 ● A Comparison of Behavioral and Situational Leadership Models
  27. 31. Leadership Substitutes Theory <ul><li>Substitutes for Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the task, of subordinates, or of the organization that replace the need for a leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinates—ability, knowledge, experience, training; need for independence, professional orientation; indifference toward organizational rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task—clarity, routineness, invariant methodology; provision of feedback concerning accomplishment and of intrinsic satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization—formality; inflexibility; very specific advisory and staff functions; closely knit, cohesive work groups; rewards outside of the leader’s control; physical distance between superior and subordinates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Leadership and Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible to say that people of a particular gender make better leaders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think men and women lead in the same way, or not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are men or women more ethical and socially responsible as leaders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you prefer to have a man or a woman as boss? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Exhibit 9 –6 ● Steps in Addressing Employee Complaints
  30. 34. Exhibit 9 –7 ● Steps in Addressing Customer Complaints
  31. 35. KEY TERMS <ul><li>leadership </li></ul><ul><li>leadership trait theorists </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral leadership theorists </li></ul><ul><li>leadership style </li></ul><ul><li>two-dimensional leadership styles </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Grid ® </li></ul><ul><li>charismatic leadership </li></ul><ul><li>transformational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>symbolic leadership </li></ul><ul><li>servant leadership </li></ul><ul><li>situational approaches to leadership </li></ul><ul><li>contingency leadership model </li></ul><ul><li>leadership continuum model </li></ul><ul><li>path-goal model </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Leadership ® model </li></ul><ul><li>substitutes for leadership </li></ul><ul><li>complaint </li></ul>